Mechanics of-movement-i-joints

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  • 1. MECHANICS OF MOVEMENT
    • Tissues and Structures Involved
      • Muscle
      • Nerve
      • Bone
      • Cartilage
    • What are Tendons?
    • Role of Joints
    • Mechanics of Joints
    • Making it all work
  • 2. Nerve and Muscle--the Motor Unit
    • Motor neurons review
      • Ventral horn spinal cord
      • Ventral root to spinal nerve to dorsal or ventral ramus
      • Nerve is bundle mixed neurons
      • One motor neuron synapes with several muscle cells
    • Motor Unit is one motor neuron plus the muscle cells it synapses
    • “ Action potential”--controlled conduction of electrical messages in neurons and muscle by depolarization of cell membrane
    Fig. 14.6, M&M
  • 3. Neuro-Muscular Junction Action potential in nerves triggers chemical release at synapse which triggers action potential in muscle Fig. 14.5, M&M
  • 4. See also photo in Fig. 10.2 from M&M to see capillaries around muscle cells
  • 5. Bone and Cartilage
    • Bone as tissue
    • Bones as structures formed from bone, cartilage and other tissues
    • Location of cartilage in skeleton and relation to joints
    Fig. 6.1, M&M
  • 6. HOW MOVEMENT HAPPENS: Muscles Pull on Tendons to Move Bones at Connections called Joints or Articulations
  • 7. Tendon
    • Generally regular connective tissue
    • Musculo-skeletal connections
      • Muscle to bone
      • Muscle to muscle
      • Bone to bone
    Fig. 4.15f, M&M
  • 8. Tendons
    • Tendons are structures that connect bone to muscle and are made up of tendon tissue
    • Can have various shapes
    • Typical is cord-like tendon of biceps
    • Sheeths are common--”aponeuroses” e.g. acromiotrapezius origin from thoracic vertebral spines
    Fig. 10.3, M&M
  • 9. Ligaments
    • Ligaments connect bone-to-bone or reinforce joints--they are made up of tendinous tissue as well
    • E.g. knee ligaments
    Fig. 9.12, M&M
  • 10. Joints or Articulations
    • Connections between bones
    • Usually, but not always allow for movement
    • Formed from various connective tissues
      • Fibrous
      • Cartilaginous
      • Synovial (most complex--typical limb joints)
  • 11. Fibrous joints
    • Suture
      • Bones tightly bound by minimal fiber
      • Only found in skull
    • Syndemoses
      • Bones connected by ligaments
      • E.g. tibiofibular ligament, interosseous membrane of radius/ulna
    • Gomphoses
      • Peg in socket joint
      • Only found in teeth/alveoli
    Fig. 9.1 a, M&M
  • 12. Fibrous joints
    • Suture
      • Bones tightly bound by minimal fiber
      • Only found in skull
    • Syndemoses
      • Bones connected by ligaments
      • E.g. tibiofibular ligament, interosseous membrane of radius/ulna
    • Gomphoses
      • Peg in socket joint
      • Only found in teeth/alveoli
    Fig. 8.4, M&M Fig. 9.1 b, M&M
  • 13. Fibrous joints
    • Suture
      • Bones tightly bound by minimal fiber
      • Only found in skull
    • Syndemoses
      • Bones connected by ligaments
      • E.g. tibiofibular ligament, interosseous membrane of radius/ulna
    • Gomphoses
      • Peg in socket joint
      • Only found in teeth/alveoli
    Fig. 9.1 c, M&M
  • 14. Cartilaginous Joints
    • Synchondrosis
      • Hyaline cartilage unites bones
      • Epiphyseal growth plates
      • Costal cartilage-sternum
    • Symphyses
      • Fibrocartilage unites bones
      • Pubic symphysis
      • Intervertebral disc
    Fig. 9.2, M&M
  • 15. Synovial Joints
    • Most common joints in body
    • Most mobile joints
    • Have
      • Articular surfaces on bone with hyaline cartilage
      • Completely enclosed joint capsule formed from ligamentous connective tissue
      • Synovial fluid within capsule lubricates joint
      • Some have meniscus or articular disc (e.g. knee, jaw joint)
  • 16. Also see Fig. 9.3, M&M
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19. Synovial Joint Shape Types
    • Plane joints --intercarpal joints
    • Hinge joints --elbow,ankle, interj-phalangeal
    • Pivot joints --radio-ulnar joint
    • Condyloid joints (egg into oval)--metacarpo-phalangeal
    • Saddle joints --carpo-metacarpal joint of thumb
    • Ball-and-socket --hip, shoulder
    • The type of joint, in part, determines the range and direction of movement
  • 20. Fig. 9.9, M&M
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26.  
  • 27. X-ray of hand affected by arthritis
  • 28. Artificial Hip Joint
  • 29. Arthritis Information
    • From American Physical Therapists Association (good preventative info)
    • Arthritis stats from CDC (leading cause of disability)
    • Health Info from NIAMS (National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases)