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C1  lesson part two
 

C1 lesson part two

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    C1  lesson part two C1 lesson part two Presentation Transcript

    • C1 Air quality Route map Over the next 12 lessons you will study : Friday 21 October 2011 C1.1 The Earth’s atmosphere C1.2 What are the main pollutants C1.3 Air quality round the UK C1.4 Measuring an air pollutant End of module test C1.5 How are pollutants formed C1.6 What happens during combustion C1.7 Where do all the atoms go C1.8 What happens to atmospheric pollutants C1.9 Air quality and health C1.10 Asthma and air quality C1.11 Technology improving air quality C1.12 Governments improving air quality
    • C1.7 Where do all the atoms go Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
      • Lesson objectives:
      • What happens to atoms during chemical reactions
      • How do the properties of substrates compare with the properties of products
      • Understanding how sulphur dioxide is formed from combusting sulphur in oxygen
      We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Write and equation to describe the formation of water from hydrogen and oxygen and the combustion of methane with oxygen. Start with a word equation first and then try and write a balanced equation ? PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on trying out alternatives or new solutions and follow ideas through Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: Reactions, substrates, products, chemical changes, sulphur, oxygen, sulphur dioxide pollution, air-quality, smog, dust, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxides & particulate. Numeracy: The law of conservation of mass tell us that we must have the same number and type of atoms on the left and right hand side of the equation. A balance equation follows this rule when used to describe a chemical reaction.
    • C1.7 Where do all the atoms go Extension questions: 1: When we combust fuels like methane and octane what two products are always formed ? 2: Look at the equation for the combustion of octane. Tally the number of carbon atoms found on the right and left of the equation. Do the same for hydrogen and oxygen. Is the equation balanced ? 2 Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) is made from 6 molecules of carbon dioxide (6CO 2 ) and 6 molecules of water (6H 2 O) make a list of the properties of each and compare their properties ? Know this: a: Know what happens to atoms during a chemical reaction. b: Know that the properties of products change when compared to the properties of substrates. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: All the atoms at the beginning of a reaction are present at the end of a reaction. No atoms are destroyed or no new ones are created. The atoms are just simply rearranged, for example when octane is combusted in oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water: C 8 H 18 (l) + 13 1/2 O 2 (g) 8CO 2 (g) + 9H 2 O (l)
    • C1.7 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Coal, crude oil and the fuel products from crude oil including petrol contain impurities like sulphur. When the fuel/air mixture is combusted these sulphur atoms combine with oxygen molecules to form sulphur dioxide. Sulphur dioxide can combine with water in clouds forming sulphuric acid. This acid rain can acidify rivers and lakes and also damage plant foliage. When impurities like sulphur are combusted it produces sulphur dioxide. What do high levels of this gas cause when combined with water vapour in the air ? Sulphur burns in air will a dull blue flame, the picture above left shows sulphur burning in pure oxygen, explain the difference ? Substrates Products Explain how low sulphur fuels help reduce acid rain and why petrol engines produce less particulate pollution when compared to diesel engines ? Key concepts
    • C1.7 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: During combustion of fossil fuels like petrol and diesel, both sulphur and nitrogen which are impurities in crude oil combine with oxygen to form sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. These gases form weak acids when they react with water in the atmosphere. Acid rain can damage forests and plant life. It can also acidify lakes and ponds disrupting natures balance. SO 2 NO x S0 2 & NO x gases react with water. Acid Rain H 2 SO 4 HNO 3 If the source of sulphur dioxide is from burning fossil fuels explain how you can reduce levels of this pollutant ? Statues made from marble or limestone are constantly being chemically eroded by acid rain...look at the statue left, is this statue likely to be in the city or countryside ? You suspect that a small pond has become acidic. If your test results showed that the pH of the pond water was 5.5, what steps could you take to raise the pH to around 7 ? pH 4.5 – 5.5 pH 5.0 – 6.0 pH < 5.0 pH > 6.0 Key concepts
    • C1.7 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Delicate plant leaves are damaged by the low pH rainfall. Rivers, ponds and lakes can become acidic in areas with high rainfall levels. Low pH of the water can lead to the disruption of the ecosystem. Acid rain also destroys buildings and statues. Dissolved acid in rain reacts with calcium carbonate in the marble or limestone making a soluble product calcium oxide. This is slowly dissolved away by rainfall. Look at the picture opposite left of the leaf...how has acid rain damaged this leaf ? Look at the picture below left, you suspect that the pond had become acidic due to acid rain how would you test the water’s pH ? Look at the picture below right, it has been badly weathered because of acid rain...what rock was these statue made from ? Key concepts
    • C1.7 Plenary Lesson summary: heat products break combine Friday 21 October 2011 Fuels are combusted in air containing oxygen to release the heat or kinetic energy that is transformed from the chemical energy trapped in the fuels molecules. The original source of this energy was sunlight since coal is the fossilised remains of plant material and cruse oil which gives rise to petrol and diesel is the fossilised remains of dead animals. How Science Works: Research into what happens to atoms during a chemical reaction. Preparing for the next lesson: During a chemical reaction new __________ are formed when substrates ______ apart allowing the atoms they are made from to _________ with different atoms. Chemical reactions are always accompanied by a visual sign like ______ of light being given out to the surroundings. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: When fuels are burn in air the chemical process is called oxidation? False True 2: An example of a visual sign during a chemical reaction is a colour change ? False True 1: Substrates are produced during a chemical reaction ?
    • C1.8 What happens to atmospheric pollutants Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
      • Lesson objectives:
      • Understand what happens to pollutants when they are released into the atmosphere
      • Understand the difference between a primary and secondary pollutant
      We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Try and explain the difference between a primary and secondary pollutant ? PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on explore issues, events or problems from different perspectives Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: Reactions, substrates, products, chemical changes, sulphur, oxygen, sulphur dioxide pollution, air-quality, smog, dust, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxides & particulate. Numeracy: The atmosphere contains billions of tons of different gases including nitrogen, oxygen, ozone, carbon dioxide and water vapour. Only a small fraction is made up of man made pollutants like carbon monoxide and nitrous oxides.
    • C1.8 Extension questions: 1: Why are molecules like CO and SO 2 called primary pollutants ? 2: If you monitored the levels of SO 2 and CO 2 in low level atmosphere over a 24 hr period, how would you expected them to change ? 3: Explain why all CO 2 in the atmosphere is not considered an atmospheric pollutant ? 4: What are the main effects of high levels of CO 2 and SO 2 in the atmosphere ? Know this: a: Know that primary pollutants are those molecules released directly into the atmosphere. b: Know that a secondary pollutant is formed when a primary pollutant undergoes further chemical change after its release in the atmosphere. Friday 21 October 2011
      • Introduction:
      • Human activity adds pollutants directly to the atmosphere. These are called primary pollutants:
      • Carbon particulates: (C)
      • Carbon monoxide (CO)
      • Carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
      • Nitrous monoxide (NO)
      • Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 )
      • Un-burnt hydrocarbons (CH 4 and C 8 H 18 )
      What happens to atmospheric pollutants
    • C1.8 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Give one example of a primary pollutant and one example of a secondary pollutant? Explain the effects of low level ozone on the human body ? A primary pollutant is an air pollutant emitted directly from a source. A secondary pollutant is not directly emitted as such, but forms when other pollutants (primary pollutants) react in the atmosphere. Examples of a secondary pollutant include ozone, which is formed when hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) combine in the presence of sunlight; NO 2 , which is formed as NO combines with oxygen in the air; and acid rain, which is formed when sulphur dioxide or nitrogen oxides react with water. Primary pollutants Carbon dioxide CO 2 Carbon monoxide CO Sulphur dioxide SO 2 Nitrogen dioxide NO 2 Nitrogen oxide NO Hydrocarbons HC Secondary pollutants Sulphur trioxide SO 3 Ozone O 3 Sulphur acid H 2 O 4 Nitric acid HNO 3 Hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 Nitrates NO 3 - Air pollutants Key concepts
    • C1.8 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Give one example of a natural air pollutant and one example of a man-made air pollutant ? Looking at the diagram opposite left, what gases cause acid rain and how can acid rain affect the rivers, pond and lakes of the UK ? An air pollutant is known as a substance in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment. They may be natural or man-made. Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary. Usually, primary pollutants are directly emitted from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulphur dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. An important example of a secondary pollutant is ground level ozone  Air pollution and air pollutants Key concepts
    • C1.8 Plenary Lesson summary: chemical pollutant nitrogen human Friday 21 October 2011 Acid rain can damage delicate plant foliage or leaves and also change the pH of water found in rivers, ponds and lake. Scientists will routinely monitor the pH of freshwater and add a soluble base called an alkaline if the pH goes below 5.5.. At this point the acidic pH will start to affect numbers of freshwater invertebrates and even fish normally found in the pond or lake. How Science Works: Research into hay fever and some of the airborne triggers of hay fever. Preparing for the next lesson: A primary ______ like carbon monoxide or _________ monoxide is released directly into the atmosphere due to _______ activity. A secondary pollutant occurs when a primary pollutant undergoes a further _______ reaction for example NO changes to NO 2 or nitrogen dioxide. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Automotive catalytic converters can reduce the number of primary pollutants ? False True 2: Sulphuric acid is a secondary pollutant formed when SO 2 and H 2 O combine ? False True 1: Carbon dioxide and nitrogen monoxide are all secondary pollutants ?
    • C1.9 How does air quality affect our health Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
      • Lesson objectives:
      • Understand links between poor air quality and respiratory health
      • Understand how pollen causes hay fever
      • Understand the link between poor air quality and asthma
      We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Think about a) three triggers found in the atmosphere of hay fever and b) the main symptoms of hay fever. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on supporting conclusions using reasoned arguments and evidence Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: Air quality, respiratory system, lungs, pollutants, asthma, hay fever, pollen, link, correlation particulates and dust. Numeracy: Two in every ten children and one in every ten adults can suffer from either hay fever and/or asthma. Asthma is triggered by dust, carbon particulates and even pollen found in the air that we breathe
    • Extension questions: 1: Explain why if you suffer from hay fever your symptoms will be less if a) you are in a large city and b) during the winter months ? 2: Explain why weather report now include information for pollen levels only during the summer months ? 3: Explain how you could show a link or correlation between pollen levels and hay fever symptoms ? 4: explain how you could do a simple skin test to check if a hay fever sufferer was allergic to other pollutants like dust or particulates ? Know this: a: Know that poor air quality and respiratory health. b: Know the main triggers for hay fever symptoms. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Medical evidence collected over many years shows there is a firm link or correlation between the amount of pollen in the air and hay fever. Hay fever describes a number of symptoms that people suffer when exposed to high levels of pollen. Asthma attacks can also be triggered by high levels of dust, pollen and carbon particulates. C1.9 How does air quality affect our health
    • C1.9 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Hay fever affects two in every 10 people in the UK. It is caused by an allergy to airborne substances such as grass or hay pollen, which affects the upper respiratory passages and usually occurs during the spring and summer months. Exactly when you get it depends on which pollens you are allergic to. How could you show a link between levels of dust or pollen in the atmosphere number of people suffering from hay fever symptoms ? For sufferers of hay fever caused by high pollen levels which months would you expect them to suffer the greatest ? How does dust, pollen or grass pollens trigger hay fever in those who suffer hey fever symptoms ? Dust Pollen Grass Allergens Hay fever triggers Key concepts
    • Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain why it is important to know what things a person is allergic to ? Look at the above picture make, what things is this person allergic to ? Skin allergy testing is a method for medical diagnosis of allergies that attempts to provoke a small, controlled, allergic response. A microscopic amount of an allergen is introduced to a patient's skin by various means. Some allergies are identified in a few minutes but others may take several days. In all cases where the test is positive, the skin will become raised, red and appear itchy. C1.9 b Skin allergy testing Dog Pollen Dust Cat Horse
    • C1.9 Plenary Lesson summary: Friday 21 October 2011 About 3000 to 5000 people every year in the UK die form respiratory complication link to poor air quality. In summer when the air pressure is high and daily temperatures and UV levels also remain high photochemical smog in large cities can lead to an increase in hospital admissions and patient deaths. How Science Works: Research into the airborne triggers of asthma and how poor air quality can trigger an asthmatic attack. Preparing for the next lesson: Air that is heavily ______ with pollutants like particulate nitrous _____ and sulphur dioxide in large cities can cause the early death in the old and respiratory ______ in the very young and people who suffer from _________. In the UK we have laws and legislature ensuring the we all enjoy minimum air _______ standards. oxides quality polluted asthma Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Cars have to pass an emission test every year as part of the MOT ? False True 2: The major source of outdoor air pollutants are smokers ? False True 1: Air quality in cities is better than the air quality in the countryside ?
    • C1.10 Asthma and air quality Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
      • Lesson objectives:
      • Understand that poor air quality can trigger an asthma attack
      • Understand what pollutants found in polluted air can trigger an asthma attack
      We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Think about what steps you would take to help a friend whop was suffering from a full asthma attack. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on planning and carrying out research, appreciating the consequences of decisions Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: Air quality, respiratory system, lungs, pollutants, asthma, hay fever, pollen, link, correlation particulates and dust. Numeracy: Two in every ten children and one in every ten adults can suffer from either hay fever and/or asthma. Asthma is triggered by dust, carbon particulates and even pollen found in the air that we breathe.
    • C1.10 Extension questions: 1: Describe two early symptoms that happen just prior to a full blown asthma attack ? 2: If you could measure the diameter of a small airway (bronchiole) that takes air from outside to the alveoli surface what would happen to their diameter during an asthma attack ? 3: Explain how you could show a link between high levels of air pollutants and the number of patients admitted to hospital due to asthma and On poor air quality days if you suffer from asthma what should you do ? Know this: a: Know that poor air quality can trigger asthma attack in those who suffer from asthma. b: Know that two pollutants nitrous oxides and carbon particulate have been linked to triggering asthma Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: An asthma attack can be fatal especially in the very young and old. The symptoms can be treated with drugs that are inhaled that relax the airways and relive the symptoms including shortness of breath and a sensation of suffocation. Both carbon particulates and nitrous oxides have been shown to trigger asthma attacks. On poor air quality days, more deaths from respiratory complications including asthma are reported by the National Health Service Asthma and air quality
    • Key concepts C1.10 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Asthma is a condition that affects the smaller airways of the lungs. During AN asthma attack which can be triggered by dust, carbon particulates and even pollen time the airways constrict (narrow) in people who have asthma. This causes the typical symptoms. The extent of the narrowing, and how long each episode lasts, can vary greatly List the symptoms of a full blown asthma attack ? Asthma and asthma triggers
    • C1.10 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: During days where air quality is poor what advise would you give an asthmatic ? How can you reduce the number of household dust mites found in bedding and your mattress ? Dust fur/hair Pollen Mites Asthma triggers When a person with asthma comes into contact with something that irritates their airways (an asthma trigger), the muscles around the walls of the airways tighten so that the airways become narrower and the lining of the airways becomes inflamed and starts to swell. Sometimes sticky mucus or phlegm builds up which can further narrow the airways. All these reactions cause the airways to become narrower and irritated - making it difficult to breath and leading to symptoms of asthma. 5.4m people in the UK are currently receiving treatment for asthma. Key concepts
    • C1.10 Plenary Lesson summary: triggers asthma particulates constrict Friday 21 October 2011 Diesel engines produce high levels of carbon particulates when compared to the emissions of petro engines. This very fine soot can land inside the small airways of the lungs and cause an allergic type reaction that cause the airways to constrict and therefore reducing airflow to the lungs. How Science Works: Research into how automotive catalytic convertors help reduce levels of harmful gases like carbon monoxide, un-burnt hydrocarbons and nitrogen monoxide. Preparing for the next lesson: Pollutants like dust and _________ can act as _________ causing the small airway to _______ reducing the flow of air the lungs. During an _______ attack, the person can feel like they are being suffocated.. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: A particulate is large piece of un-burnt carbon found in exhaust fumes ? False True 2: Asthmatic should avoid living near busy main roads ? False True 1: The airways can be dilated by drugs and inhalers ?
    • C1.11 Technology improving air quality Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
      • Lesson objectives:
      • Understand how new technology can reduce the quantities if primary pollutants released into the atmosphere
      • Understand how the catalytic converters reduces automotive pollutants
      We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Explain why the law now require all cars which are sold after 1999 to be fitted with a catalytic convertor and how will this change in law help improve air quality particularly in cities and near busy roads ? Literacy: Emissions, exhaust, fumes, traffic, catalytic convertor, platinum, carbon monoxide, particulates, nitrogen monoxide and hydrocarbons Numeracy: In the average catalytic convertor there is over £300 pounds of precious metals like platinum, rhodium and nickel. The scrap value of a catalytic convertor is about £50 to 100 pounds. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on exploring issues, events or problems from different perspectives Team workers Effective participators Self managers
    • C1.11 Extension questions: 1: Catalytic converters reduce levels of carbon monoxide by changing it to carbon dioxide. Explain why high levels of carbon monoxide are dangerous to human health ? 2: Catalytic convertors will only work well when there are hot. Explain why short car journeys can cause high levels of pollutants ? 3: Explain how using low sulphur petrol and diesel can help reduce the levels of acid rain causing SO 2 in exhaust emissions ? 4: Explain why levels of pollutants from fossil fuel power stations should also be controlled just like they now are from cars ? Know this: a: Know that we now use technology to help improve air quality. b: Know that cars sold after 1999 must be fitted with a catalytic convertor. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Automotive catalytic converted which is part of the exhaust system uses metals like platinum, nickel and rhodium to reduce the levels of harmful carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrous oxides (NOx) and un-burnt hydrocarbons (HC) found in exhaust emissions. When these molecules land on the surface of the metal catalysts, they form less harmful pollutants like carbon dioxide (from CO), nitrogen (from NOx) and water (from un-burnt hydrocarbons). Technology improving air quality
    • C1.11 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: The catalytic converter The sole main role of a catalytic converter is to reheat already-burned exhaust gases from a car's engine. As burned engine fuel, or exhaust, leaves a car's engine, it travels along a car's exhaust system. A catalytic converter is located in the middle portion of the exhaust system--between the engine and the tailpipe. Exhaust gas flows directly into the catalytic converter and is reignited and re-burned to reduce emissions With CAT Without CAT Look at the diagram opposite left, it shows how a catalytic converted reduces the levels of harmful carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrous oxides (NOx) and un-burnt hydrocarbon (HC). What metal catalysts help these chemicals react to form carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water ? HC CO NO X HC CO NO X Look at he bar charts opposite left, do they show that the catalytic converters reduce the levels of harmful gases like un-burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrous oxides ? Key concepts
    • Key concepts C1.11 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: How could you reduce the number of short journeys that your family made using a car during the week HC Hydrocarbon CO Carbon monoxide NOX Nitrous oxides H 2 O Water CO 2 Carbon dioxide N 2 Nitrogen Traffic pollution has been blamed for tens of thousands of deaths every year across Europe. Research published in The Lancet medical journal estimates that 6% of deaths per year in most European countries are due to air pollution. Half these deaths - some 20,000 - were linked to traffic fumes. Since January 1993, all new cars sold in the EU have been fitted with a catalytic converter. As exhaust gasses pass through the catalyst a chemical reaction occurs which converts carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) to less harmful compounds (water, nitrogen and carbon dioxide). The catalytic converter All new cars now have to be fitted with a catalytic converter. These work only when they are very hot. Explain why they will not reduce the levels of pollutants like carbon monoxide on shorter journeys ?
    • C1.11 Plenary Lesson summary: nitrous carbon catalytic humans Friday 21 October 2011 Catalytic converters found in cars only work well when they are hot. They require high temperature for the chemical reactions that reduce the levels of harmful gases including carbon monoxide ad nitrous oxides. Short journeys produce mile for mile more pollutants when compared to longer journeys. How Science Works: Research into how the government and the laws they have pass have helped to improve air quality. Preparing for the next lesson: Pollutants include ________ dioxide, carbon monoxide and _______ oxides can be reduce by cars using __________ convertors and by power station also treating their waste gases which escape into the atmosphere and cause respiratory problems in ___________. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Carbon monoxide can prevent red blood cells form carrying oxygen ? False True 2: Power stations are now beginning to remove SO 2 from their waste gases ? False True 1: Catalytic converters only work well when they are hot ?
    • C1.12 How can governments improve air quality Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
      • Lesson objectives:
      • Understand how new laws and legislation can improve air quality
      • Understand why the government have a duty to improve air quality
      • Understand how congestion charging is helping to improve London’s air quality
      We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: List three laws of articles of legislation that the government has introduce over the last fifty years that has improved air quality ? PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on trying out alternatives or new solutions and follow ideas through Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: Emissions, exhaust, fumes, traffic, catalytic convertor, platinum, carbon monoxide, particulates, nitrogen monoxide and hydrocarbons Numeracy: In London, if you want to bring your car into the congestion charge zone you have to pay 8 pounds for a single day. This charge persuade people to take tubes and buses and also has help to reduce pollution indie the zone..
    • C1.12 Extension questions: 1: Explain why the government banned the use of normal coal in Greater London form 1956 onwards ? 2: Explain how car tax (road fund licence) and fuel duty help dissuade people in using their cars ? 3: The London congestion charge has reduced traffic inside the zone, explain why pollution levels have risen in area just outside the charging zone ? 4: Explain why the government now use monies raise from fuel duties to improve public transport ? Know this: a: Know that new laws are passed to improve air quality. b: Know that the government have a responsibility to ensure good air quality for all the population. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: We all contribute to air pollution, through the choices we make with transport, buying goods and the amount of energy we use. Governments have over the last 150 years introduced many law and regulations to help improve air quality. We can all do our bit, however it often appears that one person alone cannot make a difference to pollution levels. However, even if each of us were only to make a small change to our daily lives, it could have a major impact on London's air. How can governments improve air quality
    • C1.12 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: The London congestion charge is a fee for motorists travelling within those parts of London designated as the Congestion Charge Zone. The main objectives of this charge are to reduce congestion, force people onto public transport increase air quality and to raise funds for investment in London's transport system. Explain three things the congestion charge hope to do by its introduction in 2001 ? If the price to enter the congestion charging zone increased from £8 per day to £25 per day would this persuade more people not to use their cars ? Just outside the congestion charging zone would you expect the levels of pollutants from transport to decrease or increase. Explain your answer ? Key concepts
    • Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Look at the bar chart above right, how has pollution levels changes (y axis scale 0 to 20) from before (2005) and after the (2006) congestion charge ? Why did the government also provide extra buses, tubes and trains in London when the congestion charge was introduced ? The congestion charging zone was introduces to reduce traffic and urban pollution and encourage better use if public transport. Scientists made a comparison before and after the zone was introduced. As the reduction in traffic took place in densely populated areas, the reduction – mainly of particles – brought a major health benefit to the county as a whole.“ C1.12 b Did the congestion charge reduce traffic and pollution
    • C1.12 Plenary Lesson summary: carbon targets strategy improve Friday 21 October 2011 The congestion charge has changed peoples behaviour because it is now very costly to drive into central London using our car. Although people living inside the zone now enjoy cleaner air, people outside the zone are subject to poorer air quality because of an increase in traffic. How Science Works: Revise for your end of module min test: use www.bbc/bitesize.co.uk , your text books and your exercise books Preparing for the next lesson: Laws and legislation have been introduce over the last 150 years to ________ air quality here in the UK. We now have a national air quality _______ which has set very strict __________ for a reduction in UK emissions of toxic pollutants like ________ monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxides. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: An electric car that produce no emissions does not have to pay car tax ? False True 2: Car tax is now more expensive for larger cars like 4 x 4 and sports cars ? False True 1: Congestion charging persuade people to use public transport ?