A z-bones-of-the-skull
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  • 1. The A to Z ofBones of The Skull Dr A. L. Neill BSc MSc MBBS PhD FACBS medicalamanda@gmail.com
  • 2. The A to Z eill ofBones of The Skull aN nd ma rA©D
  • 3. The A to Z of the Bones of the SkullIntroductionAfter the A to Z of Skeletal Muscles was released to my eillstudents (and later my colleagues with the help of Aspen),I received some very valuable feedback from both. From thisfeedback it became apparent that this format was helpful to allin the health professional field. It was also apparent that there was a need for another pocket reference book of this type on bones and aN nerves. So as with the other book, I have started with a prototype examining the bones of one of the most complex group in the body, the SKULL. nd It is hoped that this proves to be as useful as my first A to Z book, and goes on to become a more comprehensive but quick and simple reference for all bones. maAcknowledgementI would like to thank Aspen Pharmacare Australia andparticularly Mr Greg Lam CEO and Mr Robert Koster Head ofMarketing and Sales for stepping in and giving me their rAsupport in this project when it seemed I was not going to beable to complete it, due to lack of resources and time.Students, as always, but particularly today have to sacrificemany things in their pursuit of knowledge. It is hoped that thisbook will help to make that pathway easier and more©Denjoyable. As with my other ventures in this A to Z series wewant to give knowledge to any who wish to use it.DedicationTo MICKEY 390335, and to stopping pettiness, spite andmisinformation wherever it lies.1 © A. L. Neill
  • 4. The A to Z of the Bones of the SkullHow to use this bookAfter examining the SKULL as a WHOLE from many view eillpoints, identifying individual bones, cavities, impressions andsurfaces and including common radiological views, withexplanatory diagrams, this book lists all the bones of the skullin ALPHABETICAL order as far as possible. Images of the Skull“in situ” are also included. aNFeatures are named using in the most familiar terms and thoseagreed upon by anatomical nomenclature convention avoidingeponymous terms wherever possible but as with all anatomicalstudies sometimes several terms are used to name the samefeature. Wherever this is common and to save confusion ndreference is made to each term. Similarly between disciplinessuch as radiology and osteology as well as anatomy the sameview may be described several different ways,so when this is also common and toprovide clarity these terms are mentioned. maThe pages facing each image contain thekey/legends to the labels on that diagram.This is to help in the learning of the featuresand to prevent confusion in the examination of rAthe bones. Numbering commences anew with each diagram.However, with some bones one view is not enough (e.g.Temporal and Sphenoid) to conceptualize all the surfaces andarticulations, so these bones are then shown with the samenumbering sequentially in an alphabetical way, on each related©Ddiagram. Occasionally they are also shown “in situ”, in otherwords as they lay in the skull. This is particularly the case withthe Palatine bones. These bones are hard to see as they aresurrounded by other structures and deeply embedded in thehead, so several views and rotations of the bone are shownand labelled to see their connections, as well as a viewshowing how they are placed relative to other bones.© A. L. Neill 2
  • 5. The A to Z of the Bones of the SkullCapitalization is used to demonstrate the bones involved in eillseveral structures including joints of all kinds (e.g. sutures).In other words the parietomastoid suture is listed as Parieto-Mastoid suture to further remind the reader of the involvedbones or bony features involved in the composition of thestructure. This helps to further orientate the reader to thestructural components of the feature. aNIt is hoped that this will prove a valuable resource for thoseexamining individual bones as in the study of ANATOMY and itsmany uses such as: archeology, anthropology, chiropracticdentistry, forensics, geology, medicine, orthopaedics, osteology, ndpaleontology, paleobiology, physiotherapy and surgery. It is tobe a forerunner of a more complete listing of all bones from Ato Z and a more extensive development of other aspects of theskull such as measurement markers, development milestones,individual and ethnic variations - ma“the A to Z of the Skull partII”. Hence anysuggestions on formator inclusions will begratefully received. rAThank youAmanda NeillBSc MSc MBBS PhD FACBS©DISBN 1 74138 166 53 © A. L. Neill
  • 6. © A. L. Neill ©D rA ma nd aN eill4 The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Red spots indicate when there is an articulation or joint between the bones. Please note the hyoid does not articulate with any bones and the mandible articulates at the only synovial joint in the skull- the TMJ -temporomandibular joint. All other joints are secondary cartilagenous bone-fibrocartilage-bone.
  • 7. The A to Z of the Bones of the SkullTable of contentsIntroduction 1 eillAcknowledgement 1Dedication 1How to Use this book 2Table of Articulations of the Skull 4Common Terms used in Osteology 7Classification and summary of skull bones 12 aNThe Skull 13-36External Skull Anterior (norma frontalis) radiology - occipitofrontal (complete) radiology - occipitofrontal (upper aspect) radiology - occipitomental (lower aspect)External Skull Inferior (Base of Skull) (norma basilaris) nd radiology - submentovertical view (view from below)External Skull Lateral (norma lateralis) radiology - lateralExternal Skull Posterior (norma occipitalis)External Skull Superior (norma verticularis) maInternal Skull Inferior - Skull CapInternal Skull Superior - Internal Base - cranial fossaeBones of the Skull 37-70Auditory Ossicles: malleus, incus and stapes enclosed within theTemporal bone rAEthmoid bones Anterior & Lateral, Superior, MedialFrontal boneHyoid boneLacrimal bonesMandible radiology - Orthopantomogram = OPG (Anterior)©D radiology - Lateral (with soft tissue) radiology mandibular joint (jaw) open and closed see also TMJ (temporomandibular joint)Maxilla / Maxillae bonesMaxillae bones Inferior5 © A. L. Neill
  • 8. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Nasal bones Occipital External, Internal Palatine bones Parietal External, Internal eill Sphenoid Anterior, Posterior Sutural / Extrasutural bones - Incus Temporal External, Inferior, Interior Vomer Zygoma aN Cavities of the Skull 71-90 Anterior Cranial Fossa Base of the Skull internal Cranial Fossae Anterior, Middle, Posterior Maxillary Sinus Middle Cranial Fossa nd Nasal cavity Dissected, Lateral, Septum Orbital cavity (Orbital fossa) Anterior radiology obital cavity anterior radiology orbital cavity lateral Posterior Cranial Fossa ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 6
  • 9. The A to Z of the Bones of the SkullCommon terms in Osteology(the study of bones) (with particular reference to the skull)Ala A wing, hence a wing-like process as in the Ethmoid bone pl.- alae. eillAlveolus Air filled bone - tooth socketAperture An opening or space between bones or within a bone.Areola Small, open spaces as in the areolar part of the Maxilla.Articulation Joint, which is a point of contact b/n 2 opposing bones.Auditory aN Pertaining to hearing, hence, pertaining to the ear.Axial Refers to the head and trunk (vertebrae, ribs and sternum) of the body.Basilar Relating to the base or bottom of structuresBasiocranium Bones of the base of the skullBoss A smooth round broad eminence - mainly in the Frontal bone female > male ndBregma Refers to a junction of more than 2 bones in a joint as in the Bregmaof the skull, junction between the coronal and sagittal sutures which in the infant is not closed and can be felt pulsating - site of the anterior fontanelle.Calotte The calotte consists of the calvaria from which the base has been removed.Calvaria The calvaria refers to the cranium without the facial bones attached. maCanal Tunnel / extended foramen as in the carotid canal at the base of the skull adj,- canular (canicular - small canal)Caput / Kaput The head or of a head, adj.- capitate = having a head (c.f.decapitate)Carotid To put to sleep; compression of the common or internal carotid artery causes coma. This refers to bony points related to the Carotid vessels rACavity An open area or sinus within a bone or formed by two or more bones (adj. cavernous), may be used interchangeably with fossa. Cavity tends to be more enclosed fossa a shallower bowl like space (Orbital fossa-Orbital cavity).Cavum A cave.Cephalic Pertaining to the head©DClinoid Like a bed-post, part of a four poster bed so that clinoid process looks like a bed post (generally with other posts) as in the Sphenoid bone.Clivus A slope hence in the anterior cranial fossa referring to a slope on the base of the cavity.Cochlea A snail hence snail-like shape relating to the Organ of Corti in the ear.Concha A shell shaped bone as in the ear or nose (pl. conchae adj. chonchoid) old term for this turbinate.Condyle A rounded enlargement or process possessing an articulating surface.7 © A. L. Neill
  • 10. The A to Z of the Bones of the SkullCornu A horn (as in the Hyoid)Corona A crown. adj.- coronary, coronoid or coronal; hence a coronal plane is parallel to the main arch of a crown which passes from ear to ear (c.f. coronal suture). eillCranium The cranium of the skull comprises all of the bones of the skull except for the mandible.Crest Prominent sharp thin ridge of bone formed by the attachment of muscles particularly powerful ones eg Temporalis/Sagittal crestCribiform / EthmoidA sieve or bone with small sieve-like holes.Cuneate / Cuneus A wedge / wedge-shaped aNDens A tooth hence dentine and dental relating to teeth, denticulate having tooth-like projections adj dentate See odontoidDepression A concavity on a surfaceDiaphysis The body of a long bone. In the young this is the region between the growth plates.Diploë The cancellous bone between the inner and outer tables of the skull, adj.- diploic. ndEminence A smooth projection on a bone.Endocranium Refers to the interior of the “braincase” adj.- endocranial divided into the 3 major fossae anterior (for the Frontal lobes) middle (containing Temporal lobes) and posterior (for the containment of the Cerebellum).Epiphysis The end of a long bone beyond the growth plate or epiphyseal plate. ma There are 2 epiphyses to each long bone.Euryon The ectocranial point of the greatest breadth i.e. the widest point across the skull.Facet A face, a small bony surface (occlusal facet on the chewing surfaces of the teeth) seen in planar joints.Fissure A narrow slit or gap from cleft. rAFontanelle A fountain, associated with the palpable pulsation of the brain as in the anterior fontanelle of an infant. These soft spots on the skull are cartilagenous connective tissue coverings “joints” which allow for skull cranial expansion and then become the mould for the bone development and shape joining long the sutural lines, later becoming the Bregma.Foramen A natural hole in a bone usually for the transmission of blood vessels and/or nerves.(pl. foramina).©DFornix An archFossa A pit, depression, or concavity, on a bone, or formed from several bones as in temporomandibular fossa. Shallower and more like a “bowl” than a cavityFovea A small pit (usually smaller than a fossa)- as in the fovea of the occlusal surface of the molar tooth.Gallus / Galli A cock, hence, crista galli, the cocks comb (i e possessive form of gallus).© A. L. Neill 8
  • 11. The A to Z of the Bones of the SkullGlabella Most anterior midline point of the Frontal bone - that point between the eyebrows which should be hairless. This is the Latin derivation of this word.Gnathion Midline point which is the most inferior point of the Mandible. eillGroove long pit or furrowGyrus A circle, hence a coil of brain cortex.Hamus A hook hence the term used for bones which “hook around other bones or where other structures are able to attach by hooking - hamulus = a small hook.Hyoid U-shaped aNIncisura A notch.Inter betweenIntra withinIntroitus An orifice or point of entry to a cavity or space.Jugum A bridge between 2 halves of a bone pl.( juga) as in Sphenoid . ndLacerum Something lacerated, mangled or torn eg foramen lacerum small sharp hole at the base of the skull often ripping tissue in trauma.Lacrimal Related to tears and tear drops. (noun lacrima)Lambda From the Greek letter a capital L and written as an inverted V. (adj.- lambdoid) and used to name the point of connection between the 3 skull bones Occipital and Temporals. maLamina A plate as in the lamina of the vertebra a plate of bone connecting the vertical and transverse spines (pl. laminae)Linea A line as in the Nuchal lines of the OccitipumLocus A place (c.f. location, locate, dislocate).Magnum Large pl magna rAMalleus Hammer (as in the ear ossicle)Mandible From the verb to chew, hence, the movable lower jaw; adj.- mandibular.Mastoid A breast or teat shape - mastoid process of the Temporal bone.Maxilla The jaw-bone; now used only for the upper jaw; adj.- maxillary.©DMeatus A short passage; adj.- meatal as in external acoustic meatus connecting the outer ear with the middle ear.Mental Relating to the chin (mentum = chin not mens = mind).Metaphysis The slightly expanded end of the shaft of a bone.Nasion Midline point where the Nasal and Frontal bones meet .Neurocranium The neurocranium refers only to the braincase of the skull.Notch An indentation in the margin of a structure.9 © A. L. Neill
  • 12. The A to Z of the Bones of the SkullNucha The nape or back of the neck adj.- nuchal.Occiput The prominent convexity of the back of the head Occipitum = Occipital bone adj.- occipital eillOcculus An eyeOdontoid relating to teeth, toothlike see DensOpisthion Midline point at the posterior margin of the Foramen MagnumOrbit A circle; the name given to the bony socket in which the eyeball rotates; adj - orbital.Orifice An opening. aNOs A bone adj osseusOssicle A small bone as in the ear ossicles: stapes (stirrup), incus (anvil) and malleus (hammer).Ostium A door, an opening, an orifice.Otic Pertaining to the earOvale Oval shaped nd BONES OF THE SKULLPalate A roof adj.- palatal or platatine.Parietal Pertaining to the outer wall of a cavity from paries, a wall.Parotid Pertaining to a region beside or near the earPars A part of maPecten A comb.Petrous Pertaining to a rock / rocky / stoney adj.- petrosalProcess A general term describing any marked projection or prominence as in the mandibular process.Prominens A projection rAProsthion Midline point of the maxilla alveolar bone which is most anteriorPterion A wing; the region where the tip of the greater wing of the sphenoid meets or is close to the parietal, separating the frontal from the squamous region of the temporal bone. (TERY- on) Alternatively the region where these 4 bones meet.Pterygoid Wing shaped©DRecess A secluded area or pocket; a small cavity set apart from a main cavity.Rectus straight - erectRhinion Midline point of the free end of the Nasal bones where they join with the Nasal cartilagesRidge elevated bony growth often roughened.Rotundum RoundSagittal An arrow, the sagittal suture is notched posteriorly, making it look like an arrow by the lambdoid sutures.© A. L. Neill 10
  • 13. The A to Z of the Bones of the SkullSella A saddle; adj.- sellar, sella turcica = Turkish saddle.Sesamoid grainlike eillSigmoid S-shaped, from the letter Sigma which is S in Greek.Sinus A space usually within a bone lined with mucous membrane, such as the frontal and maxillary sinuses in the head, (also, a modified BV usually vein with an enlarged lumen for blood storage and containing no or little muscle in its wall). Sinuses may contain air, venous or arterial blood, lymph or serous fluid depending upon location and health of the subject adj.- sinusoid.Skull The skull refers to all of the bones that comprise the head. aNSpheno A wedge i.e. the Sphenoid is the bone which wedges in the base of the skull between the unpaired frontal and occipital bones adj.- sphenoid .Spine A thorn adj.- spinous descriptive of a sharp, slender process/protrusion.Splanchocranium The splanchocranium refers to the facial bones of the skull.Sulcus long wide groove often due to a BV indentation ndSuture The saw-like edge of a cranial bone that serves as joint between bones of the skull.Stylos An instrument for writing hence adj.- styloid a pencil-like structure.Symphysis A joint or a growth maTectum A roof.Tegmen A covering.Temporal Refers to time and the fact that grey hair (marking the passage of time) often appears first at the site of the temporal bone.Tentorium A tent.Trabecula A “little” beam i.e. supporting structure or strut pl. trabeculae rATubercle A small process or bump, an eminence..Tuberculum A very small prominence, process or bump.Tuberosity A large rounded process or eminence, a swelling or large rough prominence often associated with a tendon or ligament attachment.Turbinate A child’s spinning top, hence shaped like a top. An old term for the©D nasal conchae.Tympanum A drum pl. tympaniUncus A hook adj.- uncinate.Vagina A sheath; hence, invagination is the acquisition of a sheath by pushing inwards into a structure, and evagination is similar but produced by pushing outwards adj.- vaginal.Zygoma A yoke , hence, the bone joining the maxillary, frontal, temporal & sphenoid bones adj.- zygomatic.11 © A. L. Neill
  • 14. The A to Z of the Bones of the SkullClassification and Summary of Skull bonesFlat bones Thin flattened and usually curved bones. Most Skull bones. eillIrregular bones Various shapes not easily classified SphenoidLong bone Longer than wide 2 ends epiphysis and a central diaphysis. Growth mainly lengthwise. Most limb bones. aNPneumatic bone/Alveolar bone Bones filled with air to lighten their weight - Maxilla, Frontal, Mandible and bones with “sinuses”Sesamoid bone Bones completely surrounded by soft tissue w/o joints Hyoid ndShort bone Roughly cubic in shape. Most wrist and ankle bones; many of the bones at the base of the skull.Sutural bone “Wormian” bone small bones which occur within the skull sutures sometimes called extra-sutural if the main part of the bone is outside of the suture. Generally they are ma unnamed although the Incus is the name given to the large extra-sutural bone when present.There are: 22 paired skull bones including the ear ossicles / not including the teeth. 5 single bones mainly on the base of the skull rA 1 mandible 1 hyoid variable sutural and extra-sutural bones (generally between 3-5)©D© A. L. Neill 12
  • 15. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull External Skull Anterior eill 1 Frontal boneTHE SKULL 2 Fronto-Nasal suture 3 Inter-Nasal suture 4 Nasal bone, Lacrimal bone aN 5 Supra-Orbital foramen 6 Spheno-Parietal suture 7 Spheno-Frontal suture 8 Spheno-Squamosal suture 9 Zygoma 10 Zygomatico-Maxillary suture nd 11 Infra-orbital foramen 12 Middle Nasal concha - turbinate (from Ethmoid bone) 13 Inferior nasal concha - turbinate (from Ethmoid bone) 14 Vomer 15 Mandible ma 16 Mental foramen 17 Inter-Maxillary suture 18 Maxilla 19 Ethmoid bone (Orbital plate) 20 Inferior Orbital fissure rA 21 Temporo-Zygomatic suture 22 Superior Orbital suture 23 Fronto-Zygomatic suture 24 Greater wing of the Sphenoid 25 Coronal suture - Fronto-Parietal suture ©D 26 Lesser wing of the Sphenoid 27 Optic foramen 28 Metopic suture (rare) Fronto-Fronto suture 29 Glabella 13 © A. L. Neill
  • 16. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill THE SKULL aN nd ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 14
  • 17. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull External Skull Anterior eill radiology occipitofrontalTHE SKULL 1 Sagittal suture 2 Lamboid suture (view to the posterior) meeting at the Bregma aN 3 Frontal sinus 4 Lesser wing of the Sphenoid 5 Supraorbital fissure 6 Greater wing of the Sphenoid 7 Fronto-Zygomatic suture 8 Petrous ridge nd 9 Anterior clinoid process 10 Floor of the hypophyseal fossa + upper apex of nasal cavity adjacent to nasal sinuses 11 Lateral pterygoid plate ma 12 Base of the skull - floor of posterior cranial cavity 13 Foramen rotundum 14 Mastoid process 15 Upper central incisor tooth 16 Mandible rA ©D 15 © A. L. Neill
  • 18. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill THE SKULL aN nd ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 16
  • 19. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull External Skull Anterior eill upper and lower views in detailTHE SKULL radiology occipitofrontal (upper) 1 Frontal sinus aN 2 Ethmoid sinus 3 Maxillary sinus 4 Foramen rotundum 5 Supraorbital fissure 6 Anterior clinoid process 7 Posterior clinoid process nd 8 Petrous ridge 9 Floor of the hypophyseal fossa + upper apex of nasal cavity adjacent to nasal sinuses 10 Crista galli 11 Frontal process of zygoma ma 12 Middle concha - turbinate 13 Inferior concha - turbinate 14 Lateral border of Greater wing of sphenoid 15 Greater wing of sphenoid 16 Lesser wing of sphenoid rA 17 Hard palate 18 Infraorbital foramen 19 Zygomaticofacial foramen 20 Coronoid process of the mandible 21 Soft tissue of lower lid ©D 22 Pterygoid plates of the sphenoid 17 © A. L. Neill
  • 20. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill THE SKULL aN nd ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 18
  • 21. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull External Skull Anterior eill upper and lower views in detailTHE SKULL radiology occipitomental (lower) 1 Frontal sinus aN 2 Ethmoid sinus 3 Maxillary sinus 4 Foramen rotundum 5 Supraorbital fissure 6 Anterior clinoid process 7 Posterior clinoid process nd 8 Petrous ridge 9 Floor of the hypophyseal fossa + upper apex of nasal cavity adjacent to nasal sinuses 10 Crista galli 11 Frontal process of zygoma ma 12 Middle concha - turbinate 13 Inferior concha - turbinate 14 Lateral border of Greater wing of sphenoid 15 Greater wing of sphenoid 16 Lesser wing of sphenoid rA 17 Hard palate 18 Infraorbital foramen 19 Zygomaticofacial foramen 20 Coronoid process of the mandible 21 Soft tissue of lower lid ©D 22 Pterygoid plates of the sphenoid 19 © A. L. Neill
  • 22. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill THE SKULL aN nd ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 20
  • 23. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull External Skull Inferior eill Base of SkullTHE SKULL 1 Incisive fossa - Alveolare 2 Medial Pterygoid plate and Hamulus (ethmoid) 3 Posterior Nasal aperture aN 4 Pterygoid plate (ethmoid) 5 Lateral Pterygoid plate (ethmoid) 6 Zygomatic arch 7 Mandibular fossa 8 External Auditory meatus 9 Styloid process nd 10 Mastoid process 11 Parieto - Mastoid suture 12 Occipito - Mastoid suture 13 Foramen magnum ma 14 External Occipital proturberance 15 Sagittal suture - Parieto - Parieto suture 16 Lambda 17 Lambda suture 18 Superior nuchal line (Occipital) 19 Inferior nuchal line (Occipital) rA 20 Occipital condyle 21 Jugular foramen (fossa) 22 Stylo-Mastoid foramen 23 Carotid foramen - Carotid canal 24 Foramen spinosum ©D 25 Foramen lacerum-Basilar suture 26 Greater Palatine foramen 27 Horizontal plate of Palatine 28 Palatine process of the Maxilla 29 Foramen ovale 30 Alveolon 21 © A. L. Neill
  • 24. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill THE SKULL aN nd ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 22
  • 25. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull External Skull Inferior eill radiology submentovertical viewTHE SKULL 1 Nasal septum (vomer and perpendicular plate of the ethmoid) 2 Posterior border of vomer aN 3 Maxillary sinus 4 Ethmoid sinus 5 Greater palatine foramen 6 Lesser palatine foramen 7 Sphenoid sinus 8 Posterior orbital margin - greater wing of the nd sphenoid 9 Posterior boundary of the maxillary sinus 10 Zygomatic arch 11 Lesser wing of the sphenoid ma 12 Head of mandible condyloid process 13 Foramen ovalae 14 Foramen spinosum 15 Spine of the sphenoid 16 Foramen lacerum 17 Clivus - base of the occipital and sphenoid bones rA 18 Eustachian tube - (pharyngotympanic tube) 19 Carotid canal 20 Jugular foramen 21 Stylomastoid foramen 22 Anterior arch of the atlas (C1) ©D 23 Odontoid process of axis (C2) 24 Occipital condyles 25 Foramen magnum 26 Canaliculus for tympanic nerve 27 Inner and outer tables of the skull - Diploe 23 © A. L. Neill
  • 26. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill THE SKULL aN nd ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 24
  • 27. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull External Skull Lateral eill 1 Frontal bone - Temporal ridges for attachment ofTHE SKULL Temporalis 2 Bregma - Coronal suture 3 Parietal bone aN 4 Parieto-Temporal suture 5 Lambda - Occipito-Parietal suture 6 Occipital bone - Occipitum 7 Occipito-Mastoid suture 8 Porion - upper margin of external auditory meatus 9 Mastoid process nd 10 Temporal bone 11 Styloid process 12 Zygomatic arch 13 Ramus of the Mandible 14 Body of the Mandible ma 15 Gnathion 16 Maxilla 17 Zygoma 18 Prosthion 19 Rhinion rA 20 Nasal bone 21 Lacrimal bone 22 Nasion 23 Glabella 24 Frontal bone ©D 25 Greater wing of the Sphenoid 25 © A. L. Neill
  • 28. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill THE SKULL aN nd ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 26
  • 29. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull External Skull Lateral / oblique eill radiologyTHE SKULL 1 Coronal suture 2 Impression for Middle meningeal artery 3 Lambdoid suture aN 4 Wormian bone - Extrasutural bone 5 Styloid process 6 Posterior wall of Nasopharynx 7 Clivus - (base of Sphenoid and Occiptal bones) 8 Hypophyseal fossa 9 Sphenoid sinus nd 10 Greater wing of the Sphenoid 11 Posterior Air cells in the Ethmoid - Ethmoid sinus 12 Anterior Air cells in the Ethmoid - Ethmoid sinus 13 Frontal sinus 14 Zygoma - frontal process ma 15 Maxilla - malar process 16 Zygoma - Arch 17 Posterior border of the Maxillary sinus 18 Hard palate - Palatine bone 19 Alveolar bone in Maxilla rA 20 Pterygoid plates 21 Soft tissue of Soft Palate and Uvula 22 Mandibular canal 23 Head of Mandible 24 Coronoid process of Mandible ©D 27 © A. L. Neill
  • 30. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill THE SKULL aN nd ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 28
  • 31. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull External Skull Posterior eill 1 Sagittal sinusTHE SKULL 2 Parietal foramen 3 Lambda Pareito - Occipital suture 4 Occipital bone aN 5 Lambdoid suture 6 Superior nuchal line 7 Highest nuchal line 8 Superior nuchal line 9 Mastoid process 10 External Occitipal protruberance nd 11 Inferior nuchal groove 12 Superior nuchal groove 13 Sutural bones - Inca 14 Euyron 15 Parietal bone ma rA ©D 29 © A. L. Neill
  • 32. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill THE SKULL aN nd ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 30
  • 33. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull External Skull Superior eill 1 Occipital boneTHE SKULL 2 Lambdoid suture - Occipito-Parieto suture 3 Parietal eminence - Euryon 4 Frontal bone aN 5 Bregma 6 Coronal suture 7 Parietal bone 8 Sagittal suture 9 Lambda nd ma rA ©D 31 © A. L. Neill
  • 34. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill THE SKULL aN nd ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 32
  • 35. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Internal Skull Inferior eill Skull capTHE SKULL 1 Lambda 2 Lambdoid suture 3 Parietal foramen aN 4 Diploe 5 Bregma 6 Coronal suture 7 Frontal crest and Diploe - inner and outer tables of the skull bone 8 Frontal bone nd 9 Depressions for arachnoid granulations 10 Grooves for middle meningeal vessels 11 Parietal bone 12 Sagittal suture ma 13 Groove for superior sagittal sinus 14 Occipital bone rA ©D 33 © A. L. Neill
  • 36. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill THE SKULL aN nd ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 34
  • 37. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Internal Skull Inferior eill Internal base – Cranial fossaTHE SKULL 1 Cribiform plate 2 Frontal sinus 3 Crista Galli aN 4 Orbital plate of Frontal bone 5 Jugum of Sphenoid 6 Optic canal 7 Lesser wing of the Sphenoid bone 8 Anterior Clinoid process 9 Foramen rotundum nd 10 Foramen lacerum 11 Foramen ovale 12 Foramen spinosum 13 Dorsum sellae ma 14 Internal acoustic meatus 15 Jugular foramen 16 Foramen magnum A POSTERIOR FOSSA B MIDDLE FOSSA rA C ANTERIOR FOSSA ©D 35 © A. L. Neill
  • 38. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill THE SKULL aN nd ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 36
  • 39. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Ethmoid bones eill Anterior / Lateral / Medial / Superior Description - Light spongy bone the size and shape of an ice cube, located between the 2 orbital cavities. aN 1 Ethmoidal labyrinth containing air cells (part of the Ethmoid sinus) continuous with the Sphenoid sinus 2 Crista Galli 3 Orbital plate of Ethmoid bone (part of the Orbital cavity) nd 4 Middle Nasal conchaBONES OF THE SKULL 5 Jugum of Sphenoid - Jugum Sphenoidale (Bridge connecting the 2 wings of the Sphenoid bone) ma 6 Perpendicular plate of the Palatine bone 7 Uncinate process 8 Ala (of Crista Galli) 9 Anterior groove (on the Ethmoid) 10 Posterior groove (on the Ethmoid) 11 Cribiform plate (entrance for the Olfactory nerve) rA 12 Vomer ©D 37 © A. L. Neill
  • 40. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Anterior eill Lateral aN nd BONES OF THE SKULL Medial ma rA Superior©D© A. L. Neill 38
  • 41. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Frontal bones Anterior / Lateral / Inferior eill Description - Unpaired largest and very robust anterior bone forming the forehead - horizontal section forming the roof of the orbit. aN 1 Frontal tuberosity - Frontal bossing 2 Superciliary arch 3 Supraorbital margin and notch 4 Nasal spine - medial to articulation with Lacrimal bones 5 Superior and inferior temporal lines nd 6 Superior Orbital plate - pars orbitalisBONES OF THE SKULL 7 Frontal and Ethmoid air cells - Frontal sinus 8 Posterior Ethmoidal foramen 9 Anterior Ethmoidal foramen 10 Zygomatic process ma 11 Supra - Orbital notch or foramen 12 Lacrimal fossa 13 Metopic suture - frontal suture, Glabella 14 Frontal squama 15 Ethmoidal notch rA ©D 39 © A. L. Neill
  • 42. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd BONES OF THE SKULL ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 40
  • 43. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Hyoid bone eill Description - Small U-shaped bone. Attached to the styloid processes via ligaments, this bone has no articulations and is not normally broken in normal trauma. It may be broken in hanging and strangulation. aN 1 Body of hyoid 2 Greater horn (cornu) 3 Lesser horn (cornu) ndBONES OF THE SKULL ma rA ©D 41 © A. L. Neill
  • 44. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd BONES OF THE SKULL ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 42
  • 45. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Mandible Lateral / Posterior eill Description - The lower jaw bone joins the skull via a single paired joint the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) via the condyles and a cartilaginous plate in the Temporal fossa. aN Primary function - mastication. 1 Mandibular notch 2 Pterygoid fovea 3 Head of Mandible - Condyle - Condylar process 4 Neck of Mandible nd 5 Posterior border of ramus of mandibleBONES OF THE SKULL 6 Ramus - Vertical ramus 7 Angle of mandible 8 Oblique line 9 Inferior border ma 10 Body - Horizontal ramus 11 Base 12 Mental foramen 13 Mental tubercle - Gnathion 14 Mental protuberance rA 15 Alveolar bone surrounding teeth 16 Anterior border of ramus 17 Coronoid process - Endocoronial ridge 18 Mandibular foramen 19 Lingula ©D 20 Superior and inferior mental spines 21 Digastric fossa 22 Mylohyoid line 23 Mylohyoid groove 24 Extramolar sulcus 25 Infradentale 43 © A. L. Neill
  • 46. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd BONES OF THE SKULL ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 44
  • 47. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Mandible Anterior eill radiology orthopantomogram = OPG Used to show mandibular fractures and an overview of sinuses and complete dentition aN 1 Central incisor 2 Lateral incisor 3 Canine 4 First premolar 5 Second premolar nd 6 First molarBONES OF THE SKULL 7 Second molar 8 Pulp chamber 9 Coronoid process 10 Head of mandible ma 11 Zygoma 12 Maxillary sinus 13 Anterior nasal spine of maxilla 14 Vomer (nasal septum) 15 Sites for the third molar rA 16 Hard palate ©D 45 © A. L. Neill
  • 48. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd BONES OF THE SKULL ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 46
  • 49. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Mandible Lateral eill radiology Showing relationship to surrounding soft tissue 1 Head of mandible – Condylar process 2 Neck of the Mandible aN 3 Hard Palate 4 Soft Palate 5 Anterior notch of the Atlas (C1) 6 Odontoid process of the Axis (C2) – Dens 7 Posterior aspect of the tongue 8 Retropharyngeal sac nd 9 EpiglottisBONES OF THE SKULL 10 Vallecula - fold anterior to epiglottis 11 Hyoid bone ma rA ©D 47 © A. L. Neill
  • 50. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd BONES OF THE SKULL ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 48
  • 51. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Mandibular joint eill Temporo-Mandibular joint (TMJ) Lateral radiology Open - upper Shut - lower aN 1 Head of mandible – Condylar process 2 Neck of the Mandible 3 Coronoid process 4 Zygomatic arch 5 External auditory meatus + Handle of the malleus 6 Articular cubicle ndBONES OF THE SKULL 7 Tympanic plate 8 Mastoid process 9 Groove for posterior belly of Digastric muscle 10 Mandibular fossa ma 11 Greater wing of the sphenoid (basal surface) 12 Lesser wing of the sphenoid rA ©D 49 © A. L. Neill
  • 52. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd BONES OF THE SKULL ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 50
  • 53. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Maxilla / Maxillae Bones eill Anterior / Lateral / Medial Description - Paired bones which form the dominant portion of the face and hold the upper teeth. The “overgrowth” of the maxilla is often the reason for orthodontic treatment. aN 1 Frontal process 2 Medial Orbital surface 3 Infra-Orbital margin 4 Zygomatic process 5 Infra-Orbital foramen nd 6 Nasal notchBONES OF THE SKULL 7 Nasal crest 8 Anterior nasal spine 9 Alveolar bone around teeth ma 10 Tuberosity 11 Infra-Temporal surface 12 Orbital surface 13 Palatine process 14 Ethmoid crest 15 Middle meatus rA 16 Conchal crest 17 Anterior Nasal spine 18 premaxillary suture is here - fuses with completed jaw growth Incisive canal supported by the canine jugun 19 Greater Palatine canal - groove ©D 20 Articulating surface - with Palatine bones 21 Maxillary hiatus continues with the sinus 22 Nasal Lacrimal process 23 Alveolus -bone containing tooth root 24 Canine jugun 25 Inferior meatus 51 © A. L. Neill
  • 54. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd BONES OF THE SKULL ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 52
  • 55. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Maxilla / Maxillae Bones Inferior eill 1 Incisive fossa 2 Median Palatine suture (Inter-Maxillary suture) 3 Groove for greater Palatine vessels 4 Palatine process of the Maxilla 5 Greater Palatine foramen aN 6 Palato-Maxillary suture 7 Inter-Palatine suture 8 Inferior Orbital fissure 9 Lesser Palatine foramen 10 Posterior Nasal spine 11 Foramen spinosum nd 12 Foramen ovaleBONES OF THE SKULL 13 Carotid canal 14 Foramen lacerum 15 Occipital condyle ma 16 Foramen magnum 17 Palato-vaginal canal 18 Pharyngeal tubercle 19 Ala of Vomer 20 Medial Pterygoid plate 21 Lateral Pterygoid plate rA 22 Infratemporal crest of Sphenoid 23 Zygomatic arch 24 Pyramidal process of the Palatine bone 25 Maxillary tuberosity 26 Left Third Molar tooth - LM3 ©D 27 Left Second molar tooth - LM2 28 Left First molar tooth - LM1 29 Left Second premolar tooth - LP2 30 Left First premolar tooth - LP1 31 Left Canine tooth - LC1 32 Left Second incisor tooth - LI2 33 Left First incisor tooth - LI1 53 © A. L. Neill
  • 56. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd BONES OF THE SKULL ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 54
  • 57. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Nasal Bones eill External (rotated 180 degrees to show) Internal (below) also see the Nasal Cavity to see the Nasal bones in situ aN Description - Small thin rectangular paired bones below the Glabella, the inferior edges form the top margin of the nasal aperture. Inferior nasal conchae - small snail shaped fragile bones extending along the lateral walls of the nasal cavity on top of the palatines. nd 1 Articulation surface with Frontal bone and Lacrimal boneBONES OF THE SKULL 2 Articuation surface with the Maxilla 3 External surface 4 Notch for external nasal nerve ma 5 Foramen for Veins / Venous foramen 6 Articulation with other nasal bone (here - Right nasal bone) 7 Internal surface 8 Groove for anterior Ethmoidal nerve rA ©D 55 © A. L. Neill
  • 58. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd BONES OF THE SKULL ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 56
  • 59. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Occipital bone External / internal eill Description - Large bowl like bone with a hole at the infero- posterior portion of the skull. Articulates with vertebral column C1 and C2. aN 1 Superior angle 2 Highest nuchal line 3 Superior nuchal line 4 Inferior nuchal line 5 Mastoid margin 6 Jugular process nd 7 Condylar fossaBONES OF THE SKULL 8 Occipital condyle 9 Foramen magnum 10 Hypoglossal canal 11 Condylar canal ma 12 Lateral surface 13 Lateral angle 14 External / Internal Occipital crest 15 Squamous surface 16 External / Internal Occipital protuberance rA 17 Lamboid margin 18 Groove for superior sagittal sinus 19 Cerebral fossa 20 Groove for transverse sinus 21 Attachment for Tentorium Cerebelli ©D 22 Groove for superior sigmoid sinus 23 Jugluar notch 24 Jugular tubercle 25 Attachments for Falx Cerebri 26 Opisthion 27 Basion 28 Occipital sulcus - Sagittal sinus 57 © A. L. Neill
  • 60. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd BONES OF THE SKULL ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 58
  • 61. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Palatine bones (Left) eill Anterior / Lateral / Medial / Posterior / Sagittal Description - Delicate paired small bones L-shaped bones forming the palate and the floor of the nasal cavity. aN 1 Perpendicular plate - vertical plate 2 Palato-Maxillary suture 3 Maxilla 4 Orbital process 5 Spheno-Papalatine notch 6 Spenoidal process - Pterygo-Palatine canal nd 7 Horizontal planeBONES OF THE SKULL 8 Pyramidal process - Posterior nasal spine 9 Palatine bone 10 Sphenoidal process ma 11 Maxillary process 12 Ethmoidal crest 13 Greater Palatine groove 14 Conchal crest rA ©D 59 © A. L. Neill
  • 62. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Sagittal eill aN nd Medial BONES OF THE SKULL ma rA Anterior Posterior©D© A. L. Neill 60
  • 63. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Parietal bone (Left) External / Internal eill 1 Superior Temporal line 2 Parietal eminence 3 Articulation with the Occipital bone (Lambdoid suture) aN 4 Articulation with the Temporal bone (Mastoid) Parieto-Mastoid suture 5 Articulation with the Temporal (Squamous) Temporo-Parietal suture 6 Articulation with the Sphenoid (Greater wing) Spheno-Parietal suture nd 7 Articulation with the Frontal bone Coronal sutureBONES OF THE SKULL 8 Inferior Temporal line 9 Groove for superior sagittal sinus 10 Frontal angle 11 Sphenoidal angle ma 12 Groove for frontal branch of Middle Meningeal vessels 13 Groove for parietal branch of Middle Meningeal vessels 14 Mastoid angle rA 15 Groove for sigmoid sinus 16 Occipital angle 17 Articulation between Parietal bones Sagittal suture 18 Arachnoid granulations - Granular fovea 19 Groove for transverse sinus ©D 61 © A. L. Neill
  • 64. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd BONES OF THE SKULL ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 62
  • 65. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Sphenoid Anterior / Posterior eill Description: A single wedge-shaped bone consisting of four parts: the central body; the lateral greater wings, the medial lesser wings and the lower Pterygoid plates. The bone looks like a bat in flight and is the centre piece of the aN skull. 1 Articulation with Left Temporal bone 2 Orbital surface 3 Infratemporal crest 4 Body of the Sphenoid nd 5 Openings for sphenoidal sinusesBONES OF THE SKULL 6 Lesser Wing 7 Squamosal suture - Articulation with Right Temporal bone 8 Superior orbital fissure ma 9 Foramen rotundum 10 Pterygoid canal 11 Rostrum 12 Vaginal process 13 Medial Pterygoid plate rA 14 Pterygoid hamulus 15 Pterygoid notch 16 Lateral Pterygoid plate 17 Pterygoid process 18 Sphenoid spine ©D 19 Cerebral surface of the Greater Wing 20 Anterior Clinoid process 21 Posterior Clinoid process 22 Dorsum Sellae 23 Scaphoid fossa 24 Occipital surface 63 © A. L. Neill
  • 66. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd BONES OF THE SKULL ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 64
  • 67. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Temporal bone (Left) External / Inferior / Internal eill Description - Paired bones which are involved in both the wall and the base of the skull. They contain the auditory ossicles and form the only joint with the mandible. 1 Suprameatal triangle 2 Groove for middle Temporal artery 3 Parietal notch aN 4 Squamo-Mastoid suture 5 Mastoid area 6 Mastoid process 7 Sheath of Styloid process 8 Styloid process 9 Tympanic part l 0 External Acoustic meatus / anterior border (bony ear nd hole)BONES OF THE SKULL 11 Tympanosquamosal (squamotympanic) fissure 12 Mandibular fossa 13 Zygomatic process 14 Articular tubercle 15 Postglenoid tubercle ma 16 Squamous part - Squama 17 Stylomastoid foramen 18 Mastoid notch - Digastric groove 19 Occipital groove 20 Jugular surface 21 Jugular fossa 22 Canaliculus (opening) for Tympanic nerve rA 23 Petrous part 24 Carotid canal 25 Edge of Tegmen Tympani 26 Groove for the Middle Meningeal vessels 27 Groove for the superior Petrosal sinus 28 Articulation with the greater wing of the Sphenoid ©D Spheno-Temporal suture 29 Zygomatic process 30 Groove for the Middle Meningeal vessels 31 Internal Acoustic meatus 32 Articulates with the Occipital bone 33 Aqueduct of the Vestibule 34 Mastoid foramen 35 Groove for sigmoid sinus - Sigmoid sulcus 36 Arcuate eminence 65 37 Articulates with the parietal bone - Temporoparietal Neill © A. L. suture
  • 68. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd BONES OF THE SKULL ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 66
  • 69. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Vomer Lateral / Posterior / in situ eill Description - A single small narrow frail plough-shaped midline bone. Deviation of this bone may obstruct the nasal airways. aN 1 Ala (Alae) 2 Articulation with Maxillae and Palatine Maxillovomer suture / palatinovomer suture 3 Groove for the nasopalantine nerves and vessels 4 Articulation with nasal cartilages 5 Articulation with Sphenoid bone nd 6 Articulation with the Ethmoid plateBONES OF THE SKULL 7 Perpendicular plate of the Ethmoid 8 Body of Vomer 9 Maxillae areolar bone 10 Medial pterygoid plate ma 11 Frontal bone 12 Sphenoid sinus 13 Anterior of nasal bones 14 Frontal sinus rA ©D 67 © A. L. Neill
  • 70. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull lateral eill aN Posterior nd BONES OF THE SKULL ma in situ rA©D© A. L. Neill 68
  • 71. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Zygoma Antero-Lateral / Postero-Medial eill Description - Paired cheek bones which form the prominent corners of the face under the orbital rim. 1 Frontal process aN 2 Zygomatico-Facial formina 3 Articulation with the Frontal bone 4 Articulation with the Sphenoid 5 Zygomatico-Orbital foramina 6 Articulation with Maxilla 7 Zyomatico-Temporal foramina nd 8 Temporal processBONES OF THE SKULL 9 Maxillary process 10 Orbital surface ma rA ©D 69 © A. L. Neill
  • 72. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd BONES OF THE SKULL ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 70
  • 73. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Anterior Cranial Fossa eill Superior view from the top 1 Frontal sinus 2 Frontal crest 3 Foramen Caecum aN 4 Cranionasal exit of the anterior ethmoidal nerve 5 Slit for the process of the dura mater 6 Anterior Ethmoidal groove 7 Concealed entry for the anterior Ethmoidal nerve 8 Posterior Ethmoidal groove 9 Concealed entry for the posterior Ethmoidal nerve nd 10 Jugam Sphenoidale Optic canals 12 Anterior Clinoid process 13 Fronto-Sphenoid suture ma 14 Lesser wing of the Sphenoid 15 Vascular foramen 16 Diploe 17 Orbital plate of the Frontal bone 18 Crista Galli rACAVITIES OF THE SKULL ©D 71 © A. L. Neill
  • 74. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd ma rA CAVITIES OF THE SKULL©D© A. L. Neill 72
  • 75. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Maxillary Sinus (Left) Sagittal eill 1 Frontal sinus 2 Anterior Ethmoidal foramen 3 Orbital plate of Ethmoid 4 Posterior Ethmoidal foramen aN 5 Lesser wing of the Sphenoid 6 Pterygo-Maxillary fissure 7 Perpendicular plate of the Palatine 8 Alveolar processes of the Maxilla 9 Maxillary Sinus - opened 10 Inferior concha, Maxillary process nd 11 Anterior Nnasal spine 12 Uncinate process of the Ethmoid 13 Nasal bone 14 Lacrimo-Maxillary suture 15 Supra-Orbital foramen ma 16 Frontal bone rACAVITIES OF THE SKULL ©D Description: Maxilla - sinuses within this bone -particularly around the teeth may cause toothache, complicate endodontic (root canal) treatment; or act as a conduit for tooth/nasal/other infection to enter the blood stream. 73 © A. L. Neill
  • 76. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd ma rA CAVITIES OF THE SKULL©D© A. L. Neill 74
  • 77. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Middle Cranial Fossa (Left) eill Superior view from the top 1 Greater wing of the Sphenoid 2 Superior Orbital fissure 3 Middle Clinoid process aN 4 Optic canal 5 Anterior Clinoid process 6 Hypophysial fossa 7 Posterior Clinoid process 8 Dorsum Sellae 9 Foramen lacerum nd 10 Trigeminal impression Foramen rotundum 12 Groove for superior petrosal sinus 13 Groove for greater petrosal nerve 14 Diploe ma 15 Arcuate eminence 16 Tegmen typani 17 Temporal bone 18 Groove for the Parietal branch of the middle Meningeal vessels rACAVITIES OF THE SKULL ©D 75 © A. L. Neill
  • 78. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd ma rA CAVITIES OF THE SKULL©D© A. L. Neill 76
  • 79. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Nasal Cavity - dissected to show Right nasal cavity and eill inferior nasal conchae Para - Sagittal section of Right Nasal cavity looking in through the Right side of the nose to show sinuses around the area aN 1 Semilunar hiatus 2 Ethmoid bulla 3 Air cells of Ethmoid sinus 4 Sphenoidal sinuses 5 Spheno-Palatine foramen 6 Perpendicular plate of the palatine nd 7 Inferior nasal concha and meatus 8 Opening of the maxillary sinus 9 Uncinate process of Ethmoid bone 10 Right Frontal sinus ma Note middle and superior nasal conchae have been dissected and removed. rACAVITIES OF THE SKULL ©D Description: inferior nasal conchae - small paired frail bones extending along the lateral walls of the nasal cavity. Involved in olfaction, humidification. Highly vascularized and when the soft tissue surrounding this is swollen, it may cause nasal obstruction and sinuses. Please note when "picking ones nose" the finger never reaches the nasal conchae, stopping just short of this area. 77 © A. L. Neill
  • 80. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd ma rA CAVITIES OF THE SKULL©D© A. L. Neill 78
  • 81. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Nasal Cavity eill dissected to show lateral wall of right nasal cavity Sagittal section of Lateral Right nasal cavity looking in to the lateral side of the right side of the nose 1 Middle concha aN 2 Middle concha meatus 3 Superior concha 4 Superior concha meatus 5 Sphenoid sinus 6 Medial Pterygoid plate 7 Spheno-Palatine foramen nd 8 Perpendicular plate of Palatine bone 9 Palato-Maxillary suture 10 Incisive fossa and canal 11 Inferior concha and meatus 12 Maxilla ma 13 Lacrimal bone 14 Nasal bone 15 Right Frontal sinus 16 Left Frontal sinus rACAVITIES OF THE SKULL ©D 79 © A. L. Neill
  • 82. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd ma rA CAVITIES OF THE SKULL©D© A. L. Neill 80
  • 83. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Nasal Cavity eill dissected to show medial wall of the nasal cavity Sagittal section of Nasal cavity looking in to the medial wall of the nose in front of the right nasal cavity 1 Right Frontal sinus aN 2 Crista Galli 3 Left Sphenoidal sinus 4 Right Sphenoidal sinus 5 Vomer 6 Pterygoid hamulus 7 Maxilla nd 8 Anterior Nasal spine 9 Inferior concha 10 Perpendicular plate of the Ethmoid 11 Nasal bone ma 12 Nasal spine of the Frontal bone 13 Left Frontal sinus rACAVITIES OF THE SKULL ©D 81 © A. L. Neill
  • 84. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd ma rA CAVITIES OF THE SKULL©D© A. L. Neill 82
  • 85. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Orbital Cavity / Fossa (Left) eill Anterior view from the front 1 Lesser wing of the Sphenoid 2 Optic foramen 3 Anterior and Posterior Ethmoidal foramina aN 4 Lacrimal bone 5 Nasal bone 6 Orbital plate of the Ethmoid bone 7 Orbital plate of the Maxilla 8 Infraorbital foramen 9 Infraorbital groove nd 10 Zygoma 11 Inferior Orbital fissure 12 Foramina for Zygomatic branch of the Facial nerve 13 Orbital surface of the Zygoma ma 14 Greater wing of the Sphenoid 15 Superior Orbital fissure 16 Orbital plate of the Frontal bone 17 Supra-Orbital margin 18 Supra-Orbital foramen rACAVITIES OF THE SKULL ©D Eyeball and muscles all sit in this cavity with the Optic nerve entering from the posterior part of the cavity through the Orbital foramen. 83 © A. L. Neill
  • 86. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd ma rA CAVITIES OF THE SKULL©D© A. L. Neill 84
  • 87. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Orbital cavity Inferoanterior eill radiology (also Orbital fossa Optic cavity Optic foramen) 1 Frontal sinus 2 Foramen ovale 3 Infraorbital foramen aN 4 Foramen rotundum 5 Hard palate –floor of nasal cavity 6 Maxillary antrum 7 Lateral wall of maxillary antrum 8 Zygomatic arch 9 Sphenoid sinus nd 10 Soft tissue of nose and lower lid ma rACAVITIES OF THE SKULL ©D 85 © A. L. Neill
  • 88. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd ma rA CAVITIES OF THE SKULL©D© A. L. Neill 86
  • 89. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Optic Cavity Lateral / oblique eill radiology 1 Optic foramen 2 Supraorbital ridge 3 Sphenoid ridge aN 4 Frontal bone 5 Sphenoid sinus (note clear no fluid lines as with sinusitis) 6 Anterior clinoid process 7 Posterior clinoid process 8 Frontal process of zygoma 9 Zygomatic arch nd 10 Lateral border of greater wing of the sphenoid ma rACAVITIES OF THE SKULL ©D 87 © A. L. Neill
  • 90. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd ma rA CAVITIES OF THE SKULL©D© A. L. Neill 88
  • 91. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Posterior Cranial Fossa eill Superior view from the top 1 Dorsum sellae 2 Groove for inferior Petrosal sinus 3 Groove for superior Petrosal sinus aN 4 Internal Acoustic meatus 5 Concealed crevice for Endolymphatic sac 6 Mastoid emissary foramen 7 Occipito-Mastoid suture 8 Diploe 9 Lambdoid suture nd 10 Groove for transverse sinus 11 Fossa for Right Occipital lobe of the Cerebrum 12 Fossa for Right Cerebellar hemisphere 13 Internal Occipital proturberance 14 Internal Occipital crest ma 15 Groove for sigmoid sinus 16 Foramen magnum 17 Hypoglossal canal 18 Jugular formamen 19 Clivus: Basi-Occipital rA 20 Clivus: Basi-Sphenoid 21 Posterior Clinoid processCAVITIES OF THE SKULL ©D 89 © A. L. Neill
  • 92. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd ma rA CAVITIES OF THE SKULL©D© A. L. Neill 90
  • 93. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Biography and Aim of the A to Z and Dr Amanda Neill Dr Amanda Neill has a medical degree with specializations and research in eill the areas of Histology, Pathology, and Anatomy and Forensic medicine, with a separate specialization (MSc in renal glomerular disease). After teaching for many years at university of Sydney and completing her PhD on “the immunopathology of cerebral malaria” Amanda developed the only accredited RCAGP continuing education course on anatomy. Developing courses on the anatomy of the Back (Back to the Back) and the Head and Neck the PG program for Dental graduates and writing a number of aN manuals, booklets and programs for medical, dental, nursing and other health students. Qualifying as a GMP (Graduate medical program) facilitator she has seen and been involved in the transition form the classic medical course to the GMP and the integration and amalgamation of the classic preclinical and clinical medical subjects to the total self directed computer content based course. Moving to Macquarie University, she brought and developed her anatomy and histology program from scratch, conceptualizing and developing the virtual anatomy laboratory using her Flagship grant. This nd massive project is still in development. Despite modern computer developments and because of her diverse teaching, research and medical background Amanda knows the value of learning the fundamental building blocks the A to Z of health and medicine in order to write and know the whole medical book. She is passionate about ma developing accessible and wide reaching medical and educational programs for all levels: the student, the postgraduate, the health and medical professional. Particularly in anatomy and its branches after all we are all ANATOMY!! Looking for collaboration in her projects Amanda developed links with the NSW Department of Forensic medicine, the University of Sydney, the rA Coroner’s court, the Royal colleges of Anaethetists and Biomedical scientists (of which she is currently the secretary) and commercial sponsors such as Aspen. So anatomy@mac has spread and involved students from all the university divisions and the all walks of life. Always looking to improve accessibility and application of knowledge and skills (such as Anatomy in Action and morphing@mac Art Anatomy©D exhibitions) and schools science projects Amanda and Aspen are collaborating on a series of A to Z pocket references to be used as handy guides and aids for all those interested in health and medicine, particularly the busy medical practitioner. We want these to be a guide and a help for you and want your help and feedback in order to make the manuals and the accompanying websites a benefit for you. You can be a part of this project too. Write to us And Of course if you want to get a HEAD do Amanda’s A to Z.91 © A. L. Neill
  • 94. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull eill aN nd ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 92
  • 95. The A to Z of the Bones of the SkullWHAT is WRONG with this ??!!! eill aN nd ma rAwrite to us for the answer.E-mail: medicalamanda@gmail.com©D93 © A. L. Neill
  • 96. The A to Z of the Bones of the Skull Gra phi cD es ign Le ft H eill em is ph er e aN nd ma rA©D© A. L. Neill 94
  • 97. Dr. A. L. NEILL BSc MSc MBBS PhD FACBS medicalamanda@gmail.com www.amandasatoz.com 0414248747Contact www.aspenpharma.com.au forlogin and passwords for the complete A to Z and the AspenAtlas online. Aspen Pharmacare Australia Pty Ltd 34-36 Chandos Street, St Leonards NSW 2065 ABN 51 096 236 985