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  • 1. C3 Food Matters Route map Over the next 12 lessons you will study : Friday 21 October 2011 C3.1 The food chain C3.2 Farming challenges C3.3 The nitrogen cycle C3.4 Intensive farming End of module test C3.5 Organic farming C3.6 Preserving and processing food C3.7 Chemicals in a healthy diet C3.8 Harmful chemicals in a healthy diet C3.9 Diet and diabetes C3.10 Type 2 diabetes C3.11 Food and the consumer C3.12 Food hazards and risks C3.1 The food chain C3.1 The food chain
  • 2. C3.7 Chemicals in a healthy diet Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
    • Lesson objectives:
    • Understand how carbohydrates, proteins and fats are digested and the chemical that they contain
    • Understand that a balanced diet provide the rich out of energy, fats, proteins and carbohydrates.
    We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Name the essentials of a healthy diet. Clue: there are seven in total ? PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on creative thinking and reflective learning. Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: Diet, digestion, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, fibre, cellulose, starch, amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, glycerol and egestion. Numeracy: Scientists estimate that there are about 100,000 different proteins in the human body. Proteins either move or support the body or acts as catalysts These proteins are called enzymes..
  • 3. C3.7 Chemicals in a healthy diet Extension questions: 1: Name one food rich in a) proteins b) carbohydrates and c) fats ? 2: Explain the roles of a) minerals, b) water and c) fibre in our diet ? 3: Explain what elements carbohydrates are made from ? 4: What is a natural polymer and give three examples ? 5: Why should our diets be rich in carbohydrates ad proteins and low in fats ? Know this: a: Know that when broken down, fats, proteins and carbohydrates form fatty acids and glycerol, sugars and amino acids. b: Know that digestion breaks down large insoluble molecules into small soluble ones. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: A healthy diet must contain carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, fibre and water. Cellulose from plants makes up the fibre in the diet which the body cannot digest. Starch, cellulose and proteins are natural polymers. Starch and cellulose are long chain molecules of glucose and proteins are long chain molecules of amino acids. Digestion is the process by which our bodies break down carbohydrates to sugars and proteins to amino acids. Proteins are need by the body for growth and repair.
  • 4. C3.7 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: A healthy diet is one that helps maintain or improve health. It is important for the prevention of many chronic health risks such as: obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and cancer A healthy diet involves consuming appropriate amounts of macronutrients / energy (fats, proteins, and carbohydrates) and micronutrients (minerals vitamins and fibre) to meet the needs for human nutrition. Give three food that are rich in a) carbohydrates b) protein and c) fats ? Give three examples of a) minerals and b) vitamins found in the diet ? The breakdown products of proteins are amino acids what are these used for and b) the breakdown products of carbohydrates is glucose what is this used for ? Main function Food group Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Minerals and vitamins Water energy Growth and repair energy Healthy growth Hydration Key concepts
  • 5. C3.7 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Once proteins, lipids and carbohydrates are broken down into amino acids, sugars, fatty acids and glycerol, these nutrients must be absorbed into the blood stream. The small intestine has a large surface area due to millions of tiny microscopic villi. These are finger like projections which increase the surface area and help nutrient absorption into the blood. From the list of organs in the digestive system, pick three and explain what role they play during digestion ? Name three sources of food rich in either glucose from the breakdown of carbohydrates or amino acids from the breakdown of proteins ? A body builder eats a diet rich in proteins and carbohydrates and low in fats...if you could see what molecules were passing into his villi...what would they be ? Stomach Small intestine Rectum Key organs The digestive system Teeth Food pipe Liver Large intestine Anus Diagram of a villi Key concepts Amino acids Fatty acids and glycerol Glucose Villi
  • 6. C3.7 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Our dietary intake of foods like proteins, carbohydrates and lipids should provide us with the correct nutrients for energy, to maintain our daily activities, growth (if we are children) and repair. An adult male requires about 10,500 kilojoules per day, equivalent to about 100 joules per second. A balanced diet should also provide us with sufficient fibre, minerals vitamins and water. Pick two minerals and two vitamins...name a food source that is rich in each vitamin and mineral ? Explain why it is good to eat carbohydrate rich foods in the morning or before long periods of exercise ? What happens to your body if you eat more carbohydrates and fats than your body needs ? Key concepts Nutritional information per 100 g Carbohydrate 89.5g Protein 1.5g Fat 5g Calcium 400mg Potassium 225mg Iron 10mg Fibre 4g Vitamin C 140mg Sodium 600mg Vitamin D 75mg Energy 1400kJ main food groups minerals vitamins
  • 7. C3.7 d Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Our body mass (as adults) is determined by the amount of energy we intake – the amount of energy we use. If we supply our bodies with more energy than we need we put on weight. If we undersupply we lose weight. Although one in five adults are obese, we still are able to control our energy intake. If you were to over consume by 10 grams of fat a day (160 kJ) after 20 years you would put on a whopping (365 x 10 x 20) = 73.0 kg of body weight as fat !! Look at the figure opposite did this person lose or gain weight in that single day ? Appetite is triggered by low blood sugar, a drop in core body temp and the stomach contracting.. Explain how eating fibre can help suppress appetite ? Give three health problems associated with being overweight ? LHS RHS Work Sleep Rest Lunch B’Fast Dinner Metabolic fuel Energy intake Energy use Exercise Snack Snack 2500 kJ 2000 kJ 4500 kJ 650 kJ 400 kJ 1900 kJ 3200 kJ 4500 kJ 850 kJ Key concepts
  • 8. C3.7 Plenary Lesson summary: smaller digestion enzymes glucose Friday 21 October 2011 Although our diets contain about 55% carbohydrates it is not an essential requirement. Humans do require fats and proteins but could live without eating carbohydrates. This polymer is broken down into sugars and used in respiration. In the absence of carbohydrates the body will use fats or proteins as its fuel How Science Works: Research into harmful chemicals found in our food and harmful foods found in our diet. Preparing for the next lesson: _________ is the process by which our bodies break down large molecules such as carbohydrates and proteins into _______ molecules such as _______ and amino acids. _______ in our bodies help to do this. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Digestion is the process by which we use energy from our food ? False True 2: Carbohydrates are made up of many glucose molecules in a long chain ? False True 1: Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only ?
  • 9. C3.8 Harmful chemicals in a healthy diet Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
    • Lesson objectives:
    • Understand the risks to human health from harmful chemicals in food
    • Understand how food allergies and intolerance occurs
    We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: How many people do you know with food allergies and what are they allergic to ? PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on exploring issues or problems from different perspectives Team workers Effective participators Self managers Numeracy: The kidneys work 24/7 to filter and clean the blood of all waste urea and excess salt and water. The normal urine output for an average human per day is between 800- 2000 ml, assuming an intake of 2 litres per day. Literacy: Diet, digestion, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, fibre, toxins, urea, allergies, allergens, kidney, excretion and waste products.
  • 10. C3.8 Extension questions: 1: Where do amino acids come from and what is their role in the human body ? 2: Which organ breaks down excess amino acid to form urea ? 3: What is the function of your kidneys ? 4: Give three foods that could harm our health ? 5: Why are eating some types of mushroom harmful to us ? 6: Why are bacteria one cause of food poisoning ? Know this: a: Know that the liver breaks down excess amino acids and converts them to urea which is toxic to cells. b: Know that it is important that people cook their food properly and are careful if they have food allergies or intolerance. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: The liver breaks down excess amino acids in our bodies. It does this by converting all nitrogen compounds into urea. The urea is then carried by the blood to the kidneys where it is removed from the blood and passes out with urine. Food is vital for life but it can be dangerous as it can make you ill and sometimes kill you too. This can happen for example if food in under cooked. Food allergies arise when the immune system reacts with chemicals in food as if were harmful. Sometimes people react to foods because chemicals irritate the lining of their gut and they are said to be intolerant. Harmful chemicals in a healthy diet
  • 11. C3.8 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Puffer fish are the second most poisonous vertebrate. The skin and certain internal organs are highly toxic to humans, but nevertheless the meat of some species is considered a delicacy in both Japan and Korea. Chefs who prepare the puffer fish undergo special training, however occasionally a mistake is made and people have died as a result of eating the toxic parts of the fish. Think of one other food that contains toxins or harmful chemicals ? Why should you wear gloves when catching on handling the puffer fish ? In some African tribes when a new food is found only the strongest men try a small amount. First they take a small amount in a tea like drink, then a small amount cooked and then a small amount raw. If no one is ill or dies, the women and children are allowed to use the food product Why are the strongest men used first ? The puffer fish Key concepts
  • 12. Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Epping forest has announced in 2011 a total ban for the foraging of wild mushrooms. Explain why they have done this ? C3.8 b Toxic foods….mushrooms About 100 species of mushrooms are poisonous to humans, and 15-20 mushroom species are lethal when ingested. No simple rule exists for distinguishing edible mushrooms from poisonous mushrooms. In more than 95% of cases, poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter. In UK 12, people died in 2010 as a result of eating the wrong type of mushroom. Give examples of three other foods or that contain potentially lethal toxins that we could be exposed to ? Death caps are common across Europe and the UK. They can contain about 20 different toxic chemicals. The death cap mushroom, is highly toxic - just 5-10mg can kill an adult. The average death cap contains 90mg of these toxins.
  • 13. Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain how methods used by intensive farming of chicken can increase the likelihood of salmonella bacterium being present in eggs? C3.8 c Salmonella is a type of bacteria. It is usually found in poultry, eggs, unprocessed milk and in meat and water. It may also be carried by pets like turtles and birds. The salmonella bacteria attacks the stomach and intestines. In more serious cases, the bacteria may enter the blood system. Children, the elderly and people who are already ill are much more likely to get a serious infection. Explain why pregnant women and young children should not eat uncooked or even soft boiled eggs ? Salmonella infection: Bacteria travel to small intestine and begins producing toxins Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and cramps in sever case salmonella can over come the immune system Toxic foods….egg
  • 14. C3.8 Plenary Lesson summary: chemical pollutant nitrogen human Friday 21 October 2011 The Golden Poison Frog is the most poisonous vertebrate. The alkaloid poison, prevents nerves from transmitting impulses, leaving the muscles inactive. This can lead to heart failure. The poison in one frog is enough to kill between 10 and 20 humans, which correlates to up to two African bull elephants. How Science Works: Research into the health risks posed by obesity. Preparing for the next lesson: We have two kidneys which filter our blood to remove waste chemicals, such as urea. Urea is formed from the breakdown of excess proteins by the liver. Our bodies cannot store excess protein. It is important to know if you have food allergies or intolerance as this can be harmful to you. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Toxics are harmful chemicals False True 2: The chemical acrylamide is good for our health ? False True 1: The kidneys covert amino acids to urea ?
  • 15. C3.9 Diet and diabetes Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
    • Lesson objectives:
    • Understand what Type 1 diabetes is and how it affects the control of our blood sugar
    • Understand some of the risk factors associated with developing type 1 diabetes.
    We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Do you know anyone who has diabetes ? What is life like for them and how do they have to control their sugar (glucose) intake ? PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on supporting conclusions using reasoned arguments and evidence Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: Diet, sugar, glucose, obesity, diabetes, hormones, insulin, pancreas, Type 1 diabetes, hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia. Numeracy: Doctors predict that by 2020, over half or just over 50% of young people will be obese, if childhood obesity goes on increasing as fast as it is now.
  • 16. C3.9 Extension questions: 1: Look at the information in the table below. It shows a patient’s blood glucose levels over time following a single insulin injection: a) What is the lowest value of blood glucose ? b) At what time was this recorded ? c) What happened to cause the blood glucose level to fall and d) Why does the blood glucose level start to rise again ? Know this: a: Know what Type 1 diabetes is and how it affects the control of our blood sugar b: Know some of the risk factors associated with developing type 1 diabetes. . Friday 21 October 2011
    • Introduction:
    • Carbohydrates and dietary sugar provide the majority of your bodily glucose. Western diets often have too much refined sugar, which can lead to diabetes and of course obesity. Your blood sugar and insulin levels rise and fall during the day. This depends on:
    • Amount of sugar intake through your diet.
    • Amount of energy used by the body.
    • Control of blood glucose and glycogen by insulin and glucagon.
    • A diabetic cannot control their own blood sugar. Their blood sugar levels can become dangerously high. If untreated this can lead to weight loss and even death. In Type 1 The pancreas cells fails to produce insulin, therefore glucose is not able to be stored as glycogen in liver or muscle tissue. Type I diabetics are treated with insulin
    Food and the consumer Time (minutes) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Glucose mg/100 cm 3 90 90 90 70 50 45 55 67 78 90
  • 17. Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: 1: What is the role of glucose in the body ? 2: Explain why hormone would be a) found in the blood just after a sugary snack and b) during fasting ? 3: Give three health risks of over consuming a) sugar b) fats and c) salt in the diet ? C3.9 a Both glucagon and insulin, made and released by the pancreas control blood glucose levels. Insulin is able to lower blood glucose, whereas glucagon is able to increase blood glucose. These hormones ensure that, despite different intakes of glucose from dietary sources, blood glucose levels are always the same at 900 mg per litre of blood Low blood glucose <900mg/l High blood glucose >900mg/l Insulin Glucagon Beta cell Alpha cell 900mg/l Fat Muscle Liver Fat Muscle Liver Controlling blood sugar by insulin and glucagon blood glucose Blood stream Pancreas
  • 18. Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: C3.9 b t t Your blood sugar is controlled by two hormones insulin and glucagon. Shown by the graph are blood levels of glucose ( + ) and insulin ( + ) after a carbohydrate meal at 8 a.m., 12 p.m. and 8 p.m. Note that the peak of blood insulin is reached shortly after peak levels of blood glucose. 1: Explain why blood glucose begins to rise after all meals 2: What hormone lowers blood glucose 3: What hormone increase blood glucose ? 4: During fasting what hormone would oy find acting on the liver’s stores of glycogen ? +++++++++++++++++++++ + + + + + + + + + + +++++++++++++ + + + + + + + + + + + + + ++++++++ + + + + + + + + ++++++++++++++++ +++++++++++++++++++ + + + + + + + + + + +++++++++++++ + + + + + + + + + + + + + ++++++++ + + + + + + + + ++++++++++++++++++
  • 19. Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Out of the four ‘risk factors’ (genes, dietary sugar, alcohol and obesity) is most associated with an increased risk of diabetes ? C3.9 c It is estimated that if current trends continue one in ten individuals in Britain will suffer diabetes at some time in their lives. Although diabetes can be treated by injecting insulin during meal times to help control blood glucose levels, there are still health consequences for the diabetic. Heart failure, sight loss and kidney damage can reduce life expectancy by up to 10 years. Explain why the government is considering placing a tax on high sugar high fat foods ? There are risk factors associated with developing diabetes. They include, eating excessive amounts of sugar, your family history, your body weight and alcohol intake Risk factors for the onset of type II diabetes
  • 20. Key concepts C3.9 d Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: In the information presented by the graph opposite left, the association between saturated fat intake in the diet of both males and females and % cases of diabetics is shown. After more analysis and further studies, a firm link between % saturated fat intake and % of diabetics in the population was established. studies. If you treated a large mixed group of people from the US and Finland with statins which lower blood cholesterol and showed a reduce incidence of diabetes, would that allow you to make a definite link between the two factors ? A second study looked at the effect of intervention for vulnerable (at risk) people and show that buying them low fat products and giving them free membership to a gym reduced their risk developing diabetes. What would this study tell you ? 8% 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Type II diabetic case (%) Sat Fat intake (%) Japan Greece Italy Yugo US Finland Dutch France Negative correlation No correlation
  • 21. C3.9 Plenary Lesson summary: triggers asthma particulates constrict Friday 21 October 2011 The cost of diabetes to the National Health Service stands at approximately £1 million per hour, and is increasing rapidly, a new report indicates. As many as 2.75 million people in the UK now have diabetes, the latest figures show. How Science Works: Research into the causes of Type 1 and 2 diabetes and how blood sugar is controlled in Humans by two hormones glucagon and insulin. Preparing for the next lesson: Cells in the pancreas produce the hormone insulin. Insulin controls the level of glucose in our blood. Type 1 diabetes occurs when cells in the pancreas are destroyed and insulin can no longer be produced. Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin injections. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Insulin used in injections is produced by bacteria that are genetically modified ? False True 2: Insulin is produced by all cells in the body ? False True 1: Type 1 diabetes occurs in older people only ?
  • 22. C3.10 Type 2 diabetes Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
    • Lesson objectives:
    • Understand the causes of Type 2 diabetes
    • Understand the differences between Type 2 and Type 1 diabetes.
    We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: List three risk factors associated with developing diabetes for example obesity is one factor ? PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on appreciating the consequences of our decisions and actions. Team workers Effective participators Self managers Numeracy: The cost of diabetes to the National Health Service stands at approximately £1 million per hour, and is increasing rapidly, a new report indicates. As many as 2.75 million people in the UK now have diabetes, the latest figures show Literacy: Diet, sugar, glucose, obesity, diabetes, hormones, insulin, pancreas, Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia.
  • 23. C3.10 Extension questions: 1: Often lowering blood pressure, losing weight and doing more exercise can stop type 2 diabetes, can the same strategies be sued to stop type 1 diabetes ? 2: What is the main difference in the causes of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes ? 3: Why does a person with a BMI higher than 30 pose a greater risk of developing Type 2 diabetes ? 4: The number of people with Type 2 diabetes is increasing. Why do you think this is ? Know this: a: Know that Type 2 diabetes is more common in older people. b: Know that Type 2 diabetes can be treated by diet and exercise alone. But sometimes medication and insulin is needed too. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed in older people. The older you are the greater the risk. This type of diabetes can sometimes be treated with diet and exercise alone, but people often need medication and insulin too. More and more young people are developing Type 2 diabetes. Being overweight is a leading risk factor for Type 2 diabetes. A lifestyle with little or no exercise is also a risk factor for diabetes, as are genetics and age. Type 2 diabetes
  • 24. C3.10 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain why the number of people suffering diabetes is likely to rise over the next 10 to 15 years. Look at the world map above left, explain why diabetes is low in countries like Australia but high in countries like Britain ? Diabetes accounts for approximately a tenth of NHS budget each year, a total exceeding £9 billion. The complications of diabetes are numerous and deadly, and include amputation, heart disease, kidney failure and blindness: &quot;Most of these cases will be Type 2 diabetes, attributable to an ageing population and rapidly rising numbers of overweight and obese people. It is frightening to think that an increasingly unhealthy lifestyle has been a major factor in Type 2 diabetes, once seen only in the over-40s, being diagnosed in the young Diabetes across the planet Diabetes across the age range Key concepts
  • 25. Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: C3.10 b Explain how lifestyle can help prevent the onset of type II diabetes and why are the number of cases of type II diabetes on the rise here in the UK ? Type one and two diabetes Type one: No insulin is produced by the pancreas, therefore glucose is unable to be enter the cell and be stored. Type two: Not enough insulin is made by the pancreas, allowing only a limited amount of glucose storage in the liver and muscle. Action of insulin: The hormone, insulin produced by the pancreas is the key to helping glucose enter cells of the muscle and liver. Insulin Pancreas cells A diabetic cannot control their own blood sugar. There are two types of diabetes: Type I The pancreas fails to produce insulin, therefore glucose is not able to be stored as glycogen in liver or muscle.. This type of diabetes occurs in younger people and develop when cells that produce insulin in the pancreas are destroyed Type II The pancreas produces insulin, but not enough to help adequate amounts of glucose to be stored as glycogen in liver or muscle tissues. This type of diabetes is associate wit poor diet and obesity.
  • 26. Key concepts C3.10 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Consuming foods high in sugar and fat and low in bulk tend to upset the right balance. Excess chemical energy in your diet leads to greater assimilation, weight gain and eventually obesity. Some individuals who are grossly obese, store upwards of a million additional kilojoules in their body as fat. In humans obesity (BMI 25 and over ) is lined to increased risk of diabetes. Look at the information opposite. It records the number of men who fall into different groups for body mass index (BMI) and the incidence of diabetes in those group shown by the red line. Answer the following questions a) what is the range in humans for a normal BMI b) Which range of BMI has the larges number of men c) Is there a firm link between BMI and risk of onset of Type II diabetes. d) Bases on the evidence shown here what advise would you give men in avoiding the onset of Type II diabetes ? 14 12 10 8 6 4 15 19 20 24 25 29 30 34 35 39 40 44 BMI index Onset of diabetes per 100
  • 27. C3.10 Plenary Lesson summary: insulin diet genetics medicine Friday 21 October 2011 Type 2 diabetes occurs mainly in people aged over 40. The 'first-line' treatment is diet, weight control and physical activity. If the blood glucose level remains high despite these measures, then tablets to reduce the blood glucose level are usually advised. Insulin injections are needed in some cases. Other treatments include reducing blood pressure if it is high How Science Works: Research into how governments, the European Union and UK law regulated how farmers can produce food, how it is processed, how it is sold and what information is on food packaging labels. Preparing for the next lesson: Type 2 diabetes can sometimes be treated with ____ and exercise alone. But people often need ________ and may also need ______ too. Being overweight is a leading factor for Type 2 diabetes, as are ________ and age. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: The more overweight you are, the less risk there is of Type 2 diabetes ? False True 2: The pancreas of a person with Type 2 diabetes can still make insulin ? False True 1: Genetics are a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes ?
  • 28. C3.11 Food and the consumer Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
    • Lesson objectives:
    • Understand that the food industry and its activities in taking food from field to plate is monitored and regulated
    • Understand how the consumer is protected in the food industry
    We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Why do you think laws are needed to protect the consumer in the food industry. Are there any products that are currently on sale which you think should be banned or better regulated . Literacy: Food supply, agriculture, manufacture, food labelling, regulations, quality control, protecting the consumer, labelling, food standards agency, soil association and consumer protection. Numeracy: The Food Standards Agency was set up by the Government in 2000. Its role is to regulate the 200 billion pound food market here in the UK. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on exploring issues, events or problems from different perspectives Team workers Effective participators Self managers
  • 29. C3.11 Extension questions: 1: Explain why the public demand for cheap food is not always in our best interest ? 2: Do you think that food products containing a) high salt or b) high fat should have warning labels on them ? 3: What are the aims of the Food Standards Agency ? 2: What is the purpose of food labels and why are they important ? 3: Are scientists always correct in what they say about food ? 4: Are all foods 100% safe ? Explain your answer fully ? Know this: a: Know that the food industry is monitored and regulated. b: Know that the consumer is protected in the food industry. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: The consumer is protected in the food industry by regulations and laws passed by both the European Union and the UK Government. The Foods Standard Agency was set up in 2000 and aims to protect the health of the public and to defend the public interest in relation to food. There are other organisations too that campaign on behalf of the public. They want a farming and food system that is better for public health, animal welfare, and the environment. Food and the consumer
  • 30. Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: The Food Standards Agency is concerned with the whole food industry – from farming, food production and distribution, to retail and catering. It addresses food safety issues at every stage of the chain, providing information and guidance on best practice and how the legal requirement surrounding food production can be met by farmers, producers, processors and supermarkets. C3.11 a Explain why there are many regulations surrounding the growing, production and selling of food here in the UK ? Type one and two diabetes Food production Food processing Food selling Food labels Food producers and farmers follow strict codes of practise. Food processors follow strict codes of practise on how they process all food stuffs. Supermarkets follow strict codes of practise on how they transport, store and sell foods All processed foods must display a full list of ingredient including all food additives. FSA...Food Standards Agency Why is important that the food standards agency be free form influence from the farmers, food manufacturers ad the supermarkets ?
  • 31. C3.11 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: All processed food supplied in packet shave to have a food labels which gives nutrient information, the energy supplied per serving or per 100g, ingredients used and the presence of any food additives. Food labels can allows us to make an informed choice of whether we buy or eat certain foods based on what they may or may not contain. Look at the food label left for a ‘cup a soup’ how much a) fat b) salt and c) saturated fats is in one serving (228g) One calorie is equivalent to 4.2 kJ. If this soup (single serving of 228g) supplies the body with 250 calories work out how many kilojoules that would be ? Explain why this soup may be considered a good source of calcium in the diet ? Food labels Key concepts
  • 32. C3.11 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: A healthy balanced diet should provide you with the right amount of energy, vitamins and minerals. It should also be relatively low in fat and protein and high in carbohydrates. Eating too much fatty or sugary foods, low in vitamins and minerals may lead to health problems later on in life. Food manufactures can now use the traffic light system which alerts consumers if their products are high in things like salt, sugar fat and satutaed fat. Traffic light labels aim to inform the buyer if a food product contains high levels of fat, saturated fats, sugar and salt...should any other food ingredients be traffic lighted ? An apple and a average size glass of cola contains the same amount of sugar, what makes the apple the healthier choice ? Try and predict the four traffic light labels (fats, saturated fats, sugar and salt) for the following a) boiled potatoes b) fruit salad c) beef burger d) crisps and e) pasta ? Portion of chips Food traffic lights Introduced by supermarkets and endorsed by the government, food traffic light labels advise the consumer levels of fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt in foods like ready meals, drinks and snacks. Key concepts low Fat low Saturated fat med Sugar high Salt
  • 33. C3.11 Plenary Lesson summary: safe protect union assessments Friday 21 October 2011 How Science Works: Research food hazards and the risks posed by them. Preparing for the next lesson: In the European ______ there are laws that _______ the consumer at every stage of food production. In the UK scientific advisory committees carry out risk __________ to determine the _____ levels of chemicals in foods, and food manufacturers give consumers information about what is in their food. The Food Standards Agency is concerned not only with the food we eat but with what it is sold in and how that is labelled. The Agency is responsible for making sure that food is fit for human consumption and that the rules on the safety of materials that come into contact with food are enforced. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: The food industry in the UK is regulated by US law ? False True 2: Consumers make their on food ? False True 1: The labelling of food is regulated by law ?
  • 34. C3.12 Food hazards and risk Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
    • Lesson objectives:
    • Understand how eating some foods can pose a heath risk to our health.
    • Understand how the precautionary principle is applied in the food industry
    We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Do you like to eat cheese such as ‘brie’. Brie is made from un-pasteurized milk. What are the risks posed from eating this type of cheese and why does the government recommend that pregnant women not eat these types of soft cheeses ? PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on trying out alternatives or new solutions and follow ideas through Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: Risk, hazard, acceptable risks, toxins, additives, chemicals, contamination, pollutants, precautionary principle. Numeracy: In milk dairies, milk is heated to 72 ºC for at last 15 seconds so that disease causing bacteria are killed. When it is treat at these temperatures, the milk has been pasteurized. In the UK you can no longer buy unpasteurised milk.
  • 35. C3.12 Extension questions: 1: Why is the government thinking of introducing warning labels for food that contain lots of a) salt b) fat and c) sugar ? 2: Why must we constantly change our attitudes when it comes to assessing risk and food ? 3: Explain in your own words what the precautionary principle is. 4: Should the Government tell us how to assess risks when we choose the foods we want to eat even if they pose a risk to our health and wellbeing ? Know this: a: Know that people need to change their attitudes to risk when it comes to food. b: Know that he precautionary principle helps us to make the right decision for us. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: There are risks attached to everything, and this includes the foods that we eat. We need to weigh up the data to assess the risks of eating certain foods. We can use the precautionary principle to help us make decisions. The precautionary principle means that when there is not enough evidence to assess fully the risk of an action, but it is possible that it may turn out to have a high risk, it is better to avoid the action. This can be summed up as ‘it is better to be safe than sorry’. Food hazards and risk
  • 36. C3.12 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Microorganisms: bacteria, parasites, viruses Chemicals naturally present: chemicals made by the plant or animal Environmental Contaminants: artificial contaminants from pollution. Pesticides: added to crops to restrict insects or weeds Additives: added to food during its production. Scientists estimate the amount of risk in any potential food hazard. This is called risk assessment. These are the factors they consider: whether or not the substance will cause adverse reactions in the body. The amount of the substance eaten. Whether the length of exposure is infrequent or lifelong. how severe the resulting harm or illness would be and whether or not age, previous illness, or genetics will cause greater sensitivity to a hazard Explain why eating sweets contain food flours and dyes is considered low risk when compared to eating an organic sandwich that has gone past its use by date ? Explain why some food additives may be higher risk than they currently are if scientific research shows a link between their use and certain cancers ? Risk associated with our diet Low risk High risk Key concepts
  • 37. Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: C3.12 b If you suspected that your child’s behaviour is altered by colourant, how would you change their diet ? E numbers linked to poor behaviour in children E102 Tartrazine… Allergy E110 Sunset yellow Allergy Increase stomach acid E104 Quinoline yellow Asthma and hyperactivity E129 Allura red Hyeractivity E211 Sodium benzoate Asthma and hyperactivity E-numbers Possible medical effects Recent research, appears to confirm earlier studies suggesting some e-numbers (food colourants) found in sweets can have side effects particularly in children. The colours, tested on groups of three-year-olds and eight-to-nine year olds, were tartrazine (E102), sunset yellow (E110), quinoline yellow (E104) and allura red AC (E129). The team also looked at the effect of the preservative sodium benzoate (E211), which is commonly used in soft drinks. The original research, which took place on the Isle of Wight, involved giving fruit drinks to children aged three. In some weeks, these were laced with additives. Parents also reported changed behaviour when the youngsters were given the additives.
  • 38. Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain why consumers would want to purchase products form the Benecol® range? C3.12 c Selling so called ‘super-food’s Benecol® products So-called super foods are sold at a premium because the manufactures claim that there is a health benefit to eating these super foods. The benecol® range is a perfect example where proven and published scientific research has shown that including benecol® products that are high in plant extracts does reduce blood cholesterol. Since high blood cholesterol is associated with heart disease benecol® could reduce this risk. Explain why Benecol® was obliged to provide scientific evidence to back up their claims that their product could lower blood cholesterol ? Without Benecol® With Benecol® Benecol® range Intestine wall Blood stream intestine
  • 39. Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Do you think that the T.L.C campaign (tummy loving care) is still trying to sell the same message that Activia is still good for digestion despite no real scientific evidence? C3.12 d Selling so called ‘superfood’s ….Activia pro-biotic drink Danone® which sells the Activia® and Actimel® range of foods which they use to claim boosted the immune or body's defence system and help regulate the digestive system. Under a legal settlement reached with US consumer protection agency, the Federal Trade Commission, announced on December 15 2010, Danone® the markers of Activia® and Actimel® has now ceased to claim the health benefits of their product. They have now launched their TLC campaign which talks about ‘feeling the balance’ although none of the so called new claims have been backed up by scientific research. Activia® products
  • 40. C3.12 Plenary Lesson summary: risks data actions enable Friday 21 October 2011 The Food Standards Agency is concerned not only with the food we eat but with what it is sold in and how that is labelled. The Agency is responsible for making sure that food is fit for human consumption and that the rules on the safety of materials that come into contact with food are enforced. How Science Works: Revise for your end of module min test: use www.bbc/bitesize.co.uk , your text books and your exercise books Preparing for the next lesson: ____ tells us the size of any given risk. It is possible to make assessments of the ____ that we are exposed to. These assessments can then be used to ______ us to make decisions about the _______ we will and will not take. We can use the precautionary principle to do this. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: The precautionary principle tells us ‘it’s better to be sorry than safe’ ? False True 2: The Food Standards Agency does not make judgements about risk ? False True 1: All chemicals in food are hazardous ?