Descriptions• The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and supports cells that extends from the brain.• It is around 45 cm (18 in) in men and around 43 cm (17 in) long in women.
Functions• Serve as a conduit for motor information, which travels down the spinal cord.• Serve as a conduit for sensory information, which travels up the spinal cord.• Serve as a center for coordinating certain reflexes.
Structures• It is the main pathway for information connecting the brain and peripheral nervous system.• The length of the spinal cord is much shorter than the length of the bony spinal column.• The spinal cord is protected by three layers of tissue, called spinal meninges, that surround the canal.
Dura mater• Outermost layer• Forms a tough protective coating• Surrounds the brain and the spinal cord and is responsible for keeping in the cerebrospinal fluid (acts as a "cushion" for the cortex, providing a basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull).
Arachnoid mater• Middle protective layer• The tissue has a spiderweb-like appearance.• The space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater is called the subarachnoid space.
Pia mater• Innermost protective layer• A thin fibrous tissue that is impermeable to fluid >This allows the pia mater to enclose cerebrospinal fluid. -containing this fluid the pia mater works with the other layers to protect and cushion the brain.• The pia mater allows blood vessels to pass through and nourish the brain.
Diseases• Symptoms include pain, numbness, loss of sensation and muscle weakness.• These symptoms can occur around the spinal cord, and also in other areas such as your arms and legs.• Treatments vary but often include medicines and surgery.
Common Diseases• Tumors• Infections: (meningitis and poliomyelitis)
Spinal Cord Tumor• Is a noncancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant) growth in or around the spinal cord.
Spinal Cord Tumor• Its CAUSE is still unknown but most experts suspect dat it came from generations to generations or expose to the environment.• Its EFFECT is that people may have weak muscles, lose sensation in particular areas of the body, or become unable to control bowel and bladder function.• TREATMENTS may involve surgical removal, radiation therapy, or both.
Infections-Meningitis• There are several types of meningitis. (most common) viral meningitis, which you get when a virus enters the body through the nose or mouth and travels to the brain. (rare) bacterial meningitis , but can be deadly. It usually starts with bacteria that cause a cold-like infection. It can block blood vessels in the brain and lead to stroke and brain damage. *Early treatment can help prevent serious problems, including death. Vaccines can prevent some of the bacterial infections that cause meningitis.*
Infections-MeningitisCauses Effects• Caused by infection of • A sudden fever viruses, bacteria, fungi, • A severe headache parasites, and certain • A stiff neck organisms.• In the majority of cases the cause is a virus. However, some non- infectious causes of meningitis also exist.
Infections-Poliomyelitis Also known as Polio or Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS)Cause Effects• The cause of this disease • Fever is still unknown • Tiredness • Vomiting • Neck stiffness • Leg and arm pain. Currently, there is no cure for this disease.