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  • 1. The Core Network NGN & IMS Samuel Dratwa Samuel.dratwa@gmail.comCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 2. Agenda  Why do we need NGN ?  What is NGN ?  What is IMS  What is the different between IMS & NGN  The Transport layer  IPv6  The Control layer (core)  IMS  Policies / PCRF  The Service layer  M2MCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 3. Network topology today BT – 21cnCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 4. Converged network BT – 21cnCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 5. The Dream Carrier Network HD TV Business, Voice/Video TVoD, VoD ERP Telephony Voice Services gateway Business Video Video Services Source Source Business Access Carrier Network Mobile Access Residential Internet Triple-Play Access Networks The Dream Carrier Network - All traffic converges into one network - Connectivity to Services, Applications, Other Sites, The Internet - With the necessary Quality of Service and SecurityCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 6. A Next Generation Network We must Rebuild the Networks Common service delivery infrastructure  Standardised, open interfaces  Seamless service delivery Single packet infrastructure for media and control  Rich, multimedia services  Simpler network Separation of control, apps and subscription  Faster delivery of services Interfaces with the access network  Access independence  Advantage for “pipe” owners Many multimedia applications  single end-user experience. Deliver to any access type.Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 7. So What is NGN ?Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 8. The NGN Concept – Six Key Criteria packet-oriented network integration of support broad existing variety of infrastructure services NGN application openness and focused - flexibility access regarding new independent services separation into different layers using open interfacesCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 9. NGN Layered Architecture NGN Planes Planes and functions Application Plane Application Plane enables the provisioning of services and provides the control and logic for the Value Added Service Creation execution of services Control Plane Control Plane controls the elements of the network, Basic control service establishes and clears media connections Management Plane Transport Plane is responsible for the transport of Transport Plane media and signaling messages Packet Based Transport Management Plane covers network management ensuring service fulfillment, service assurance and billing Access Networks Access Networks connect customer networks or terminals with the components of the NGN network and aggregate the dedicated traffic typeCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 10. From Networks to Services Legacy Model New Model Services Services Data (FR, etc..) Cellular Mobile Mobile CATV PSTN Access, Transport & Switching Networks Connectivity Networks Hide the different networks from the user and offer services over IPCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 11. So what does this mean  NGN - A Next Generation Network is an IP packet based network able to provide Telecommunication Services.  The NGN can make use of multiple broadband, QoS enabled transport technologies and the service-related functions are independent from underlying transport-related technologies.  Currently everything seems to be NGN  Ethernet  PON  IP/MPLS  3G, 4G  Wi-Fi, WiMAX  Virtualization  VOIP, SIP  IP TV  NGN is targeted at the ability to deliver the services not the network  In many senses it is a marketing driven termCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 12. Making Standards 12Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 13. Migration to NGN Internet Multi- Mobile PSTN Internet Video Mobile VoIP Video Media Services Management IMS Service Applications Call/Session Control Switching & Transport User DeviceCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 14. IMS – IP Multimedia System  IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a Service Delivery Architecture  Standardized architecture to provide Internet Protocol (IP)-based mobile and fixed multimedia services  Developed in the Framework of 3GPP-UMTS Mobile Architecture  FMC – Fixed Mobile Convergence  IP Based Convergence  On any Device  On any Network  Common Applications  Service Ubiquity - anywhere, anytime, on any device  One phone number  Unified Communications/Messaging  Unified Presence  One System to manage device and media types  Centralized Database of user preferences/location/features  Fast Introduction of New Multimedia Services  Based on the SIP ProtocolCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 15. What does IMS provide?  Services and Control  Adds call session control to the packet network  enables peer-to-peer real-time services - such as voice, video - over a packet-switched domain  Mixed Multimedia  Ability to pick and mix various multimedia flows in single or multiple sessions  Can handle real-time voice, video, data  Connectivity Independence  Provides access to IP based services independent of the connectivity network: mobile (3GPP’s UMTS, 3GPP2’s CDMA2000) and fixed networks (TISPAN’s NGN)Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL 15
  • 16. IMS Architecture Services plane Application Application Application (Application Layer) Server Server Server Session Control Plane Session Control Centralized (Session and DB Layer) Databases DB Media Control Plane (Media Control Media Control & Gateway Layer) & Gateways Network Plane (Access and Transport) 2G/3 Wireline G Wireless PSTN Broadband Mobil Res./ Broadband e EnterpriseCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 17. NGN Layered Architecture NGN Planes Planes and functions Application Plane Application Plane enables the provisioning of services and provides the control and logic for the Value Added Service Creation execution of services Control Plane Control Plane controls the elements of the network, Basic control service establishes and clears media connections Management Plane Transport Plane is responsible for the transport of Transport Plane media and signaling messages Packet Based Transport Management Plane covers network management ensuring service fulfillment, service assurance and billing Access Networks Access Networks connect customer networks or terminals with the components of the NGN network and aggregate the dedicated traffic typeCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 18. IMS Status – early 2010  8% of 101 Operators Interviewed have deployed IMS  None of these have completed conversion and estimate a 5-7 year process  A further 12% are in extended field trails  Mainly the IMS core network  Not yet service migration  IMS not yet in rapid adoption  Linear adoption to 32% of operators by 2014  Regional Adoption  Main growth 2010 - 2011 in N America  EMEA and APAC in later years  Top 3 inhibitors  Lack of Business Case  Lack of standards compliance  BSS and OSS Integration Issues Source: Alan Quayle Report – 2010Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 19. IMS Reported Deployments  Sprint – IMS Core, FMC Services  Telefonica – IMS Core  Cox Cable – some trials  Telinor  Telecom Italia Mobile – Video Sharing Service  TeliaSonera  Verizon – IMS and LTE  China Mobile  Far East one Telecom. In Taiwan was one of the first to offer services the use IMS. In the 2nd half of 2007 it launched a voice service using VOIP over WiFi over HSPA via a fixed wireless terminal.  BT is implementing IMS as part of 21CN NGN.  China Telecom is conducting a trial of IMS  France Telecom/Orange is looking at IMS for fixed/mobile convergence business services.  Rogers Communication in Canada has conducted a trial of converged IMS and quadruple-play services.Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 20. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 21. NGN Transport Layer NGN Layers Layers and functions Application Plane Application Layer enables the provisioning of Value Added Service Creation services and provides the control and logic for the execution of services Control Plane Control Layer controls the elements of the Basic control service network, establishes and clears media connections Transport Plane Packet Based Transport Transport Layer is responsible for the transport of media and signaling messages Access Networks Layer connect customer Access Networks networks or terminals with the components of the NGN network DevicesCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 22. Why IP? Router Router Router MAN ATM Broadband Router Host Sites LAN Router Access Router Router WAN Sonet Mobile  Users are connected to specific network technologies (LAN, WAN)  IP is a technology that enables network interconnection and any-to-any connectivity  IP runs on top of all the well known specific network technologies  The applications run on top of IP  IP is not the InternetCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 23. The Carrier Network Business Corporate Residential Content WiMAX Metro Core Mobile Access Si Aggregation Network Network Business IP / MPLS Corporate Fiber Residential Internet Metropolitan Network: Core: DSL/Cable Access Carrier Ethernet IP/MPLS Access: STB  xDSL Transport Network  Cable  WiMax  Fibre  Mobile IP PacketsCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 24. Telephony Signaling and Speech H.323/SIP Signaling IP network RTP Media Stream Separation of signaling and media is achieved by using separate Communications PortsCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 25. SIP – Session Initiation Protocol  SIP enables telephony and multimedia conferencing over an IP Network  Based on SMTP, HTTP  Features  User Location – DNS style Address resolution, name mapping, call redirection  User Capabilities – Determination of the endpoint media capabilities  User Availability - Dynamic discovery of endpoint availability  Call Handling - Session origination, termination and management between hosts and endpoints  SIP Addresses  user@host (URL or URI- Universal Resource Identifier)  SIP defines a simple IP style protocol environment  IETF RFC industry standard  Call control only, does not define media transport protocol  Designed to integrate with Web, eMail, streaming ….  Mobility enabler:  Personal mobility - one person, multiple terminals  Terminal mobility - one terminal, multiple IP addresses  Session mobility - one user, multiple terminals in sequence or in parallel  Service mobility - services move with userCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 26. So why isn’t it here yet ?  No clear move to IPv6  Lack of smooth migration plans  Investments in IPv4  Software availability - Available from Microsoft Windows XP sp2  Developments in IP v4  Use of NAT  CIDR  Planning of Hierarchies and use of Autonomous Areas  IPsec implemented in IPv4  Other Points  Router Upgrades to handle IPv6 – OSPFv3Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 27. IMS / NGN Control Layer NGN Layers Layers and functions Application Plane Application Layer enables the provisioning of Value Added Service Creation services and provides the control and logic for the execution of services Control Plane Control Layer controls the elements of the Basic control service network, establishes and clears media connections Transport Plane Packet Based Transport Transport Layer is responsible for the transport of media and signaling messages Access Networks Layer connect customer Access Networks networks or terminals with the components of the NGN network DevicesCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 28. IMS Network - Elements and Protocols Home Subscriber Server Application Servers • Centralized DB • Push-to-talk Media Resource Function Controller • Pooling of Media servers (e.g. conference) • HLR successor • Instant messaging • User profile • Telephony AS • Filter criteria (sent to S-CSCF) • 3rd party or IMS Vendor • Which applications • Which conditions Home Network UA/UE SIP DNS AS AS P-CSCF ENUM HSS AS Media Gateway Diameter Control Function SIP • Interfaces to PSTN/PLMN by • Converting SIP <-> ISUP SIP UA/UE P-CSCF I-CSCF SIP S-CSCF MRFC • Interworking RTP to circuit SIP • H.248 control of MGW MS MS SIP SIP SIP SIP BGCF MGCF ISUP Call Session SIP H.248 SS7 Control Function • SIP registration RTP TDM PSTN • SIP session setup MGW Proxy CSCF Serving CSCF Visited • Registrar • 1st contact point for UA Network • Session control • QoS • Application Interface • Routes to S-CSCF Interrogating CSCF • Entry point for incoming calls Breakout Gateway Control Function • Determines S-CSCF for Subscribers • Selects network (MGCF or other BGCF) • Hides network topology in which PSTN/ PLMN breakout is to occurCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 29. An Example of an IMS Call Network X Network Y AS AS S-CSCF S-CSCF HSS HSS I-CSCF P-CSCF P-CSCF GGSN UMTS Packet Core DSL/Cable Modem SGSN DSLAM/CMTS RNC User B User ACopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 30. IMS Emergency Services Network Call Delivered to IP PSAP with Location is Used to Location Determine PSAP PSAP SIP Access DNS Selection HSS AS AS P-CSCF SIP ENUM AS RTP IP PSAP SIP Diameter RTP SIP SIP Backbone P/S- SIP SIP SIP MRFC Packet I-CSCF S-CSCF SIP CSCF Customer Network MS MS SIP Home SIP Network BGCF SIP MGCF ISUP IMS Emergency H.248 SS7 RTP Services Network TDM Selective Router MGW Call Enters IMS ESNet CAMA With Location CAMA E-MF E-MF OR Call Delivered to Legacy Network Without Location Legacy PSAP (Query for Location Needed) *PSAP – Public Safety Answering PointCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 31. VulnerabilitiesIMS & SIP enable a rich feature set of HSS Apps Chrg Converged Services ….. but also open SIP Server P/S/I Call Server up the network to IP based MGCF CSC MRFC F BGCF SLF/PDF/IBCF/I vulnerabilities. WF SGF IMS core ABGF MGW IBGF MRFP T-MGF IP-IP GW Media Gateway IMS & SIP vulnerabilities include: OS level vulnerabilities Well known in the data world IP Layer 3 vulnerabilities IMS Framework related vulnerabilities New, unique & SIP/RTP/H.248/etc. protocol vulnerabilities real time VoIP/Video/PoC/etc. Application vulnerabilities sensitive Application VoIP SPAM level vulnerabilitiesCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 32. Access Security Authentication ISIM AKA HSS Security Association UA IPSec P-CSCF ISIM - IP multimedia Services Identity Module UA – User Agent AKA - Authentication and Key Agreement ProtocolCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 33. Network Security  Network Security Interfaces have been defined  Within the same network domain  Within the same domain it is up to the Operator to define security policy  Between Network domains  Between domains a security architecture has been defined  At the border of each domain a Security Gateway (SEG) is used. The Security Gateway concept is based on the SBC – Session Border Controller Concept Network Operator Network Operator A B CSCF SEG SEG CSCF CSCF CSCF SEG – Security GatewayCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 34. Policy & QoS Management Real-time Broadband Fulfillment Email, FTP, Gopher E-Text E-Commerce Experience-based Static Network Policies Dynamic Network Policies Real-time User Policies Fixed/Mobile IP IP TDM IP Access IP Broadband IP Multimedia With more interactive and dynamic services, policy and control becomes increasingly important to ensure consistent, quality servicesCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 35. Real-time allocation of network resources 1. User requests mobile video service, which is directed to the policy engine 2. Policy engine intelligently IMS Service Complex interacts with network to Service Request reserve bandwidth Policies 3. Video delivered to mobile user with assured quality Video Stream Access IP Network GGSN/ PDSN RCEP Policy and QoS requests handled by a Policy Decision FunctionCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 36. LTE roaming overview Roaming border Visited network Home network MME PCRF PCRF HSS 1 Attach 2 Authenticate 2 Authenticate 3 Update Location Subscriber Data 4 Policy exchange 5Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL