1. P1.4 Mapping the seafloor P1.6 Earthquakes and volcanoes P1.10 Are we alone ? P1.11 The Great Debate of 1920 P1.12 How did the Universe begin ? P1. The Earth in the Universe Route map Over the next 12 lessons you will study : Friday 21 October 2011 P1.1 Time and space P1.2 Deep time P1.3 Continental drift P1.5 The theory of plate tectonics End of module test P1.9 What are we made of ? P1.7 The Solar System- danger ! P1.8 What killed off the dinosaurs ?
2. P1.1 Time and space Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand what is known about the Earth and the Universe </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how we can model how the Universe has changes form the big ban to present day </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Give a definition for a) Universe b) Galaxy c) Solar system d) Planet e) Star and f) comet ? Literacy: Universe, galaxy, Milky way, starts, sun, solar system, planets, comets, asteroids, meteorites, time, big bang, Earth, crust mantle and core Numeracy: The diameter of the Sun is 109 times larger than the diameter of the Earth and consumes about 300,000 tons of hydrogen every second. It is approximately 4.5 billion years old about half way through its life. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on being independent enquirers by analysing and evaluating information by judging its relevance and value. Team workers Effective participators Self managers
3. P1.1 Time and space Extension questions: 1: Which part o the earth’s structure do we live on ? 2: Is our Solar system bigger or smaller than the Universe ? 3: What is the core of the Earth made from ? Describe fully. 4: In the following list what would you find in a typical solar system a) planets b) stars c) comets and d) galaxies ? 5: What is the Sun made from and what type of energy does it emit ? 6: The oldest rock on earth is about 4.5 billion years old what does this tell us about the age of the Earth ? Know this: a: Know what is know about the history of our universe and our own solar system. b: Know that our own solar system is just one small part of the Universe, which is massive. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Our rocky planet was made from the scattered dust of ancient stars. It may or not be the only place in the whole Universe with life. The Universe began 14,000 million years ago (14 billion years). At the start, all the mass of the Universe was compressed into an area smaller than an atom. This all change when the big bang set all the matter outwards in all directions. It has been expanding ever since. The Earth is an enormous, layered planet with a radius of 6,400 km. It is made up of four layers: the crust, the mantle, the outer core and the inner core.
4. P1.1 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Although the Earth is date to be 4.6 billion years old, the oldest rock has been dated to only 3.9 billion years. Does this find contradict current thinking on Earth’s age ? The moon and the Earth have been dated to be about the same age...what does this tell use about how the moon and Earth formed ? Life appeared on Earth and soon evolved into bacteria. Single cells appeared and plants such as algae and animals such as protozoa evolved. These single cells began to live together in colonies to form more complex organisms. Vertebrates such as fish appeared about the same time as the plants began to live on land rapidly followed by the invertebrates. Later vertebrates (amphibians) also evolved to live on land, and reptiles dominated the land for millions of years.. People appeared very recently and rapidly dominated and transformed the entire planet, also learning how to leave it. Earth’s history Key concepts
5. Key concepts P1.1 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Before the big bang, there was no time. Explain why we use the event that we call the big bang to mark the beginning of time ? Compare the teaching of a faith like Christianity about how the Universe was create and the theories about the big bang...are they different or very similar ? The Universe began with a ‘big bang about 14 billion years. This released energy, radiation, particles and clouds of atoms. Gravity condensed the atoms into galaxies where stars appeared. Stars created new types of atoms when they grew old and exploded as supernovae. The new atoms were released back to the galaxy, and joined together into cosmic dust and molecules. New stars, such as the Sun, formed from these materials in the spiral arms and the dust and molecules formed planets such as Earth. time 13.7 billion years ago big bang
6. P1.1 Plenary Lesson summary: planets Universe gravity dust Friday 21 October 2011 When the universe formed with the Big Bang, it was very hot, this immense heat caused very rapid expansion in all directions. Heat is a form of energy. On very small scales, this heat energy is represented in the momentum of particles. The temperature at the very beginning of the big bang were so high that the matter rapidly expanded outwards travelling huge distances and creating the Universe on the scale that it is now ! How Science Works: Research into the rock cycle and how rock age has been used as evidence to data earth and other planets like the moon. Preparing for the next lesson: The ________ began 14,000 million years ago. Around 5,000 million years ago a great swirl of _____ and gas came together. About 99.9% of this swirl formed the Sun and the remainder was pulled by _______ to form _______. This is how our Solar system was formed. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Our Solar system is just one small part of the Universe ? False True 2: The Big Bang happened after the Universe came into being ? False True 1: The Earth is the fourth planet from the Sun ?
7. P1.2 Deep time Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how the rock cycle leads to the formation of different types of rocks which can be grouped according to how they are formed and their physical properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how theories forwarded by James Hutton’s and radioactive dating give us evidence on how old the Earth is. </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Sedimentary and some metamorphic rock contains fossils of plants and animals some dating back as far as 600 million years old. How can these fossil help scientists build up a picture of evolution over this time period ? Literacy: Rock cycle, sedimentary, metamorphic, igneous, crystals, erosion, weathering, transportation, continental drift, deep time and radioactive dating. Numeracy: Using radio-dating geologists (scientists who study rocks and rock formation) have found and dated Earth’s oldest rocks at 3,900 million years old, suggesting that the Earth is also 3,900 million years old. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners Team workers Effective participators Self managers We will focus on knowing setting goals and success criteria.
8. P1.2 Deep time Extension questions: 1: Give three ways in which a rock can be a) broken down and b) formed and state the main stages of the rock cycle ? 2: Why is there no effective rock cycle on planet mars…give two things that are missing ? 3: Why did it take a long time before Hutton’s ideas were accepted ? 4: How is radiation used to date rocks ? 5: Why are fossils found in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks useful to animal and plant scientists ? Know this: a: Know how the rock cycle leads to the formation and breakdown of rocks over time. b: Know that the Earth’s oldest rocks were made 3,900 million years ago. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: James Hutton in 1785 presented his theory on rock formation and breakdown. His theory describes what we know as the rock cycle. In 1785, people believed that the Earth had been created exactly as they saw it 6000 years before. Hutton said processes such as erosion and deposition of sediments and rock formation take place slowly over long periods of time. He also said that heat deep inside the earth’s core change rocks and led to the uplift of rocks over time. Some rocks are radioactive and their age can be estimated by measuring the radiation they give off (emit). This is called radioactive dating.
9. P1.2 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: A sedimentary rock sample is aged using the above technique. Is it likely to be older or younger than igneous granite ? What happens to the levels of uranium and lead as the rock sample ages over time ? Geologists can’t use just any old rock for dating. They must find rocks that have radioactive isotopes like uranium which over time changes to lead. Rocks with uranium include granites and basalts. Scientist date rocks by measuring and comparing the amount of the parent (uranium) and daughter (lead) isotopes in a sample of the rock unit. This information give the geologists enough information to data a rock sample to with 1 million years. Radio dating of Earth’s rocks rock sample time As time moves forward, the amount of radioactive Uranium 235 has gradually decreased in the Earth’s rocks, changing slowly into stable lead. Because we know the half life of Uranium 235 (700 million years), by measuring the ratio of Uranium 235 and lead in a rock sample, we can determine its age. Key concepts
10. P1.2 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: The material used to create new sedimentary rocks are formed by rock weathering...name two forms of rock weathering ? Look at the picture below left, the river is carrying silt and rock particles towards the sea...explain what happens to these sediments as the river begins to slow ? Using your knowledge of how sedimentary rocks are formed...explain why they are softer when compared to metamorphic and igneous rocks ? Sedimentation & deposition Weathering Cementation Earth’s rocks are continuously weathered and eroded forming small rock fragments which begin to settle as sediments on the bottom of seas and oceans. With time these layers accumulate. Pressure on the lower layers cause cementation. Water is also forced out. Laving mineral structures Sedimentary rocks can be formed from either sand, clay, silt and mud How sedimentary rock forms Key concepts
11. P1.2 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: During the formation of metamorphic rocks, the rock mineral structures change without the rocks actually becoming molten. Gneiss rock, for example is an good example of metamorphic rock. This rock may have been igneous granite, but heat and pressure changed it. Slate used for roofing is formed when sedimentary mudstone is heated under pressure. When limestone is subject to high temperatures and pressure it changes to form metamorphic marble...give three sued of marble stone ? Give two differences in the physical properties between marble and limestone ? Why is marble used to make sculptures rather than sedimentary limestone ? Magma Metamorphic rock Sedimentary rock Heat & pressure How metamorphic rock forms Key concepts
12. P1.2 d Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Igneous rocks are formed when molten magma rises form volcanoes to the Earth’s surface and cools. They are mineral rich with these minerals being arranged in crystals. How quickly lava cools determines the size of the crystal. Basalt, an example of a very common form of igneous rock covers most of Scotland and is aged around 4 billion years. Magma Vents Lava Basalt, granite and grabbo are all examples of igneous rocks...list two properties they will have in common with each other ? Name the state change when lava cools to form igneous rock ? Rapid cooling of lava forms igneous rock with small crystals...explain what happens to the crystal size is the cooling of lava happens slowly ? How igneous rock forms Key concepts
13. P1.2 Plenary Lesson summary: evidence land deposition processes Friday 21 October 2011 The rock cycle describes how rocks can change over millions of years. Geologists study these changes and look at different types of evidence. Mars has no rock cycle because it has no molten core, no tectonic plate movement and no water. These are all essential for a rock cycle to exist. How Science Works: Research into how the land mass of the Earth has changed and what the Pangaea is. Preparing for the next lesson: Processes such as erosion and ________ of sediment take place slowly over long periods of time. These ________ add up to huge changes in the Earth’s surface. High temperatures inside the Earth changes rocks and lifts _____ up. This gives the _________ that the Earth was not created all at once. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: There are three types of rocks, sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous ? False True 2: The Earth was created in just seven days ? False True 1: Hutton’s ideas on the rock cycle were accepted almost immediately in 1785 ?
14. P1.3 Continental drift Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how continental drift acts to move the tectonic plates over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how Alfred Wenger and other geologists provided evidence to explain how the continents are moving very slowly. </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: The west coast of the UK is moving away for the USA at a rate of about 2 cm every 100 years. How many metres would we move after a) 1000 year b) 10,000 years and c) 100,000 years? Literacy: Tectonic plates, continental drift, earthquakes, volcanoes, fossils, mountain building, Pangaea, evidence and peer review. Numeracy: 220 million (220,000,000) years ago, the five continents were joined together as one large gigantic continent. Currently they move at about 1 to 2 cm every 100 years. At this rate that’s over 10 km in distance every one million years. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners Team workers Effective participators Self managers We will focus on analysing and evaluating information judging its relevance and value.
15. P1.3 Continental drift Extension questions: 1: What features arise when two continents a) collide into one another and b) move away from one another ? 2: Explain why both volcanoes and earthquakes are found neat to where continental plates meet on another ? 3: Why do think geologists tried to discredit Wegener ? 4: Why was Wegener described as being ‘too bold’ when he told other scientists about his theories on plate tectonics and finding the same fossils and rocks in Africa and S America, does this prove or disprove plate tectonic theory ? Know this: a: Know that land mass we know as the five continents were once joined together in a single continent called the Pangaea. b: Know that continental drift describes the fact these land masses over time move very slowly. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: In 1912, Alfred Wegener started the great debate. Wegener believed that the rock types on each continent could fit like pictures on a jigsaw and this was evidence that the continents were once joined together as a super continent. He also believed that the continents move very slowly. He called this continental drift. Other scientists at the time did not believe what he was saying and laughed off his ideas, mainly because they could not imagine a force large enough that would move a continent. that move slowly over time because of the convection currents present in the mantle layer.
16. P1.3 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Geologists have found similar rocks on the African (west) and South American (east) coast. Does this provide good evidence of Alfred Wenger’s theory ? 220 millions years ago, North America lied across the Equator. In which direction did it moved and how might that have changed its climate ? Geologists state that after another 100 million years, Russia will collide into west coast America. Is this likely ? In 1915 Alfred Wegener suggested that Africa and South America were once joined. Over millions of years, the two continents have separated and drifted apart. Following Wegener’s work, the theory of ‘plate tectonics’ was formed. The Earth’s crust is made from huge plates that move slowly over time because of the convection currents present in the mantle layer. Earth, 200 million years ago Earth, present day Key concepts
17. P1.3 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Which part of the Earth’s crust is mineral rich and supports plant life ? Explain how pressure changes as you go deeper towards the Earth’s core ? Explain why mountains form when two tectonic plates meet and why these regions have a high number of Earthquakes ? The lithosphere which is up to 100 km thick, includes the continental crust. This is the relatively cool and rigid part of the Earth’s structure. The Asthenosphere is the middle part of the mantle and has a consistency of hot plastic. The Mesosphere is the bottom part of the mantle, is higher in temperature than the lithosphere and is more rigid due to an increase in pressure. What supports life is the very top of the crust and its soil. The Earth’s crust Key concepts
18. P1.3 Plenary Lesson summary: scientists data paper experts Friday 21 October 2011 When Wegener first talked about continental drift, his big problem was that he knew the continents had drifted but he couldn't explain how they drifted. The old theory was the "Contraction theory" which suggested that the planet was once a molten ball and in the process of cooling. The big problem with this idea was that all mountain ranges should be the same age, and this was known not to be true . How Science Works: Research into what happens when plates move apart from one another and how scientists have been able to map the spreading of the seafloor where plates lay down new seafloor. Preparing for the next lesson: Peer review involves scientists commenting on the work or _____ of other __________. These scientists who are _______ in their field critically evaluate a scientific ______ or idea before and after it has been published. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Continental drift describes the Earth land mass moving very quickly ? False True 2: Wegener said that there was a land bridge joining continents together ? False True 1: The Pangaea describes the structure of the Earth today ?
19. P1.4 Mapping the seafloor Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how new ocean floor is formed where tectonic plates are moving away from one another </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how the use of scientific instruments paved the way for the case for seafloor spreading. </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Explain or give reasons why scientists didn’t believe in seafloor spreading prior to the geologist Fred Vine’s Data in 1966 showing clearly for the first time that this was the case ? Literacy: Oceanic ridge, seafloor spreading, seafloor mapping. Magnetism, continental drift, data, explanation, prediction. Numeracy: The deepest point in the Atlantic Ocean is just over 8,000m and in the Pacific Ocean 11,000 metres. The deepest point in the English Channel is just 120 metres ! PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on supporting conclusions using reasoned arguments and evidence. Team workers Effective participators Self managers
20. P1.4 Mapping the seafloor Extension questions: 1: What causes seafloor spreading ? 2: The Atlantic ridge between Europe and America runs for about 7000 miles. New materials is being produced every year a) How could you prove this b) What other events might happen around this ridge and c) why was evidence supporting seafloor spreading difficult to prove ? 3: Why is it important to have data to support theories ? 4: What type of rock is formed on the seafloor bed when lava cools ? Know this: a: Know how new ocean floor is formed where tectonic plates are moving away from one another b: Know how the use of scientific instruments paved the way for the case for seafloor spreading. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: In the centre of many oceans there are mid-ocean ridges. At these ridges the tectonic plates move apart. As a result magma from inside the Earth oozes out and solidifies. This is called sea floor spreading. The typical speed of seafloor spreading is quite slow- about 10cm per year. The solidified magma records the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field. The Earth’s magnetic field changes with time and even reverses its direction. These changes are recorded in the rocks. The same magnetic patterns are seen on both sides of the mid-ocean ridges.
21. Key concepts P1.4 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain why magma rises to the surface forming new material along the mid Atlantic ridge ? Explain why Earthquakes are a feature of area where oceanic ridges occur ? Sea-floor spreading is the process in which the ocean floor is extended when two plates move apart. As the plates move apart, the rocks break and form a crack between the plates. . Magma rises through the cracks and seeps out onto the ocean floor like a long, thin, undersea volcano. As magma piles up along the crack, a long chain of mountains forms gradually on the ocean floor. This chain is called an oceanic ridge. The ‘mid Atlantic ridge’
22. P1.4 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Does the colour picture (bottom left) provide evidence of a symmetrical patter of magnetised regions to the left and right of an oceanic ridge ? Explain why rock ages as you moves away from the centre of an oceanic ridge ? Around 1912, a German scientist named Alfred Wegener theorized that all of the Earth's continents were once joined together in a single, large landmass. In the 1950's, scientists discovered some surprising evidence in support of Wegener's theory. While mapping the ocean floor, scientists discovered two important, and unexpected things: First, the age of the rocks that make up the ocean floor gets older as you move away from the ridges at the centre. This meant that the youngest rocks were found near the ridges, and the oldest rocks near the continents. Seafloor spreading Key concepts
23. P1.4 Plenary Lesson summary: magnetic oceanic ridge magma Friday 21 October 2011 Oceanic ridges and seafloor spreading is part of the process that moves continental plates over small distances overt large amounts of time. Over many millions of years these movements constantly change the position of the World's tectonic plates meaning that in another 200 million years, western American will crash into eastern Russia. How Science Works: Research the rock cycle and how it is a process of rock formation and breakdown played out over hundreds of millions of years in geological time. Preparing for the next lesson: The theory of seafloor spreading: new ocean floor is made at _______ ridges, so oceans spread by about 10cm a year. Hot mantle rises beneath the ridge and melts to make _____. This erupts at the middle of the _____ and cools to make new rock. This new rock is magnetised in the direction of the Earth’s ________ field at the time. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: The ocean floor is youngest near oceanic ridges ? False True 2: The Earth’s magnetic field reverses regularly ? False True 1: The theory of seafloor spreading was first cited by Alfred Wegener ?
24. P1.5 The theory of plate tectonics Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how the rock cycle forms and breakdowns different types of rocks over millions of years </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the tectonic plate movements are associated with volcanic activity and Earthquakes. </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: From what you have learnt so far, describe how the Pangaea supercontinent split to form the modern continents ? Literacy: Rock cycle, formation, breakdown, rock types, erosion, weathering, tectonic plates, mountain chains, folding , faulting, crust, sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic Numeracy: The continents have changed their positions over millions of years, scientists estimate that in the next 150 million years America will collide with eastern Russia. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on analysing and evaluating information by judging its relevance and value. Team workers Effective participators Self managers
25. P1.5 The theory of plate tectonics Extension questions: 1: Describe using tectonic plate theory how a) mountains are formed b) Earthquakes happen and c) Volcanoes form and erupt ? 2: How do convection currents in the Earth’s solid mantle carry the plates along ? 3: How do the tectonic plates fit together ? 4: How do you think the theory of plate tectonics brings together seafloor spreading and several other Earth processes ? 5: What cause tectonic plates to be in constant movement ? Know this: a: Know how the rock cycle forms and breakdowns different types of rocks over millions of years. b: Know that tectonic plate movements are associated with volcanic activity and Earthquakes. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: In 1967, seafloor spreading and several other Earth processes were linked together in one big explanation called plate tectonics. The outer layer of the Earth is made up of about 12 huge pieces of rock. These are called tectonic plates, and they move slowly all the time. Earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain building usually happen where tectonic plates meet.
26. Key concepts P1.5 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Constructive plate margins, this is where there are two plates moving away from each other causing new oceanic crust to be formed and mid-ocean ridges are created by the build up of molten rock on the sea floor due to the mantle building up. This new crust pushes the old crust aside and forcing the plates apart at a very slow rate (10kmper 1million years) volcanoes are usually associated with the Mid-Atlantic Ridges If both plates moves away from one another at the rate of 2.3 cm every years, calculate the distance travelled in a) 100 years and b) 1,000,000 years ? What global measurement system can now accurately track the movement of plates over time ? Tectonic plates ‘constructive plate margins’’ Plate 1 Plate 2
27. Key concepts P1.5 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Where continental plates move towards each other, a two step process occurs: Subduction: The very dense oceanic plate moves beneath the less dense granitic plate. The resulting friction causes the rock to melt, forming volcanoes as well as leading to Earthquakes. Mountain building: The Andes in South America and the Himalayas were formed in this way. Explain why both volcanoes and Earthquakes are a feature of destructive plate margins ? Name two mountain ranges in Europe that are have been formed as a result of destructive plate margins ? Plate 1 Plate 2 Tectonic plates ‘destructive plate margins’’
28. P1.5 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: The rock cycle is a continue process of rock formation and breakdown. The three types of rocks; sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic are recycled in this way over many millions of years. It is the continuous weathering and the movement of the Earth’s plates, which is driven by the convection currents inside its mantle which drives the rock cycle over time. Look the diagram opposite left....explain how rock fragments or sediments are formed and what when these are compacted what type of rock to they form ? Name a) three types of weathering and give an example for each type and b) give two ways rocks are moved from where they have been weathered ? Describe the difference between rock burial and rock uplift ? The rock cycle Key concepts
29. P1.5 Plenary Lesson summary: mantle crust plates tortoise Friday 21 October 2011 Believe it or not but England and Scotland although now joined together are on rock formed at different times in the Earth’s geological history. Igneous Scottish rock about 3.5 to 4.5 billion years old collided into English sedimentary rock about 400 million years ago forming the Grampian mountains. How Science Works: Find out why Earthquakes happen and why volcanoes erupt. Preparing for the next lesson: The Earth’s _____ consists of huge slabs of rock called tectonic plates. These fit together much like the segments on the shell of a ______. Although the _____ below the ______ is solid, it does move. This movement is very very slow- about 2.3 cm a year. This means the continents have changed their positions over millions of years. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: The movement of plate tectonics contributes to the rock cycle ? False True 2: Volcanoes are found only at plate boundaries ? False True 1: The theory of plate tectonics was first cited in 1999 ?
30. P1.6 Earthquakes and volcanoes Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand why Earthquakes and volcanoes both occur where plates boundaries occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand why scientists try and predict when an Earthquake might occur or when volcanoes might. </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: What causes earthquakes to happen and volcanoes to erupt. Use your knowledge of the rock cycle to give your explanation ? Literacy: Volcanoes, Earthquakes, tectonic plates, mountain chains, rock cycle, focus, epicentre, magnitude, Richter scale, pyro-plastic flow, lava, magma, aftershocks and faults. Numeracy: Across the planet, more than 30,000 earthquakes happen every year with about ten or so leading too substantial infrastructure damage and loss of life. Every year there are about 50 eruptions each year from the World’s 500 active volcanoes. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers
31. P1.6 Earthquakes and volcanoes Extension questions: 1: Give three regions in the World that are prone to Earthquakes ? 2: Why can’t scientists predict when an earthquake will strike ? 3: Why do scientists monitor changes in the gases emitted by a volcano and the swelling at their sides ? 4: If a volcano changes the amount of gas it emits or even its side begin to swell what can the government do to limit loss of life ? 5: Where are the biggest earthquakes in the world expected ? Know this: a: Know why Earthquakes and volcanoes are found at or near to plate boundaries. b: Know that scientists try and predict Earthquake or volcanic activity in order to reduce loss of life. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Most earthquakes happen at rock breaks, called faults. The blocks of rock on each side of the fault move. Pressure builds up until the rocks that are locked together break and move violently. This sudden movement can destroy builds and lead t large losses of human life. Most volcanoes are also found at plate boundaries where the crust is thinned by stretching or being compressed. Hot rising magma causing increasing pressure until eventually a volcano erupts sending millions of tonnes of hot gas, ash, lava and rock debris across the Earth’s surface.
32. Key concepts P1.6 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain why is not possible to predict when a Earthquake might happen ? Explain why more people are killed in poorer area due to falling concrete and other debris when compared to the wealthy west ? Earthquakes occur around the World, close to the tectonic plate boundaries. An Earthquake is a sudden release of the forces that build up due to the movement of two plates against one another. In the last one hundred years, over a million people have died due to Earthquakes . Moving plates can lead to compression, tensional and shearing forces. The continental plates found either side of the San Andreas fault have moved over 3 meters over the last 25 years How Earthquake occur along plate boundaries’ Compression Tensional Shearing
33. Key concepts P1.6 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain why residents in the UK are not at risk form a super tsunami ? Explain how an early warning system may have saved lives for those people who live in coastal regions prone to Earthquakes ? On December 26 th 2004, a massive Earthquake underneath the India Ocean close to the coastline of Indonesia caused a massive tidal wave or Tsunami that killed over 250,000 people from Indonesia, Thailand, India & Sri Lanka. The majority of dead, lived in the Indonesian capital Bande Aceh. The millions of tonnes of water deposited in one great wave, swept away villages, towns and whole communities. The region today remains devastated and will take many decade to recover . Earthquakes causing tsunamis
34. Key concepts P1.6 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: What type of rock do lava cool to form…name two types commonly formed ? Explain how seismic activity close to a volcano can be sued by scientists too predict a forthcoming eruption ? Humans have lived in the shadow of volcanoes for many thousands of years. Why...because, the soils around volcanoes are extremely fertile due to many layers of mineral rich volcanic ash falling over time. Volcanoes which erupt, throwing out their plug and millions of tonnes of hot debris are the most dangerous and unpredictable. Mount Vesuvius in Italy has and will continue to kill the inhabitants of Naples. Over the last 200 years, it has erupted every two to five decades. It last erupted in 1944 . How volcanoes form along plate boundaries?
35. Key concepts P1.6 d Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain which type of volcano is more likely to produce life threatening pyro-plastic flows of hot gas, ash and lava ? Explain which type of volcano is more likely to lead to island formation like Hawaii ? Shown above is a typical volcano. Notice the different layers of igneous rock as a result of separate eruptions and flows of lava. A steep-sided volcano is formed when thick lava flows from the volcano vent. This type of volcano can erupt violently because the vent can become blocked with cooled lava. A shallow-sided volcano is formed when think fast flowing lava flows from the vent. The base of these type of volcanoes can be over 200 km wide . Different types of volcanoes steep sided volcano shallow sided volcano
36. P1.6 Plenary Lesson summary: damage natural shock limit Friday 21 October 2011 Scientists believe that in the next 20 to 50 years the city of San Francisco will be devastated by an Earthquake measuring in excess of 8.5 on the Richter scale. This city lies on the well known San Andreas Fault line on the East coast of America. How Science Works: Research how craters were formed on Earth’s surface and on other planets in the Solar System. Also look into the difference between comets, asteroids and meteorites. Preparing for the next lesson: Earthquakes and volcanoes are deemed as ______ disasters because they happen and not because of what we do. However, there are ways in which we can _____ the _______ they cause. For example, make buildings stronger so that they can withstand the _____ of an earthquake. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: The timing of Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions can be predicted ? False True 2: There was a massive earthquake on the island of Montserrat in 1996 ? False True 1: The San Andreas Fault is on the east coast of America ?