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  • http://www.networkworld.com/community/blog/wimax-dead

LTE LTE Presentation Transcript

  • Radio Access Technology 4G, LTE & WiMAX Samuel Dratwa Samuel.dratwa@gmail.comCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • Agenda  Why do we need 4G ?  What is 4G ?  demands  4G evolution  WiMax  LTE  Hybrid solutions  Other approach  How will the future look likeCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • NGN Layered Architecture NGN Planes Planes and functions Application Plane Application Plane enables the provisioning of services and provides the control and logic for the Value Added Service Creation execution of services Control Plane Control Plane controls the elements of the network, Basic control service establishes and clears media connections Management Plane Transport Plane is responsible for the transport of Transport Plane media and signaling messages Packet Based Transport Management Plane covers network management ensuring service fulfillment, service assurance and billing Access Networks Access Networks connect customer networks or terminals with the components of the NGN network and aggregate the dedicated traffic typeCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • The driving forces – The telco point of view  Addressing the trend of declining ARPU  Delivery of higher bandwidth services and capacity  Reducing OPEX & Cost/MB  Proliferation of emerging devices, with rich mobile applications and video  Quad-play (bundle)  Multiple screen offerings  Addressing shortage in bandwidth  Leveraging existing 3G infrastructure  Regulation  Re-allocation of older spectrum for 4G technologies  Open access & net neutralityCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • The driving forces – customers point of view  Consumer Segment  Always on  Anywhere, anytime, any device, any application  High-speed, Internet-like, user-controlled experience  Bandwidth-intensive apps  Games  Connectivity  Synchronize  Cloud  Seamless and personalized mobility  Business Segment  Emergence of machine-to-machine (M2M) applications  Feature-rich mobile business solutions  video-conferencing  Cloud supportingCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • Standards bodies IMT-Advanced 802.X – LAN/WLANCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • IMT Expected Targets  IMT- Advanced (IMT-2000 – become 3G)  high quality mobile services  user equipment suitable for worldwide use  user‐friendly applications, services and equipment  worldwide roaming capability  Improve wireless performance  Better signal reception and better coverage  Increase spectrum efficiency  More subscribers and more data transfer in the same spectrum  Flat all-IP network architecture  High mobility up to 500 Km/H  enhanced peak data rates to support advanced services and applications  100 Mbit/s (UL 50 Mbit/s DL) for high mobility  1 Gbit/s for low mobility  Low latency <50msCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • Wireless World Map System Application Distance Mobilit Data rate y ZigBee Industrial Short Low Low (< 1 Mbps) Bluetooth PC, Cell phone Short Low Medium ( 1 Mbps) UWB Home appliances Short Low High ( > 50 Mbps) WiFi PC network Medium Low High (> 100 Mbps) WiMAX fixed Internet Service Long Low Medium 2/2.5 G Voice + low rate Long Medium Low Cellular data 3/3.5G Cellular Voice + Internet Long High Medium 4G Cellular Voice + All IP Long High High WiMAX & LTE 4G Advanced Voice + All IP + Long High Very high ( > 200 ?? Mbps)Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • Wireless Map Mobility High WiMax E LTE 2G 4G Pedestrian 2.5 3G WiMax D G WLAN WLAN WLAN 802.11n Zigbee Zigbee 802.11b 802.11g Stationary Bluetooth 802.15.3a UWB 10 kbps 100 kbps 1 Mbps 10 Mbps 100 Mbps Data RateCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • Throughput Vs. GoodputCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • Mobile Access EvolutionCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 4G TechnologyCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 4G Enabling Technology  Some key technologies made 4G possible  Both WiMAX and LTE use:  OFDM, OFDMA and SC-FDMA  Channel dependent scheduling  Adaptive coding and modulation (ACM)  Multiple-In-Multiple-Out (MIMO) antenna processing  Turbo coding and decodingCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • OFDM Concept  We have a high rate (hence, large bandwidth) stream of modulation symbols Xk (ex. QAM)  Needs to be transmitted on a frequency selective fading channel  Stream Xk is divided into N low rate parallel sub- streams  Bandwidth of each sub-stream is N times narrower  Each sub-stream is carried by one subcarrier  Received must restore each Xk without interference from current or previously transmitted sub-streamsCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • Basics of OFDM: Overlapping Yet Orthogonal  OFDM: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing  OFDMA: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access  FDM is nothing new: carriers are separated sufficiently in frequency so that there is minimal overlap to prevent cross-talk Conventional FDMA Frequency  OFDM: still FDM, but carriers can actually be orthogonal (no cross-talk) while actually overlapping, if specially designed  saved bandwidth! saved bandwidth OFDM Frequency 16Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • OFDM Concept  Transmitted OFDM Signal  Received OFDM SignalCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • OFDMA Concept  In OFDM one user occupies all subcarriers all the time (till packet is finished)  In OFDMA each user occupies few subcarriers for few OFDM symbols during a Burst of transmission  A Burst: few subcarriers during few OFDM symbols  Hence the name Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex AccessCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • OFDMA Flexibility  With OFDMA the user allocation is flexible  Can change from frame to frame  Multiple allocations for several applications  Allocation changes  In WiMAX every 5 ms  In LTE every 1 ms Burst Burst time Burst OFDMA frequency frequencyCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA)  A major problem with OFDM and OFDMA is high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR)  Transmitted amplitude with large variation  Requires a linear amplifier at transmitter  Linear amplifies consumes high power  OK at base station  For mobile station, this consumes battery  LTE uses a solution for UL: SC-FDMA  Single carrier transmissionCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • FDD vs. TDD paired UnpairedCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • LTE Frequencies BandsCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • MIMO  Signal transmitted from multiple antennas (Multiple Out) TX RX  Signal received by M N multiple antennas antennas antennas (Multiple In) • Receiver combines the received signals and optimally combine energy from MxN channels • Two main types of MIMO  Transmit Diversity (also called Alamouti)  Spatial MultiplexingCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • MIMO  Transmit diversity:  Same modulation symbols sent from all Tx M antennas  Receiver combines the signal from N antennas  Useful to increase performance against fading  Spatial multiplexing:  Different modulation symbols sent from M Tx antennas  Receiver received the signal from N antennas  Useful to increase data rate if channel is good  WiMAX uses up to 2x2. LTE uses up to 4x4Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • MIMO Radio Channel  Multiple antennas at both the base station and terminal can significantly increase data rates with sufficient multipath  Reduce noise  Reduce handoffs and disconnectingCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • Radio Challenges Delay Spread Path Loss Rayleigh FadingCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • So, What will be the bandwidth ?Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • Where are we today ? or What is LTECopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • What is LTE? A common evolution path… Robust modulation in dense environments OFDM OFDMA (DL) / SC-FDMA (UL) Increased spectral Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the efficiency. Simplified Rx design cheaper UE Scalable - go next generation broadband beyond 5 MHz limitation wireless technology for 3GPP and 3GPP2 networks Increased link capacity MIMO Multiple-input, multiple-output UL& DL. Collaborative MIMO (UL). Overcome multi-pathEnabling new interferenceapplications, lowering cost Flat, scalable  Peer to peer applications Reduction in number of logical nodes  flatter requiring high throughput Flat IP architecture Clean separation of user plane and control plane  Online gaming Backhaul based on IP / MPLS transport  Flat fee trendCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL 29
  • 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)  3GPP (LTE) is Adopting:  OFDMA in DL with 64QAM  All IP e2e Network  Channel BWs up to 20 MHz  Both TDD and FDD profiles  Flexible Access Network  Advanced Antenna Technologies  UL: Single-Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA), (64QAM optional)  LTE is adopting technology & features already available with Mobile WiMAX  Can expect similar long-term performance benefits and trade- offsCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL 30
  • WiMAX ArchitectureCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL 31
  • 3GPP Release Concept High Speed Accesses IP Core Services Network R99 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 EPC LTE HSPA UMTS HSPA HSPA DL Adv LTE UL + Comm MMTel IMS IMS 32Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL 32
  • Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • What will LTE-Advanced deliver? Support for wider Bandwidth (Up to Up link transmission scheme 100MHz) • Improvements to LTE Downlink transmission scheme • Data rates up to 500Mb/s  Improvements to LTE by using 8x8 MIMO Relay functionality  Data rates of 100Mb/s with high mobility • Improving cell edge coverage and 1Gb/s with low mobility • More efficient coverage in rural areas CoMP (coordinated multiple point transmission and reception) • Downlink coordinated multi-point LTE LTE-Advanced transmission • Uplink coordinated multi-point 3G 4G reception Local IP Access (LIPA) & Enhanced HNB to allow traffic off-load You are here 34Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL 34
  • WiMAX 802.16e & LTE RoadmaCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • WiMax is dead (?)Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • Clearwire/Sprint Clearwire Coverage Merged Company  Fixed WiMAX based • Clearwire + Sprint WiMAX unit wireline – Called Clearwire replacement service • Investors to home + – $3.2 Billion from Google (500 portability within M), Comcast (1.05B), Time- coverage area Warner (550M), Bright House (100M), Trilogy Equity (10M)  2 Mbps data + voice – Sprint owns 51% – Clearwire owns 27% http://www.clearwire.com/ – Investors own 22% • Nationwide focus Sprint – 120-140 million coverage by 2010  Mobile WiMAX • Commercial agreements  Rapid deployment to major cities – Intel will put WiMAX in chipsets  10,000 sites in preparation • Had been planning on that  1750 base stations delivered in 2007, 20,000 – Google services to be carried (and antennas search provider)  Incorporated into numerous devices – Support Android (cameras and televisions) – Sprint, Comcast, TimeWarner, and  Open Network (support Android) Bright House will be wholesale  Federal government connectivity via WiMAX – Sprint contributes its 2.5 GHz  http://www.wimaxday.net/site/2007/06/05/sprint-plans- wimax-for-gov%e2%80%99t-services/ holdingsCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • Separate Core NetworkCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • Common networkCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • Other approachs  The “others” are not resting on laurels  Bluetooth  Municipal Wifi  Device to device networkCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • Chain Topology GW G 2G 3G 4G 5G 6G 7G 8GCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL 41
  • Provisioning Arbitrary Topology G G G G G G G G G G G 2G 3G G GW 2G 3G 2G G G G 3G 2G G G G G G G G GCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL 42
  • Provisioning Conclusion  Non-trivial procedure G  Capacity depends on: G G G  Network topology G G  Traffic load G G G G G 3G 2G G  Any practical algorithm GW 2G 3G 2G will trade-off: G G G 3G 2G  Responsiveness G G G G G  Efficiency G G G 43Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • Military Communications Source: www.meshdynamics.comCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL 44
  •  LTE - Long Term Evolution  PDN - Packet Data Network  MME - Mobility Management Entity  MIMO - Multiple-In-Multiple-Out  OFDMA - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex Access  UTRAN - Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network  EPC - Evolved Packet Core  PCRF - Policy and Charging rules Functio  IMT - International Mobile Telecommunications  AAA - Authentication, Authorization and AccountingCopyright © 2011 LOGTEL