P3 Radioactive materials Route map Over the next 12 lessons you will study : Friday 21 October 2011 P3.1 Energy patterns P3.2 radiation all around us P3.3 Living with Radon P3.4 Radiation and health End of module test P3.5 Radiation and exposure P3.6 Changes inside the atom P3.7 Nuclear power P3.8 Generating electricity from nuclear power P3.9 Nuclear waste P3.10 Nuclear waste disposal is it safe ? P3.11 Energy of the future P3.12 The energy debate
P3.7 Nuclear power Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how unstable radioactive atoms can be split in two during nuclear fission </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that nuclear fission release huge amounts of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that energy released can be used in nuclear power stations and warheads </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Give three uses of radioactive isotope like Urnaium 235 and Iodine 131 ? Literacy: Nuclear fission, unstable, nuclei, decay, chain reaction, nuclear power, nuclear weapons, neutrons and uranium. Numeracy: Uranium 235 is the material that is used in both nuclear power station and nuclear weapons. When Uranium235 split during nuclear fission, it releases huge amounts of energy . PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers
P3.7 Extension questions: 1: Where would you find the neutrons that are required to split the unstable Uranium 235 atom ? 2: Give three uses for the energy release when unstable isotopes like Uranium 235 split during fission ? 3: Why are governments across the globe now replacing coal and gas fire power station with nuclear power stations ? 4: Explain Einstein's equation E = MC 2 where E = energy M = mass and C the speed of light ? Know this: a: Know how unstable elements split during nuclear fission. b: Know that energy released during fission can be used to generate electricity. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: When a unstable radioactive nucleus split apart into several smaller fragments (fission), two or three neutrons are also emitted. The sum of the masses of these fragments is less than the original mass. This 'missing' mass (about 0.1 percent of the original mass) has been converted into energy according to Einstein's equation E= MC 2 . Amazingly, matter is converted into energy. In a nuclear warhead, the fission of one atom can set off several more causing a chain reaction releasing vast amounts of energy during a mere fraction of a second. Nuclear power
P3.7 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Radioactive elements like Uranium and Plutonium have unstable nuclei which split apart. In urnaium 235 the atom splits when the nucleus absorbs a neutron, releasing huge amounts of energy. This energy was utilised to devastating consequences during World War II, when scientists first discovered how to split an atom and harness nuclear energy. Look at the diagram opposite left and explain how Uraniun 235 splits during nuclear fission ? The products of nuclear fission all have kinetic energy...what does this mean ? After which great war was the atom first split ? Nuclear fission of Uranium 235 Key concepts
P3.7 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: In a chain reaction, how does more and more fissions of unstable occur ? Calculate the number of fission after just four generations (the diagram shows three generations) ? A chain reaction refers to a process in which neutrons released in fission produce an additional fission in at least one further nucleus. This nucleus in turn produces neutrons, and the process repeats. The process may be controlled (nuclear power) or uncontrolled (nuclear weapons). If each neutron releases two more neutrons, then the number of fissions doubles each generation. In that case, in 10 generations there are 1,024 fissions and in 80 generations about 6 x 10 23 fissions. Fission of Uranium 235 and a chain reaction Key concepts
P3.7 Plenary Lesson summary: chain energy fission many Friday 21 October 2011 Understanding Einstein's equation E =MC 2 is pretty difficult however what it sates is that if the energy released during nuclear fission is because of the slight reduction of mass between the products and starting material. It is calculated that you could power a city for a whole year if you could release all the energy in a single piece of chalk .... Truly amazing but so far this has not been done ! How Science Works: Research into the use of nuclear power for generating electricity. Preparing for the next lesson: The _______ of one Uranium atom can set off the fission of ______ more Uranium atoms. If there sufficient amounts of Uranium atoms, then a ________ reaction can occur releasing vast amounts of _______. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: The fission products weighs slightly more than the starting material ? False True 2: A chain reaction release vast amounts of energy ? False True 1: A incoming neutron can lead to fission of a Uranium 235 atom ?
P3.8 Generating electricity from nuclear power Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how the power released during nuclear fission is used to generate electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that generating electricity using nuclear power in carbon neutral </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Which decade was nuclear fission first pioneered and by which scientist ? Numeracy: The UK is currently thinking about build up to 10 new nuclear power stations over the next 20 years to combat declines levels of fossil fuel and increasing amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: Nuclear fission, unstable, nuclei, decay, chain reaction, nuclear power, electricity, rods, core, reactor, condenser, turbine and generator, neutrons and uranium.
P3.8 Extension questions: 1: Which part of a nuclear power station a) contains the boron and Uranium 235 rods b) produces steam c) generated electricity ? 2: Why are boron rods used to control the chain reaction of nuclear fission ? 3: Why are some people opposed to using nuclear power to generate electricity ? 4: What are a) two advantages and b) two disadvantages of nuclear power ? Know this: a: Know how nuclear power is used to generate electricity. b: Know that nuclear power is a carbon neutral way of generating electricity. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: A reactor found in the very centre of a nuclear power station is designed to release the energy safely form Uranium by controlling how fast Uranium atoms split apart. Control rods made from boron are positioned between the Uranium rods determine the release rate of energy. As Uranium 235 decays, large amounts of energy is released which is then used to heat water producing steam which drives turbine generators. Nuclear fuels are a highly concentrated energy source, with large nuclear power stations only requiring about 10 kg of nuclear fuel per day. The only problem is that radioactive waste materials need to be safely stored for many thousands of years Generating electricity from nuclear power
P3.8 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Why is the reactor core encased by a 2 metre thick concrete dome like the one pictured opposite left ? Explain why nuclear power stations are placed away from cities and other populated areas ? Scientists all over the world are debating about nuclear power, and whether or not it is safe to be used. Over 10 nuclear power plants now produce 15% of the Britain’s growing. This figure is expected to rise as fossil fuels become more expensive and countries try and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The future of nuclear power is hard to predict. Will it become the most widely used source of electricity, or will it's disadvantages like cost, safety and radio-active waste overcome these advantages Overview of a nuclear power station Key concepts
P3.8 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain how the control rods control the chain reaction and the rte of fission in the Uranium 235 fuel rods ? The outgoing hot gas is around 500 o C, explain what this superheated liquid is used for ? Uranium, the most common fuel, is placed in rods in the reactor's core. Free neutrons are released into the core. When a neutron hits the nucleus of a uranium atom, fission occurs. A chain reaction takes place in the core creating large amounts of heat. The coolant is used to keep the reactor from getting too hot. It is also needed in the generation process. The coolant absorbs the heat produced by fission which then heats water produces steam. This steam drive a turbine generate which generates electricity. How does a nuclear power station work Key concepts
P3.8 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Scientists have now successfully developed nuclear power on a small scale. These miniature nuclear reactors will be powered by low-enriched uranium fuel. Each Hyperion Power Module will generate 25 Megawatts of electricity, enough to reliably supply power to 20,000 standard UK homes for 6 pence per kilowatt hour. The current cost of electricity generated in a gas or coal fired power station is about 5.6 pence per kilo watt hour. Will nuclear power be able to compete with this ? Why might local neighbourhood object to these miniature nuclear power stations being place in small towns and cities ? When fossil fuels finally run out why might we all have to rely on nuclear power more ? Nuclear power stations of the future Key concepts
P3.8 Plenary Lesson summary: gas neutral atmosphere fossil Friday 21 October 2011 Some high level radioactive waste is so dangerous that it will be almost 100,000 years before it is safe. Storing anything safely in a man-made structure for that low is a real technical challenge. A lot of HLW is melted with glass, making it inert and store deep underground in solid rock . How Science Works: Research into the by product of nuclear power, radioactive waste and how it can stored safely. Preparing for the next lesson: Nuclear power is an alternative to burning ______ fuels in coal or ____ powered power stations,. Unlike normal power stations, nuclear power does not add carbon dioxide to the ________, therefore nuclear power is carbon _______. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Radioactive waste is expensive to store safely ? False True 2: Nuclear power does not require fossil fuels ? False True 1: The main fuel used in nuclear power stations in Uranium 235 ?
P3.9 Nuclear waste Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that a by product of using nuclear power for generating electricity is radioactive waste </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how radioactive waste can be stored safely </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Imagine you had high level liquid waste and low level solid waste. How would you handle them safely and where would you store them until they were safe ? Literacy: Nuclear power, radioactive waste, activity, half-life, waste, high level waste, Intermediate level waste and low level waste. Numeracy: Some radioactive waste require storage for between 10,000 and 100,000 years before it is safe to be recycled into the environment. Will man made structures last that long no one really knows. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers
P3.9 Nuclear waste Extension questions: 1: Why is it not possible to treat nuclear waste like other types of waste such as household rubbish ? 2: Why are spent fuel rods initially stored under water before they are stored deep underground ? 3: Why is some high level waste added to molten glass before being buried on the ocean's floor in a water tight container ? 4: For radioactive atoms with long half life why do they need to stored underground over thousands of years ? Know this: a: Know that radioactive waste is a by product of nuclear power. b: Know how different types of radioactive waste can be stored safely. Friday 21 October 2011 <ul><li>Introduction: </li></ul><ul><li>More than 96% of radioactive waste generated here in the UK is a by product of nuclear power. Radioactive waste comes in three categories </li></ul><ul><li>High level waste (HLW) includes spent fuel rods which have to be stored under water to prevent over heating. </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate level waste (ILW) is usually HLW after its storage for between one to five years. </li></ul><ul><li>Low level waste (LWL) includes coolants, protective clothing and medical waste. </li></ul>
P3.9 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Radioactive waste is any radioactive material which we need to dispose of. (Radioactive waste is also known as nuclear waste). In the UK, almost all radioactive waste comes from the nuclear power industry. 2% comes from defence uses (nuclear weapons and nuclear-powered submarines). 1% comes from medical and industrial uses of radioactive substances. Spent fuel rod, what type of radioactive waste is that ? Why are people worries about being able to store radioactive waste safely over 100,000 years ? Is it right to accept and process fro profit radioactive waste from nuclear power stations located in other countries ? Key concepts
P3.9 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain why following the Chernobyl disaster and the resulting fallout, all dairy products including milk were banned for between 2- 3 months in all of Europe ? Which parts of Britain were most affected by the fallout of radioactive particles ? The Chernobyl disaster was a nuclear accident that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine part of the former Soviet Union. It is considered the worst nuclear power plant accident in history Reactor number four at the Chernobyl plant had a meltdown. The resulting fire sent a plume of radioactive fallout into the atmosphere and over an extensive geographical area, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Northern Europe. Key concepts
P3.9 Plenary Lesson summary: failure food safety meltdown Friday 21 October 2011 Even after 25 years after the Chernobyl disaster, the nearest town to the nuclear power station remains close and many thousands of acres of land are still contaminated by radioactive particle that were carries over mainland Europe in the days and weeks following the accident. Many people who lived close to the power station have also died form cancers of the lungs and thyroid. How Science Works: Research into how radioactive nuclear waste is classified and store safely Preparing for the next lesson: Nuclear power stations operate with lots of _________ system, however human error and mechanical ______ can allow accident to happen. This can result in a reactor ________ and escape of radioactive gas which can contaminate land and the human f______ supply chain. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: No new nuclear power station in the UK has been built since Chernobyl ? False True 2: After Chernobyl there was a rise in cancer rates and birth deformities ? False True 1: Large areas of land are still contaminated after Chernobyl in 1986 ?
P3.10 Nuclear waste disposal is it safe Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Friday 21 October 2011 Numeracy: Some high level waste form nuclear power stations (HLW) will only be safe having been stored for over 100,000 years. Whether mankind can build structures that will last that long know one can tell. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that a by product of using nuclear power for generating electricity is radioactive waste and how this waste can be stored safely </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that there is a great deal of public concern about nuclear waste </li></ul>First activity: Imagine you had high level liquid waste and low level solid waste. How would you handle them safely and where would you store them until they were safe ? Literacy: Nuclear power, radioactive waste, activity, half-life, waste, high level waste, Intermediate level waste, low level waste and precautionary principal.
Extension questions: 1: You are give 10 kilograms of solid LLW (low level waste) and 10 kilograms of HLW (high level waste) material. How would you manage the disposal of each ? 2: How do governments prevent HLW falling in the wrong hand that then may use it to make a radioactive device ? 3: Compare the effectiveness of deep ocean and deep rock burial of radioactive waste ? 4: Why are some people against nuclear power ? Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Nuclear energy is becoming popular again as it is a carbon neutral way of producing electricity, however, there are drawbacks. One problem is disposal of nuclear waste, because it is not bio-degradable, can remain dangerously radioactive for long periods of time can cause a number of health hazards (cancer and DNA alterations leading to inherited genetic disorders) for anyone who comes into contact with the radiation from this waste. Permanent disposal of nuclear waste means keeping either a) keeping it in containers on the surface, b) burying deep in oceans combine with glass or c) burying deep underground under meters of bed rock. P3.10 Nuclear waste disposal is it safe Know this: a: Know that radioactive waste is a by product of nuclear power. b: Know how different types of radioactive waste can be stored safely and the public debate that surrounds the storage of nuclear waste
P3.10 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Why is only low level waste (LLW) stored on the surface ? High level waste (HLW) stored on the ocean floor in water tight containers…what are the potential risks to humans ? There are three ways in which radioactive waste is buried: Deep ocean disposal : In this method, containers made borosilicate glass are filled up with nuclear waste placed in a water tight container and sunk. Surface storage happens for low level radioactive waste usually in yellow barrels and Deep geological burial : The containers used in this method are similar to the ones used in the deep ocean disposal system. But in this case, the containers are buried deep underground, buried for thousands of years and allowed to settle into a safe level of radioactivity. Key concepts
P3.10 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: The UK has now 12 sites that have been identified as possible site where high level radioactive waste (HLW) will be buried deep underground, sealed and then left for as many as 100,000 years. People living near to the propose sites are naturally concerned that some of the HLW waste may get into the water table and end up in homes. Explain how buried nuclear waste may enter your homes ? The government state that the nuclear waste will be stored safely for 100,000 years. Is it right to make such a claim ? We also pay other countries to take our waste including some governments in Africa. Do you think it is right to ship our waste to other countries ? Deep underground burial of nuclear waste outer shielding inner shielding spent fuel rods lower rock layers Upper rock layers Key concepts
P3.10 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Against nuclear power For nuclear power Think of two opposing views that people might have and imagine having a conversation with that person to try and change their view ? What is the difference between an actual risk and a perceived risk ? There is always a possibility of a reactor meltdown There are huge cost to constructing a nuclear power station Electricity generated is more expensive than coal fire power stations There is no safe way to store nuclear waste for thousands of years We are using more energy and running out of fossil fuels like coal and natural gas Nuclear power is carbon neutral releasing no CO 2 into the atmosphere If we don’t design and build nuclear power stations then other countries we gain that expertise The precautionary principle tell us that if you are not sure of the impact of doing something and that if it goes wrong serious injury or harm could result then best not to do it in the first place. Many people here in the UK have this type of view when discussion nuclear power and nuclear waste. There are simply not sure if a nuclear power station can be operate without the risk of a serious accident like a meltdown or do we have he technology to store nuclear waste safely for thousands of years. Key concepts
P3.10 Plenary Lesson summary: fossil energy cost wind Friday 21 October 2011 When talking about where to put nuclear waste, there a lot of Nimbys (not in my back yard). Many people will support nuclear power as long as nuclear waste is not dumped in ‘their back yard’ So where do you place dangerously radioactive waste to stay put for longer than 100,000 years. Werll France might be a good place for starters ! How Science Works: Research into different way to generate electricity including fossil fuels, nuclear power and renewables like wind and solar energy. Preparing for the next lesson: Any government needs to supply the ______ that its population requires at an appropriate ______. As we run out of _______ fuels, nuclear power and other alternatives like solar and _______ will become more popular. Although disliked by a large percentage of the population, we may not have a choice in the future . Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: People who work with nuclear waste should have their health monitored ? False True 2: People living near radioactive waste sites should not worry about safety ? False True 1: Burying nuclear waste deep underground is the safest way to store waste ?
P3.11 Energy futures Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that there are different ways of generating electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the benefits and risks for each method of generating electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that alterative to fossil fuels must be found in the near future </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Thinks of two ways in which we generate electricity here in the UK. List the benefits and risks for each method ? Literacy: Electricity, power, power station, nuclear, coal, natural gas, wind, solar, tidal, hydroelectric, pollution, risk, benefit and cost. Numeracy: Only 3% of our electricity is generate using renewable technology. Over the next 20 years the government will spend billions of green technology so that up to 20% of our electricity will be generated without impact on atmospheric carbon. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers
P3.11 Energy futures Know this: a: Know that there are different ways of generating electricity. b: Know that there is no single solution to meeting our energy demands . Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Most power station burn non-renewable energy (fossil fuels) to make electricity. Gas, coal and oil are running out. Carbon neutral nuclear power and renewable energy sources such as geothermal, wind, wave, solar, hydroelectric, and biomass – the energy stored in plants will although less reliable than fossil fuels will play an ever increasing role over the next 50 years. There will be no single solution to meeting our energy needs whilst reducing the impact on the environment each method of generating electricity presents its own challenges. Extension questions: 1: What is the difference between the renewable and no-renewable energy ? 2: Think of one advantage and one disadvantage of fossil fuels ? 3: Give three examples of renewable energy sources ? 4: What are some disadvantages of using a) nuclear power, b) solar energy and c) wave power ? 5: Suggest a suitable type of site for wind turbine ?
P3.11 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: The most common way to generate electricity is by heating water creating high pressure steam which then drives a turbine generator. Many different fuels can be burned to heat water including wood, coal, oil and natural gas. In a nuclear generating plant, a process called nuclear fission creates the heat by splitting uranium atoms. Name three devices that use electrical energy ? Explain why in recent years, use of traditional fuels has been supplemented with emerging technologies that use the sun, wind and even biomass ? We burn fossil fuels like coal and gas to produce heat energy, what was the original source of the energy trapped in these fossil fuels ? Key concepts
Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: P3.11 b A large power station produces enough electricity for an entire city, supplying it with millions of watts of electrical power. A fossil fuel burning power station uses the chemical energy in fuels like coal, oil and gas and heats water producing steam which then drives a turbine generator. This induces an electrical current which is transported to our homes. Name three devices at home that use electrical energy ? Fossil fuels were formed millions of years ago...explain why a) these are finite resources and b) why the energy trapped in these fuels originally came from the sun ? Chemical Heat Kinetic Electrical
P3.11 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Energy efficient light bulbs create very little heat, therefore they waste very little energy. Explain why the government is right to ban the sale of filament light bulbs from 2011 ? Using a diagram show the energy transfers when using a) a hair dryer b) a toaster c) a television d) an electric fire and e) a laptop ? Energy can be transformed from one type to another by using a device like a bulb or motor. During energy transformation, some useful energy can be lost to the environment. A simple device like a light bulb, for example transfers electrical energy to light and heat energy. Only the light energy is useful energy, with the heat energy being lost to the environment. Look at the energy transformation or Sankey diagram showing a bulb converting electrical energy into heat and light energy. Which energy type is the useful type ? Energy efficiency of a gas fired power station Energy efficiency of a coal fire power station Key concepts coal fired 40% electricity 40% exhaust gases 20% cooling system gas fired 60% electricity 20% exhaust gases 20% cooling system
P3.11 d Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Electricity produced by power stations is transported to users by a network of cables, pylons, substations and transformers called the national grid. The majority of power stations in Great Britain use fossil fuels. There are other types of power stations that use alternative energy sources like nuclear power. There are also smaller generating stations that use renewable energy sources. Explain why most UK power station are found away from large cities like London ? Pylons are used to transport electricity around the countryside, however under-ground cables are used in urban areas...explain why ? Explain the journey from power station to a device like a light bulb found inside your home ? The national grid Power station Pylons and cables transformer Industry and households Key concepts
P3.11 e Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Wind is moving air that has kinetic energy. This energy can be captured to drive a wind turbine generator. The blades are turned by the wind, which in turn makes a generator turn. This induces an electric current. Wind generators or farms are found in windy places like offshore. Although these wind farms don’t create pollution, many people object to how they spoil their view. Explain how a wind turbine can generate electrical energy ? Give three advantages and three drawbacks to using wind turbines rather than fossil fuel powered power stations? Why are the majority of wind farms here in the UK place offshore rather than on land ? Key concepts
P3.11 f Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Generating electricity using renewable energy sources unlike burning fossil fuels produces no greenhouse gases or other pollution like acid rain. The UK government will aim to produce up to 20% of our energy using renewable technologies like wind, wave, tidal and solar energy. This will also reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. Why are renewable energy sources like tidal and wave power becoming more important as reserves of crude oil, gas and coal become less and less ? Explain how a tidal barrage can generate electrical energy ? Wave power uses energy created by winds acting on the sea, tidal power uses moving water as the result of ? Key concepts
P3.11 Plenary Lesson summary: global electricity efficient fuels Friday 21 October 2011 We are currently investing as a nation over 5 billion pounds every year in wind technology so that by 2020 about 20% of the electricity we require will be generate using wind power a not polluting renewable way of providing he energy we need, except of course hen there is no wind. How Science Works: Research into different view of supply energy for the future. Preparing for the next lesson: Using more ________ methods of generating _________ will reduce our dependence on fossil ______ as well as reducing the amount of greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide that have been shown to increase _______ temperatures over the last 150 years. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Only 3% of our energy is produce using renewable technology ? False True 2: Nuclear power is a major source of greenhouse gases ? False True 1: Gas fired power stations are more energy efficient than coal fired ones ?
P3.12 The energy debate here in the UK Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Think of three benefits and three drawbacks of using wind power to generate electricity ? PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the benefits and risks for each method of generating electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that alterative to fossil fuels must be found in the near future in order to continue to provide the energy we need over the medium to long term </li></ul>Literacy: Electricity, power, power station, nuclear, coal, natural gas, wind, solar, tidal, hydroelectric, pollution, risk, benefit and cost, energy debate, energy supply and renewables. Numeracy: By 2020 the UK government want 20% of our electricity supplied to UK customers to be generated using renewable technologies, without impact on atmospheric carbon.
P3.12 Extension questions: 1: Why can we not rely on fossil fuels to guarantee our energy demand for the future ? 2: Give four methods of generating electricity using renewable technologies ? 3: Explain two benefits and two risks of nuclear power ? 4: Why is solar power not a real alternative to fossil fuels ? 5: Why is wind power becoming increasingly popular ? Know this: a: Know the benefits and risks of each method of generating electricity. b: Know that renewables and nuclear power must be used instead of fossil fuels to generate electricity. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Britain is now buying gas form Russia and other suppliers, for the first time in 30 years. We also have limited oil reserves/ We also have not built a new nuclear power facility for over a decade. In order to guarantee our energy supplies without impacting on the environment and the atmosphere we will have to consider two possible solutions: Renewables like wind, tidal and solar and of course nuclear power could provide around 80% of our electricity needs by 2025 ! The energy debate here in the UK
P3.12 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: We all use it and rely on it ! Electricity is a clean, relatively safe form of energy that can be used by many devices ranging from the simple light bulb to a laptop. Electricity is also easy to transport and does not need to be stored in the home. About 80% of the electricity we use is made by burning fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas. Explain the energy transfer involved in burning coal to produce electricity inside a power station ? Explain why electricity is a popular form of energy used in home for lighting heating cooking and entertainment ? Explain why we cannot rely on fossil fuels as a primary energy resource over the medium to long term ? Key concepts
P3.12 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Against nuclear power For nuclear power There is always a possibility of a reactor meltdown There are huge costs to build the power station Nuclear power is more expensive than coal There is no safe way to store nuclear waste for thousands of years We are using more energy and running out of fossil fuels like coal and gas Nuclear power is carbon neutral releasing no CO 2 into the atmosphere If we don’t design and build nuclear power stations then other countries will Against wind power For wind power Wind farms are expensive to build and maintain There can ruin the country side They produce a lot of noise when they turn in the wind If there is no or little wind they will be unable to generate electricity We are using more energy and running out of fossil fuels like coal and gas Wind power is carbon neutral releasing no CO 2 into the atmosphere Britain could generate up to 20%of its electricity using wind power alone by 2020 Key concepts
P3.12 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Since 1950, World demand for oil has risen year by year as more and more people live an energy dependant lifestyle. Here in the UK, we use huge amounts of crude oil for manufacturing, transport, heating, lighting and generating electricity. As our demand increases and reserves begin to run out, the cost of crude oil will rise. High oil prices will affect our economy and quality of life. List three fuels that are made by distilling crude oil ? List three ways how can we help our families reduce our demand for crude oil ? Write a short paragraph describing life with out crude oil...meaning life without petrol, diesel, plastics and methane ? World crude oil use Key concepts
P3.12 d Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: What drive us to use wind and nuclear power is rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and dwindling fossil fuel reserves. When hydrocarbons like methane are burnt, carbon dioxide is produced as a by product. Coal-burning power stations and the millions of cars, lorries and planes are the largest source of carbon dioxide pollution -- they produce about 2.5 out of the 3 billion tonnes per year added to the atmosphere. Name three effects of global warming, for example the polar ice caps melting ? How could we reduce our carbon footprint…meaning the amount of carbon dioxide we release into the atmosphere every year ? Look at the graph left…do you think that rising amounts of CO 2 in the atmosphere is linked to increasing average global temperatures over the last 150 years ? O 2 CH 4 H 2 O CO 2 Key Substrates Products CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O Key concepts
P3.12 Plenary Lesson summary: nuclear primary wind europe Friday 21 October 2011 The cost of nuclear power is not cheap, but what we often forget about is the cost of decommissioning the nuclear power station after it has reach the end of its life. Demolition and clean up whilst protecting those who work and live near to a nuclear power station estimated to add another 2 billion on to the cost a a nuclear power station. How Science Works: Revise for an end of module test. Preparing for the next lesson: Energy companies will continue to use a variety of _______ energy sources like fossil fuels, _______ and ______ power to generate the electricity we require as part of our modern lifestyles. In _______ we are spending more of wind power than any other country Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: The average cost of a nuclear power station is around 4 to 5 billion pounds ? False True 2: Electricity generated using Win power is not always reliable ? False True 1: Britain needs to build at least 10 new nuclear power stations by 2025 ?