Diameter  for LTE
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Diameter for LTE

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This course is focus on the the diameter usage in LTE, EPC and IMS environment. ...

This course is focus on the the diameter usage in LTE, EPC and IMS environment.

Including VoLTE scenarios and end to end EPS.

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  • 1. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Diameter for LTE By: Samuel Dratwa Samuel.dratwa@gmail.com
  • 2. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL 2 Logtel’s Activities Training Consulting Software Development Logtel’s fields Telecom Hardware Computer Tech. Skills Israel Hi Tech Companies Product Training Outsourcing Worldwide Logtel’s Branches Partners
  • 3. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL About the Copyright This documentation is protected by Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL, 32 Shacham St., Petah Tikva, 49170, Israel. World rights reserved. The possession and use of this documentation is subjected to the restrictions contained in this license. No part of this documentation may be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or reproduced in any way, including but not limited to photocopy, photograph, magnetic or other record, without the prior agreement and written permission of LOGTEL. Participants of this seminar are entitled to keep their copy of this documentation for references purposes only. 3
  • 4. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Agenda  Introduction  Overview of Diameter protocol and usage  Diameter message flow and message format  The need for DRA  The role of Diameter in EPC  The role of Diameter in IMS  The role of Diameter in roaming and hand-off  The role of Diameter in QoS and policies  Final exerciser (end to end flow) 4
  • 5. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL 5 What are we selling ? It’s all about customer satisfaction customer satisfaction !
  • 6. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Diameter usage 6
  • 7. What is Diameter? • Next generation signaling protocol, replacing SS7 • Exchange subscriber profile data between fundamental core network elements/systems: – IMS – EPC – Billing systems – Roaming exchanges
  • 8. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Diameter usage  AAA  Charging / credit control  DB inquiry  Signaling (?) Diameter is an authentication, authorization, and accounting protocol for computer networks. It evolved from and replaces the much less capable RADIUS protocol that preceded it. The Diameter protocol was initially developed by Pat R. Calhoun, Glen Zorn, and Ping Pan in 1998 to provide a framework for authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) that could overcome the limitations of RADIUS.
  • 9. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Mapping SS7 protocols to SIP/Diameter 9
  • 10. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.10  Guarantee quality of service for a video application  Provide subscriber profile, preferences or usage data to a mobile advertiser  Provide customized and dynamic service offerings for subscribers New Business Models Drive Diameter Signaling Policy Control Drives Signaling Quality of Service Location Usage Preferences Service Tier Personal Ads
  • 11. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Rapid Diameter Signaling Growth  Diameter traffic worldwide will increase to more than 98 million MPS by 2017 (140% CAGR)  NA has the largest volumes overall  Other regions showing signs of traffic growth  LTE Penetration still projected at only 13% worldwide by 2017* * Informa Telecoms & Media
  • 12. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Diameter Signaling Growth by Use Case  Policy is the top contributor to Diameter signaling  Online Charging (OCS) is the fastest growing use case  More complex policy rules adding to Diameter growth (i.e., Policy on the Device)  Mobility and Offline Charging other contributors  Future drivers include Service Delivery Applications CAGR 163% 179% 75% 102%
  • 13. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Diameter Protocol 13
  • 14. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Diameter Packet format Flags • "R" (Request) bit – If set, the message is a request. If cleared, the message is an answer. • "P" (Proxiable) bit – If set, the message MAY be proxied, relayed or redirected. • "E" (Error) bit – If set, the message contains a protocol error. • "T" (Potentially re-transmitted message) bit – This flag is set after a link failover procedure, to aid the removal of duplicate requests.
  • 15. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL 15
  • 16. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Interoperability with RADIUS  Diameter is upwards compatible with RADIUS, so  Messages and AVPs  AVP codes 1-255 is reused from RADIUS  Command codes 0-255 is reused from RADIUS  Diameter NASREQ (RFC4005) maps RADIUS messages to/from Diameter AA-Request and AA-Answer message  Use of RADIUS<->Diameter Translation Agents
  • 17. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Interoperability with RADIUS (Cont’d)  Translations issues  Diameter messages can be larger than maximum RADIUS packet  Ongoing work  Mapping of new RADIUS extension types to Diameter  Ongoing work • Usage of Nas-Port-Type and Service-Type vs. defining a new Application Id • Use of zero(0) AppId for all base protocol messages
  • 18. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Result-Code AVP  The Result-Code AVP (AVP Code 268) is of type Unsigned32 and indicates whether a particular request was completed successfully or an error occurred. All Diameter answer messages in IETF-defined Diameter application specifications MUST include one Result-Code AVP.  Diameter provides the following classes:  1xxx (Informational)  2xxx (Success)  3xxx (Protocol Errors)  4xxx (Transient Failures)  5xxx (Permanent Failure) 18
  • 19. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Error list Value Message Name Description 3001 DIAMETER_COMMAND_UNSUPPORTED The Request contained a Command-Code that the receiver did not recognize or support. 3002 DIAMETER_UNABLE_TO_DELIVER This error is given when Diameter can not deliver the message to the destination. 3003 DIAMETER_REALM_NOT_SERVED The intended realm of the request is not recognized. 3004 DIAMETER_TOO_BUSY When returned, a Diameter node should attempt to send the message to an alternate peer. 3005 DIAMETER_LOOP_DETECTED An agent detected a loop while trying to get the message to the intended recipient. 3006 DIAMETER_REDIRECT_INDICATION A redirect agent has determined that the request could not be satisfied locally. 3007 DIAMETER_APPLICATION_UNSUPPORTED A request was sent for an application that is not supported. 3008 DIAMETER_INVALID_HDR_BITS A request was received whose bits in the Diameter header were either set to an invalid combination. 3009 DIAMETER_INVALID_AVP_BITS A request was received that included an AVP whose flag bits are set to an unrecognized value. 3010 DIAMETER_UNKNOWN_PEER A CER was received from an unknown peer. 19
  • 20. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Diameter nodes and agents  Diameter is designed as a Peer-To-Peer architecture, and every host who implements the Diameter protocol can act as either a client or a server depending on network deployment.  Diameter nodes:  Diameter client  Diameter server  Diameter agents  Relay Agent  Proxy Agent  Redirect Agent  Translation Agent 20 Although the architecture just described looks like a traditional client-server architecture, a node acting as the Diameter server for some requests might actually act as a Diameter client in some situations; the Diameter protocol is actually peer-to-peer-based architecture in a more generic sense.
  • 21. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Proxy Agent 21
  • 22. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Redirect Agent A Redirect Agent acts as a centralized configuration repository for other Diameter nodes. When it receives a message, it checks its routing table, and returns a response message along with redirection information to its original sender. This would be very useful for other Diameter nodes because they won't need to keep a list routing entries locally and can look up a Redirect Agent when needed. 22
  • 23. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Translation Agent The responsibility of this agent, is to convert a message from one AAA protocol to another. The Translation Agent is helpful for a company or a service provider to integrate the user database of two application domains, while keeping their original AAA protocols. Another situation is that a company wants to migrate to Diameter protocol, but the migration consists of many phases. The Translation Agent could provide the backward capability for a smooth migration. 23
  • 24. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Transport layer • Protocols – Certain nodes MUST support at least SCTP or TCP (i.e. Diameter Client) – Others MUST support SCTP and TCP (i.e. Diameter Servers and Agents) • Security – TLS and IPSec • Selection Process (in order of execution) – IPSec, SCTP, TCP, TLS • SCTP or TCP is always attempted prior to capabilities exchange • TLS tried after capability negotiation • IPSec and TLS maybe used exclusively
  • 25. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Capabilities Negotiation • Capabilities Exchange – Use of Capabilities-Exchange (CER/CEA) messages – Message exchange advertises: • Peer Identity • Security schemes – Indicates the use of TLS • SCTP host addresses if used – CER/CEA may or may not be protected • Peer Table Creation – Lists all peers that passes capabilities negotiation – Indicates the connection status of each peers – Also used for message routing
  • 26. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL • Liveness Test – Use of Device-Watchdog exchange (DWR/DWA) – Aid in Failover performance: pro-active detection of failure • Disconnection – Use of Disconnect-Peer exchange (DPR/DPA) – Provides hints for future reconnection attempts – Routing table updates Peer Liveness and Disconnection
  • 27. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Typical Diameter Exchanges A Capabilities Exchange message carries a peer's identity and its capabilities (protocol version number, supported Diameter applications, etc.). A Diameter node only transmits commands to peers that have advertised support for the Diameter application associated with the given command. Discovery via DNS or Static Configuration Application-level heartbeat messages are used to proactively detect transport failures. These messages are sent periodically when a peer connection is idle and when a timely response has not been received for an outstanding request. There are two types of messages, Requests and Answers.. Every answer message carries a Result-Code AVP. The data value of the Result-Code AVP is an integer code indicating whether a particular request was completed successfully or whether an error occurred. Peer Discovery Peer Discovery Capabilities Exchange Request Capabilities Exchange AnswerCapabilities Exchange Answer Capabilities Exchange Request Device Watchdog Request Device Watchdog Answer Request Answer Answer Request Client ServerAgent
  • 28. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Diameter CER Example <CER> ::= < Diameter Header: 257, REQ > { Origin-Host } /* Required AVP, Occurrence: 1 */ { Origin-Realm } 1* { Host-IP-Address } /* Required AVP, Occurrence: 1+ */ { Vendor-Id } { Product-Name } [ Origin-State-Id ] /* Optional AVP, Occurrence: 0 or 1 */ * [ Supported-Vendor-Id ] /* Optional AVP, Occurrence: 0+ */ * [ Auth-Application-Id ] * [ Inband-Security-Id ] * [ Acct-Application-Id ] * [ Vendor-Specific-Application-Id ] [ Firmware-Revision ] * [ AVP ]
  • 29. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Diameter Transport and Session-ID A Diameter message pertaining to a specific user session includes a Session-Id AVP, the value of which is constant throughout the life of a session. The value of the Session-Id AVP is a globally and eternally unique text string, intended to uniquely identify a user session without reference to any other information. The Diameter client initiating the session creates the Session-Id. The Session-Id begins with the originator's Diameter Identity string and is followed by any sequence guaranteeing both topological and temporal uniqueness. TCP or SCTP Transport Each Diameter process running on a host generates, or is configured with, a Diameter Identity. The Diameter Identity is a URI-syntax string with substrings representing the host's fully qualified domain name (FQDN), one of the ports used to listen for incoming connections, the transport used to listen for incoming connections (i.e. TCP or SCTP), the AAA protocol (i.e. Diameter), and the transport security (i.e. none or TLS). The following is an example of a valid Diameter host identity: aaa://host.abc.com:1812;transport=tcp;protocol=diameter PCRF SessionsSessions TCP or SCTP Transport AF AGW
  • 30. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Failover-Failback Procedure Client Relay Relay Server 1. Request 4. Answer 2. Request T-bit set 3. Request T-bit set 4. Answer 5. Answer 2. Request 3. Answer Request Queue Request Queue Request Queue
  • 31. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Duplicate Detection • Duplicates can occur – Due to Failover – Nodes re-sending un-answered requests: Due to reboot • Detection – End-to-End Id is unique for a node – Re-sent request must have T-flag set – Therefore, use T-flag as a hint for possible duplication, then • Use End-to-End Id and Origin-Host AVP to detect duplication • Duplicate request SHOULD cause the same answer to be sent • Other Considerations – Use of Session-Id for duplicate detection in accounting records – Time needed to wait for duplicate messages
  • 32. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Diameter applications 32
  • 33. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL What is Diameter Application ?  A Diameter Application is a protocol based on the Diameter base protocol defined in RFC 6733 (Obsoletes: RFC 3588). Each application is defined by an application identifier and can add new command codes and/or new mandatory AVPs. Adding a new optional AVP does not require a new application.  Examples of Diameter applications:  Diameter Mobile IPv4 Application (MobileIP, RFC 4004)  Diameter Network Access Server Application (NASREQ, RFC 4005)  Diameter Extensible Authentication Protocol Application (RFC 4072)  Diameter Credit-Control Application (DCCA, RFC 4006)  Diameter Session Initiation Protocol Application (RFC 4740)  Various applications in the 3GPP IP Multimedia Subsystem  Each interface in LTE 33
  • 34. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Credit Control Application Overview • Specified in RFC 4006 • Can be used to provide real time credit control for various applications, e.g. messaging services, gaming services • Used between the network element providing the service (client) and credit control server (server) • Uses Application-Id 4
  • 35. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Credit Control Application Messages  Credit Control Request (CCR)  Sent from client to server to request authorization for a given service  Credit Control Answer (CCA)  Sent from server to client and carries the result of the corresponding authorization request  Reauthorization Request (RAR)  Sent by server to trigger a new CCR, e.g. after successful credit replenishment during a service  Reauthorization Answer (RAA)  Sent by client as an answer to RAR
  • 36. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Operation Modes • Event Based – A single CCR/CCA exchange in each session – Used when it is sure that requested service event will be successful • Session Based – Multiple CCR/CCA exchanges in a session – Required when there is a need to reserve credits before providing the service – Requires state maintenance on the server side – Server first reserves the credits and debits them after receiving the subsequent CCR
  • 37. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Some important AVPs • CC-Request-Type AVP – Indicates type of the request for a CCR – Possible values are INITIAL_REQUEST, UPDATE_REQUEST, TERMINATION_REQUEST for session based scenarios and EVENT_REQUEST for event based scenarios • CC-Request-Number AVP – Identifies a request within a session • Requested-Action AVP – Used to indicate type of the requested action for event based scenarios. Possible values are DIRECT_DEBITING, REFUND_ACCOUNT, CHECK_BALANCE and PRICE_ENQUIRY
  • 38. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Client Server CCR, Session-Id = S-Id1, Service-Identifier CC-Request-Type = EVENT_BASED Requested-Action = PRICE_ENQUIRY CCA, Session-Id = S-Id1 Cost-Information CCR, Session-Id = S-Id2, Subscription-Id, CC-Request-Type = EVENT_BASED Requested-Action = BALANCE_CHECK, Service-Identifier CCA, Session-Id = S-Id2 Check-Balance-Result CCR, Session-Id = S-Id3, Service-Identifier CC-Request-Type = EVENT_BASED Requested-Action = DIRECT_DEBITING Subscription-Id CCA, Session-Id = S-Id3 Granted-Service-Unit Event Based Scenario Example
  • 39. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Session Based Scenario Example CCR, Session-Id = S-Id1, Requested-Service-Unit CC-Request-Type = INITIAL_REQUEST Subscription-Id CCA, Session-Id = S-Id1 Granted-Service-Unit, Validity-Time CCR, Session-Id = S-Id1, Requested-Service-Unit, CC-Request-Type = UPDATE_REQUEST Subscription-Id CCR, Session-Id = S-Id1, CC-Request-Type = TERMINATION_REQUEST Used-Service-Unit CCA, Session-Id = S-Id1 Cost-Information CCA, Session-Id = S-Id1 Granted-Service-Unit, Validity-Time Client Server
  • 40. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Credit Control Timers  Tx timer  Used by client to guard against non-receipt of CCA after a CCR is sent  Can’t rely on Tw, configuring Tw to a low value may be undesirable and Tw on the whole message path may not be under control of the client administrating entity  Tcc timer  Used by server to guard against non-receipt of CCR for session based scenarios
  • 41. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Subsessions and Multiple Services • Multiple sub-sessions may be included in a credit control sessions. Each of them is identified by a unique CC-Sub- Session -Id AVP and have their own credit control life cycle • Credit control for multiple services could be performed in a credit control session – The goal is to limit use of network and client/server resources – Multiple-Services-Indicator AVP is sent by client to indicate support for multiple services – Multiple-Services-Credit-Control AVP carries credit control related information from server to client
  • 42. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Multiple Services Related Terms • Service-Id – Identifier for a specific service • Rating-Group – A group of services subject to the same cost and rating type • Quota – Authorized amount of resources for a specific service or rating group • Credit Pool – Authorized amount of resources for services/rating groups with different charging characteristics
  • 43. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL • Server can inform client when a tariff change will occur with Tariff-Time-Change AVP • Client reports used units before and after tariff change with Tariff-Change-Usage AVP Tariff-Change
  • 44. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Duplicate Detection • Session-Id AVP, CC-Request-Number AVP and CC- Request-Type can be used to detect duplicates (mechanism described in RFC3588 will work too, i.e. using Origin-Host AVP and End-to-End Identifier
  • 45. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL High Availability/Failure Handling Features • CC-Session-Failover AVP – Used by servers to inform clients whether a backup instance is present ( Client needs to know identity of backup peer by other means ) • Credit-Control-Failure-Handling AVP – Used by server to inform client about the expected behavior for session based scenarios, when CCA for a CCR is not received • Direct-Debiting-Failure-Handling AVP – Used by server to inform client about the expected behavior for event based scenarios, when CCA for a CCR is not received
  • 46. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL End of Tutorial Thank You
  • 47. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL DRA 47
  • 48. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL For scalability and configuration simplicity an agent (similar to STP in SS7/SIGTRAN networks) links all the Diameter nodes (MME, HSS, PCEF, PCRF, OCS, OFCS, all IMS entities, etc.) and routes the Diameter requests/answers between them. All Diameter nodes have one entry in their routing table to deliver any DIAMETER message to the Agent. The Diameter agent is able to route between nodes of the same network or between nodes of different networks. To ensure availability, agents are deployed by matted pair. Every Diameter client or server is connected to the two Agents of that matted pair. 48
  • 49. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL DRA advantages  Scalability - Considering N entities which need to interact with M entities, the number of TCP or SCTP connections between them is NxM if no Diameter agent is introduced. The number is N+M if an agent is present.  Simplification - The Diameter in the EPS leads to the update of the routing tables of all the entities which need to communicate with the new entity, if no agent is involved. With the presence of an agent, only the routing tables of the agent and the new entity are impacted.  Network interconnection with topology hiding - The agent enables simplifying the interconnection with other networks for the support of roaming agreements. The agent also hides the topology of the internal network.  Application layer routing - The agent enables performing application- based routing such as load balancing in the context of PCC (Policy and Charging Control), HSS identification in the case of interaction between MME and HSS, etc.  AAA protocol conversion - Translation agents are important when migration to Diameter occurs. They support interconnection with other 49
  • 50. Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.50  Control amount of traffic to/from Clients and Servers  Detect and Route around congestion and failures  Orderly discard (based on Message Priority) of traffic from Client if needed  Facilitate Wi-Fi Offload using Analytics and other key indicators (i.e., Subscriber profile) Diameter Signaling and Control Network Resiliency A robust Diameter signaling and control architecture must Diameter Server Diameter Client Diameter Client DSR Diameter Client: MME, PGW, CSCF, AS, etc Diameter Server: HSS, PCRF, OCS, OFCS, etc Diameter Server RAN Diameter Client Prevent Failure, Avoid Outage, Assure Recovery
  • 51. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 52. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 53. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Comparison of Diameter and RADIUS 53
  • 54. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL 54 Diameter in EPC/EPS
  • 55. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Interface list  S6 - enables transfer of subscription and authentication data for authenticating/authorizing user access to the EPS. This interface is between MME HSS  S13 - used for IMEI check. This interface is between MME and EIR (Equipment Identity Register)  Gx - allows the PCEF (i.e., PDN GW) obtaining policy and charging rules from the PCRF. With those rules, PCEF knows how to authorize/block/restrict IP flows and charge those flows.  Gy - online charging interface between PCEF and OCS  Gz - offline charging interface between PCEF and OFCS  S9 - the interface between the PCRF in a visited network and the PCRF in the home network. This interface is used when the PDN GW who terminates the bearers of the visiting user, belongs to the visited  Rx - enabling IMS to request access network resources (i.e., dedicated bearer) to guarantee the quality of service of the IMS sessions. Rx is between IMS and the PCRF. 55
  • 56. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL EPS Architecture 56
  • 57. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL EPS Architecture with DRA 57
  • 58. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL PCC in an IMS Voice Call 58
  • 59. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL EPS initial attach 59
  • 60. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL S13 Commands ECR < ME-Identity-Check-Request > ::= < Diameter Header: 324, REQ, PXY, 16777252 > < Session-Id > [ Vendor-Specific-Application-Id ] { Auth-Session-State } { Origin-Host } { Origin-Realm } [ Destination-Host ] { Destination-Realm } { Terminal-Information } [ User-Name ] *[ AVP ] *[ Proxy-Info ] *[ Route-Record ] 60
  • 61. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL S13 Commands ECA < ME-Identity-Check-Answer> ::=< Diameter Header: 324, PXY, 16777252 > < Session-Id > [ Vendor-Specific-Application-Id ] [ Result-Code ] [ Experimental-Result ] { Auth-Session-State } { Origin-Host } { Origin-Realm } [ Equipment-Status ] *[ AVP ] *[ Failed-AVP ] *[ Proxy-Info ] *[ Route-Record ] 61
  • 62. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Authentication-Information-Request (AIR) < Authentication-Information-Request>::=<Diameter Header: 318, REQ, PXY, 16777251 > < Session-Id > [ Vendor-Specific-Application-Id ] { Auth-Session-State } { Origin-Host } { Origin-Realm } [ Destination-Host ] { Destination-Realm } { User-Name } *[Supported-Features] [ Requested-EUTRAN-Authentication-Info ] [ Requested-UTRAN-GERAN-Authentication-Info ] { Visited-PLMN-Id } *[ AVP ] *[ Proxy-Info ] *[ Route-Record ] 62
  • 63. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Authentication-Information-Answer (AIA) < Authentication-Information-Answer> ::=< Diameter Header: 318, PXY, 16777251 > < Session-Id > [ Vendor-Specific-Application-Id ] [ Result-Code ] [ Experimental-Result ] [ Error-Diagnostic ] { Auth-Session-State } { Origin-Host } { Origin-Realm } * [Supported-Features] [ Authentication-Info ] *[ AVP ] *[ Failed-AVP ] *[ Proxy-Info ] *[ Route-Record ] 63
  • 64. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Diameter Update Location Request  MME updates the UE location in HSS  Origin and Destination are specified as Host and Realm  The user name in the request is set to IMSI  The Radio Access Technology is set to EUTRAN for LTE  The Visited PLMN is also included in the message 64
  • 65. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Update-Location-Request (ULR) < Update-Location-Request> ::=< Diameter Header: 316, REQ, PXY, 16777251 > < Session-Id > [ Vendor-Specific-Application-Id ] { Auth-Session-State } { Origin-Host } { Origin-Realm } [ Destination-Host ] { Destination-Realm } { User-Name } *[ Supported-Features ] [ Terminal-Information ] { RAT-Type } { ULR-Flags } [UE-SRVCC-Capability ] { Visited-PLMN-Id } [ SGSN-Number ] [ Homogeneous-Support-of-IMS-Voice-Over-PS-Sessions ] [ GMLC-Address ] *[ Active-APN ] 65 [ Equivalent-PLMN-List ] [ MME-Number-for-MT-SMS ] [ SMS-Register-Request ] [ SGs-MME-Identity ] [ Coupled-Node-Diameter-ID ] *[ AVP ] *[ Proxy-Info ] *[ Route-Record ]
  • 66. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Diameter Update Location Answer  The HSS accesses the database and responds with user information to the MME  The Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate (AMBR) occurs twice in the message:  The first occurrence specifies the maximum bit rate for the default PDP  The second occurrence specifies the maximum data limit via the APN.  APN configuration includes: IP address of the PDN Gateway. This address is used to determine the default route for the traffic towards the Internet 66
  • 67. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Insert-Subscriber-Data-Request (IDR) < Insert-Subscriber-Data-Request> ::=< Diameter Header: 319, REQ, PXY, 16777251 > < Session-Id > [ Vendor-Specific-Application-Id ] { Auth-Session-State } { Origin-Host } { Origin-Realm } { Destination-Host } { Destination-Realm } { User-Name } *[ Supported-Features] { Subscription-Data} [ IDR- Flags ] *[ AVP ] *[ Proxy-Info ] *[ Route-Record ] 67
  • 68. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Subscription-Data AVP Subscription-Data ::= <AVP header: 1400 10415> [ Subscriber-Status ] [ MSISDN ] [ A-MSISDN ] [ STN-SR ] [ ICS-Indicator ] [ Network-Access-Mode ] [ Operator-Determined-Barring ] [ HPLMN-ODB ] *10[ Regional-Subscription-Zone-Code] [ Access-Restriction-Data ] [ APN-OI-Replacement ] [ LCS-Info ] [ Teleservice-List ] *[ Call-Barring-Info ] [ 3GPP-Charging-Characteristics ] [ AMBR ] [ APN-Configuration-Profile ] [ RAT-Frequency-Selection-Priority-ID ] [ Trace-Data] [ GPRS-Subscription-Data ] *[ CSG-Subscription-Data ] [ Roaming-Restricted-Due-To-Unsupported- Feature ] [ Subscribed-Periodic-RAU-TAU-Timer ] [ MPS-Priority ] [ VPLMN-LIPA-Allowed ] [ Relay-Node-Indicator ] [ MDT-User-Consent ] [Subscribed-VSRVCC ] [Subscription-Data-Flags ] *[ AVP ] 68
  • 69. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Insert-Subscriber-Data-Answer (IDA) < Insert-Subscriber-Data-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: 319, PXY, 16777251 > < Session-Id > [ Vendor-Specific-Application-Id ] *[ Supported-Features ] [ Result-Code ] [ Experimental-Result ] { Auth-Session-State } { Origin-Host } { Origin-Realm } [ IMS-Voice-Over-PS-Sessions-Supported ] [ Last-UE-Activity-Time ] [ RAT-Type ] [ IDA-Flags ] [ EPS-User-State ] [ EPS-Location-Information ] [Local-Time-Zone ] *[ AVP ] *[ Failed-AVP ] *[ Proxy-Info ] *[ Route-Record ] 69
  • 70. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL EPS initial attach (cont.) 70
  • 71. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL (CCR for Gx (based on DCCA <CC-Request> ::= < Diameter Header: 272, REQ, PXY > < Session-Id > { Auth-Application-Id } { Origin-Host } { Origin-Realm } { Destination-Realm } { CC-Request-Type } { CC-Request-Number } [ Credit-Management-Status ] [ Destination-Host ] [ Origin-State-Id ] *[ Subscription-Id ] *[ Supported-Features ] [ TDF-Information ] [ Network-Request-Support ] *[ Packet-Filter-Information ] [ Packet-Filter-Operation ] [ Bearer-Identifier ] [ Bearer-Operation ] [ Dynamic-Address-Flag ] [ Dynamic-Address-Flag-Extension ] [ PDN-Connection-Charging-ID ] [ Framed-IP-Address ] [ Framed-IPv6-Prefix ] [ IP-CAN-Type ] [ 3GPP-RAT-Type ] [ RAT-Type ] 71
  • 72. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL CCR for Gx (cont.) [ Termination-Cause ] [ User-Equipment-Info ] [ QoS-Information ] [ QoS-Negotiation ] [ QoS-Upgrade ] [ Default-EPS-Bearer-QoS ] [ Default-QoS-Information ] 0*2[ AN-GW-Address ] [ AN-GW-Status ] [ 3GPP-SGSN-MCC-MNC ] [ 3GPP-SGSN-Address ] [ 3GPP-SGSN-IPv6-Address ] [ 3GPP-GGSN-Address ] [ 3GPP-GGSN-IPv6-Address ] [ 3GPP-Selection-Mode ] [ RAI ] [ 3GPP-User-Location-Info] [ User-Location-Info-Time ] [ User-CSG-Information ] [ TWAN-Identifier ] [ 3GPP-MS-TimeZone ] [ 3GPP-Charging-Characteristics ] [ Called-Station-Id ] [ PDN-Connection-ID ] [ Bearer-Usage ] [ Online ] 72 [ Offline ] *[ TFT-Packet-Filter-Information ] *[ Charging-Rule-Report ] *[ Application-Detection-Information ] *[ Event-Trigger ] [ Event-Report-Indication ] [ Access-Network-Charging-Address ] *[ Access-Network-Charging-Identifier-Gx ] *[ CoA-Information ] *[ Usage-Monitoring-Information ] [ Routing-Rule-Install ] [ Routing-Rule-Remove ] [ HeNB-Local-IP-Address ] [ UE-Local-IP-Address ] [ UDP-Source-Port ] [ Logical-Access-ID ] [ Physical-Access-ID ] *[ Proxy-Info ] [ Route-Record ] *[ AVP ]
  • 73. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL CCA for Gx <CC-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: 272, PXY > < Session-Id > { Auth-Application-Id } { Origin-Host } { Origin-Realm } [ Result-Code ] [ Experimental-Result ] { CC-Request-Type } { CC-Request-Number } *[ Supported-Features ] [ Bearer-Control-Mode ] *[ Event-Trigger ] [ Event-Report-Indication ] [ Origin-State-Id ] *[ Redirect-Host ] [ Redirect-Host-Usage ] [ Redirect-Max-Cache-Time ] *[ Charging-Rule-Remove ] *[ Charging-Rule-Install ] [ Charging-Information ] [ Online ] [ Offline ] *[ 73 *[ QoS-Information ] [ Revalidation-Time ] [ Default-EPS-Bearer-QoS ] [ Default-QoS-Information ] [ Bearer-Usage ] *[ Usage-Monitoring-Information ] [ CSG-Information-Reporting ] [ User-CSG-Information ] [ Session-Release-Cause ] [ Error-Message ] [ Error-Reporting-Host ] *[ Failed-AVP ] *[ Proxy-Info ] *[ Route-Record ] *[ AVP ]
  • 74. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL 74
  • 75. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Cancel-Location-Request (CLR) < Cancel-Location-Request> ::=< Diameter Header: 317, REQ, PXY, 16777251 > < Session-Id > [ Vendor-Specific-Application-Id ] { Auth-Session-State } { Origin-Host } { Origin-Realm } { Destination-Host } { Destination-Realm } { User-Name } *[Supported-Features ] { Cancellation-Type } [ CLR-Flags ] *[ AVP ] *[ Proxy-Info ] *[ Route-Record ] 75
  • 76. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Cancel-Location-Answer (CLA) < Cancel-Location-Answer> ::= < Diameter Header: 317, PXY, 16777251 > < Session-Id > [ Vendor-Specific-Application-Id ] *[ Supported-Features ] [ Result-Code ] [ Experimental-Result ] { Auth-Session-State } { Origin-Host } { Origin-Realm } *[ AVP ] *[ Failed-AVP ] *[ Proxy-Info ] *[ Route-Record ] 76
  • 77. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL EPS Detach 77 ?
  • 78. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Command-Code for S6a/S6d Command-Name Abbreviation Code Update-Location-Request ULR 316 Update-Location-Answer ULA 316 Cancel-Location-Request CLR 317 Cancel-Location-Answer CLA 317 Authentication-Information-Request AIR 318 Authentication-Information-Answer AIA 318 Insert-Subscriber-Data-Request IDR 319 Insert-Subscriber-Data-Answer IDA 319 Delete-Subscriber-Data-Request DSR 320 Delete-Subscriber-Data-Answer DSA 320 Purge-UE-Request PUR 321 Purge-UE-Answer PUA 321 Reset-Request RSR 322 Reset-Answer RSA 322 Notify-Request NOR 323 Notify-Answer NOA 323 78
  • 79. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Analysis of Use Cases Example from 3GPP, Concern about signaling volume MME Home Subscriber Server Mobility Management Entity HSS Location Update (new Tracking Area) Update Location Request Diameter on S6a MME Inter-MME Tracking Area Update
  • 80. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Grouping APVs for bulk signaling (in the order of efficiency)  Group-ID identifies multiple users, list of attributes/values applies to all users of the group  List of Session-IDs identifies a group of users, list of attributes/values applies to all users of the group  List of Session-IDs identifies multiple users, each Session-ID has an individual list of AVPs associated Diameter Hdr [Session-ID] AVP 1Group-ID AVP 2 AVP N Diameter Hdr [Session-ID] AVP 1Session-ID 1 AVP 2 AVP NSession-ID K Diameter Hdr [Session-ID] AVP 1.1Session-ID 1 AVP K.1Session-ID K AVP 1.2 AVP 1.N AVP K.2 AVP K.N
  • 81. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL References  ETSI TS 183 060, Resources and Admission Control Subsystem (RACS); Re interface based on the Diameter protocol  3GPP TS 29.272, Mobility Management Entity (MME) and SGSN related interfaces based on the Diameter protocol  3GPP TS 29.816, Study on PCRF Failure and Restoration  TD S2-113795, Contribution to 3GPP TSG SA2 WG2 meeting #86, 11-15 July 2011, Core Network Overload Solution Study  Scope: Identify and document scenarios, that may result in signaling overload  State restoration after reboot, results in burst of re-registrations from mobile nodes
  • 82. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL 82 Diameter in IMS (VoLTE)
  • 83. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Why do we need VoLTE ? Why not use VoIP solution like Skype ?
  • 84. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Different approach to Voice in LTE  CSFB (Circuit Switched Fallback): In this approach, LTE just provides data services, and when a voice call is to be initiated or received, it will fall back to the CS domain. When using this solution, operators just need to upgrade the MSC instead of deploying the IMS, and therefore, can provide services quickly. However, the disadvantage is longer call setup delay.  SVLTE (Simultaneous Voice and LTE): In this approach, the handset works simultaneously in the LTE and CS modes, with the LTE mode providing data services and the CS mode providing the voice service. This is a solution solely based on the handset, which does not have special requirements on the network and does not require the deployment of IMS either. The disadvantage of this solution is that the phone can become expensive with high power consumption. 84
  • 85. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Telstra decided not use VoLTE 85
  • 86. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL VoLTE vs. VOIP  Why not use VoIP solution like Skype ?  VoLTE (TAS/MMTEL) supply:  Emergency services  Legacy services  Class services  Scalability  Robustness  Reliability  (high) Availability
  • 87. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL CLASS (Custom Local Area Signaling Services) • AKA VSC (vertical service code) - developed by AT&T in the 1960s • a special code dialed prior to (or instead of) a telephone number that engages some type of special telephone service • Anonymous Call Rejection: start • Anonymous Call Rejection : cancel • Busy Number Redial : start • Busy Number Redial : cancel • Call Forwarding: start • Call Forwarding: cancel • Call Return (incoming) • Call Waiting disable • Caller ID Disable 87
  • 88. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL TAS/MMTel features
  • 89. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL MMTel Originating Features  TIP (Terminating Identification Presentation)  OIR (Originating Identification Restriction)  Hotlining  OCB (Outgoing Call Barring)  Barring of All Outgoing Calls  Barring of All Outgoing International Calls  Dialing Plans (Number Analyzer component )  7,10,11 digit dialing  0,0+,01+,00 dialing  Vanity number support (12+ digits)  Abbreviated Dialing Codes (ADC) commercial and non-commercial  N11  VSC  International Dialing  N-way Conferencing (6-way)  Call Hold (CH)  Cell ID Validation  IR.94 (video support)  Soft phone (including emergency call)  System announcements  Smart Limits (SLW)  Postpaid charging  Prepaid
  • 90. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL MMTel Terminating Features  OIP (Originating Identification Presentation)  TIR (Terminating Identification Restriction)  Hotlining  ICB (Incoming Call Barring)  Barring of all Incoming Calls  Block List  DND  CDIV (Call Diversion)  CFU (Call Forwarding Unconditional)  CFNL (CF on Non-Login)  CFB (CF on Busy)  CFNR (CF on Non-Reply)  CFNRC (CF on Non-Reachable)  Call Waiting (CW)  Routing To Voicemail  Call Hold (CH)  Cell ID Validation  IR.94 (video support)  Soft phone (including emergency call)  System announcements  Smart Limits (SLW)  Postpaid charging  Prepaid
  • 91. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL HIGH LEVEL CALL FLOW
  • 92. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Basic TAS call flow – LTE Originating AT&T Proprietary (Restricted- LTE) PSTN This call flow follows the standard IMS origina SCC-AS is the first application server bein UTRAN 3G MSC/VLR GMSC S/I-CSCF TAS SBC w P-CSCF SCC-AS IMS S-GW MME PCR F EPC E-UTRAN HSS(IMS) HSS(CSPS) PSTN BGCF CSG* PCEF PDN GW/GGSN 3G SGSN SAE GW 3G CSG* A B ENUM 1 3 4 5 6 2 7 7 7
  • 93. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Basic TAS call flow – LTE Originating  UE A originates a call to UE B. Follow the registration path, UE A sends SIP INVITE message to P-CSCF and P-CSCF forwards it to S-CSCF.  S-CSCF checks the iFC for UE A for originating processing. It determines that it needs to invoke SCC-AS processing first. Then it sends SIP INVITE to SCC- AS.  After SCC-AS processing, SCC-AS acts as B2BUA and sends SIP INVITE back to S-CSCF  Based on iFC for UE A, TAS is invoked as the 2nd AS for originating processing. S-CSCF sends SIP INVITE to TAS. After TAS finishes its processing, it acts as B2BUA and sends the call back to S-CSCF  Based on iFC for UE A, there is no more AS that needs to be invoked for originating processing. S-CSCF performs ENUM query.  ENUM returns with B party’s domain name, S-CSCF looks up the internal routing table and maps B party’s domain name to the terminating network I- CSCF domain name. DNS query is performed for S-CSCF to route the request to terminating network’s I-CSCF. Continue with IMS termination call flow.  Continue with LTE termination in the call termination part of the call flow.
  • 94. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Basic TAS call flow – LTE Terminating From PSTN 1. This call flow follows the standard IMS termin SCC-AS is the last application server being inv 2. Step 4: T-ADS is performed and LTE terminati UTRAN 3G MSC/VLR GMSC S/I-CSCF TAS SBC w P-CSCF SCC-AS IMS S-GW MME PCR F EPC E-UTRAN HSS(IMS) HSS(CSPS) PSTN BGCF CSG* PCEF PDN GW/GGSN 3G SGSN SAE GW 3G CSG* A B 6 4 3 1 6 7 7 7 5 2
  • 95. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL 1. P-CSCF  S-CSCF : Invite
  • 96. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL SDP
  • 97. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL 2. S-CSCF  P-CSCF : 100 trying
  • 98. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL 3. S-CSCF  SCC AS : Invite
  • 99. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL 4 . SCC AS  S-CSCF : 100 trying
  • 100. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL VoLTE detailed services flows 101
  • 101. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Schematic sequence flow
  • 102. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Simple Originating and terminating flow 103
  • 103. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Diameter AVPs 104 AVP Value Accounting-Record-Type START Service-Information: Subscription-Id : Subscription-Id-Type 1 (END_USER_IMSI) Subscription-Id : Subscription-Id-Data Served User IMSI IMS-Information: Role-of –Node Originating IMS-Information: Node-Functionality AS (6) IMS-Information: Access-Network-Information ‘P-Access-Network-Info’ header from the incoming INVITE ( step 2) IMS-Information: User-Session-ID ‘Call-ID’ header value of incoming INVITE (step 2) IMS-Information: Outgoing-Session-ID ‘Call-ID’ header value of outgoing INVITE (step 5) IMS-Information: Calling-Party-Address Alice’s URIs, set from ’P-Asserted-Identity’ header of the incoming INVITE. (step 2) IMS-Information: Called-Party-Address Bob’s URI set in Request-URI of outgoing INVITE (step 5) IMS-Information: Called-Asserted-Identity Bob’s URI, set from ’P-Asserted-Identity’ header of the received 18x or 200 OK INVITE response. The number of AVPs depends on the number of ‘P-Asserted-Identity’ headers received in the INVITE response. ( step 8 or 12) IMS-Information: Alternate-Charged-Party-Address Should be specified with the value set in ‘CHARGED_NUMBER’ parameter of the served user profile if it is not equal to user’s MSISDN IMS-Information : IMS Charging Identifier Contains the ICID found in the ‘P-Charging Vector’ (‘icid-value’ parameter) of the incoming INVITE (step 2) IMS-Information:IMS-Communication-Service-Identifier ‘ICSI’ parameter from ‘P-Asserted-Service’ header or ‘icsi’ media- feature tag from ‘Contact’ header if exists in the incoming INVITE (step 2) IMS-Information: Number-Portability-Routing-Information ‘rn=’ parameter , if exists, from ‘Request-URI’ header of the incoming INVITE (step 2) IMS-Information: Event-Type: SIP-Method INVITE IMS-Information: Inter-Operator-Identifier : Originating-IOI ‘orig-ioi’ parameter in the incoming INVITE ‘P-Charging –Vector’ (step 2) IMS-Information: Inter-Operator-Identifier : Terminating-IOI ‘term-ioi’ parameter received in the 200 ok in ‘P-Charging- Vector’ ( if exists) (step 12) IMS-Information :Time-Stamps IMS-Information :Time-Stamps : SIP-Request-Timestamp Time when INVITE request was received (step 2) IMS-Information :Time-Stamps: SIP-Request-Timestamp-Fraction Milliseconds fraction in relation to SIP-Request-Timestamp IMS-Information :Time-Stamps : SIP-Response-Timestamp Time when 200 OK received (step 12)
  • 104. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL The terminating side 105
  • 105. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL How to decide if it’s ORIG or TERM
  • 106. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL CFx high level S-CSCF Alice TAS Alice Term TAS Alice Orig TAS Bob Term S-CSCF Bob
  • 107. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 108. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 109. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 110. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 111. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL
  • 112. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL 113 Step Number ACR TYPE ACR Details 27 TAS Carol: START_RECORD Role-Of-Node = Terminating Calling-Party-Address=Alice/Called-Party-Address=Carol SIP-Request-Timestamp = Timestamp of incoming INVITE ( step 11) SIP-Response-Timestamp = Timestamp of incoming INVITE response (step 24) Start-Cell-Site-Identifier= Carol’s P-ANI (step 24) , received in 200 OK INVITE Regular mobile terminated ACR event 34 TAS Bob(Orig): START_RECORD Role-Of-Node =Originating Calling-Party-Address=Alice/Called-Party-Address=Carol Associated-Party-Address=Bob Subscriber-Role = Originating Service-Type=CDIV Service-Mode=CFU SIP-Request-Timestamp = Timestamp of incoming INVITE ( step 6) SIP-Response-Timestamp = Timestamp of incoming INVITE response (step 31) Start-Cell-Site-Identifier = Bob’s P-ANI (step 6) 38 TAS Bob(Term): START_RECORD Role-Of-Node = Terminating Calling-Party-Address=Alice/Called-Party-Address=Carol Associated-Party-Address=Bob Subscriber-Role = Terminating Service-Type=CDIV Service-Mode=CFU Start-Cell-Site-Identifier= P-ANI sent in the outgoing INVITE (step 3) SIP-Request-Timestamp = Timestamp of outgoing INVITE ( step 3) SIP-Response-Timestamp = Timestamp of incoming INVITE response (step 37) 54.1 TAS Bob(Term): STOP_RECORD Role-Of-Node = Terminating Calling-Party-Address=Alice/Called-Party-Address=Carol Subscriber-Role = Terminating Service-Type=CDIV Service-Mode=CFU Cause-Code=0 Disconnection-Direction=originating Diameter AVPs
  • 113. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Conference TAS1 (Alice Orig) TAS2 (Alice Orig) TAS3 (Alice Orig) Conference Factory 1. INVITE Bob [Call-id=1,To-Tag=1,From-Tag=1] 9. INVITE n-way@one.att.com 3. re-INVITE (Hold) 17. BYE 2. INVITE 4. re-INVITE(Hold) 5. INVITE Carol [Call-id=2,To-Tag=2,From-Tag=2] 6. INVITE 12. 200 OK Contact : sip:conf=AliceMSISDN@TAS3;isFocus 13. REFER sip:conf=AliceMSISDN@TAS3 Refer-To: <[Bob];method=INVITE?Replaces=1;to-tag=1;from-tag=1> 10. INVITE sip:conf=AliceMSISDN@MRF Create conference 11. 200 OK 14. REFER sip:conf=AliceMSISDN@TAS1 Refer-To: <[Bob];method=INVITE> 15. INVITE sip:sip:conf=AliceMSISDN@MRF Create Conference Leg (Join Bob) 16. re-INVITE MRF’s SDP 18. REFER sip:conf=AliceMSISDN@TAS3 Refer-To: <[Carol];method=INVITE?Replaces=2;to-tag=2;from-tag=2> 19. REFER sip:conf=AliceMSISDN@TAS2 Refer-To: <[Carol];method=INVITE> 21. re-INVITE MRF’s SDP 20. INVITE sip:sip:conf=AliceMSISDN@MRF Create Conference Leg (Join Carol) 22. BYE 7. re-INVITE(Hold) 8.re-INVITE(Hold)
  • 114. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL ADC (as 3rd party VAS AS) 115
  • 115. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL RCS (Rich Communication Suite) RCS 5.1 provides a framework for discoverable and interoperable advanced communication services and detailed specifications for a basic set of advanced communication services. RCS 5.1 builds on the fundamentals from RCS Release 1 to 4, RCS-e (RCS-enhanced) and RCS 5.0 116
  • 116. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL RCS AS 117 XML Document Management Server (XDMS) is a functional element responsible for handling the management of user XML documents stored on the network side, such as presence authorization rules, static presence information, contact and resource lists. Resource List Server (RLS) handles subscriptions to presence lists. It creates and manages back-end subscriptions to all resources in the presence list. The list content is retrieved from the XDM Server. •Manages publications from one or multiple presence source(s) of a certain presentity. This includes refreshing presence information, replacing existing presence information with newly-published information, or removing presence information. •Manages subscriptions from watchers to presence information and generates notifications about presence information state changes, retrieving the presence authorization rules from the XDM Server.
  • 117. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL 118
  • 118. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL messaging interworking with MMS 119
  • 119. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Roaming 120
  • 120. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL LTE roaming overview 1. Attachment procedure 2. Authentication procedure 3. Update location procedure 4. Subscriber data retrieval procedure 5. Policy exchange Home network 1 Attach 2 Authenticate 2 3 Visited network HSSMME Roaming border Authenticate Update Location 4Subscriber Data 5Policy exchange PCRF PCRF
  • 121. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL Visited MNO MME HSS Home MNO Visited MNO PCRF Home MNO PCRF • S6a Diameter (3GPP TS 23.401) – AAA interface between visited MME and home HSS – Transfers subscription, location and authentication data for authenticating user access to visited EPS • S9 Diameter interface (TS 23.203) – Policy interface between the Home PCRF and Visited PCRF – Transfers QoS policy and charging control information Diameter is the key roaming protocol
  • 122. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL 123 Home network Visited network eUTRAN Home Routed PCRF eUTRAN H-PCRF V-PCRF Distributed Policy Control eUTRAN PCRF Visited P-CSCF eUTRAN PCRF Visited Services • Home routed with data backhaul to home network (existing data model) • Distributed policy control with policy interfaces • Visited P-CSCF with policy control in visited network (selected by GSMA IR.92) • Visited services with IMS core in visited network VoLTE roaming options
  • 123. Copyright © 2011 LOGTEL ThankYou!!! …and please fill the evaluation form 124