C1 lesson part one

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science gcse core, additional and triple science powerpoints

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  • 1. C1 Air quality Route map Over the next 12 lessons you will study : Friday 21 October 2011 C1.1 The Earth’s atmosphere C1.2 What are the main pollutants C1.3 Air quality round the UK C1.4 Measuring an air pollutant End of module test C1.5 How are pollutants formed C1.6 What happens during combustion C1.7 Where do all the atoms go C1.8 What happens to atmospheric pollutants C1.9 Air quality and health C1.10 Asthma and air quality C1.11 Technology improving air quality C1.12 Governments improving air quality
  • 2. C1.1 Earth’s atmosphere Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
    • Lesson objectives:
    • Understand what the composition of air is
    • Know some of the main pollutants found in air
    • Understand the importance of the atmosphere
    We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour are three gases found in our atmosphere: a) why do you think oxygen is important b) why do you think carbon dioxide is important and c) why do you think water vapour is important ? Literacy: Air, atmosphere, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen, noble gases, composition, pollution, air-quality, smog, dust & particulate. Numeracy: Just 1% of the Earth's atmosphere has a mass of 2500 billion tonnes. The percentage of oxygen in air is approximately 20%, that a staggering 50,000 billions tonnes of oxygen ! PLTS Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on knowing setting goals and success criteria. Team workers Effective participators Self managers Independent enquirers
  • 3. C1.1 Earth’s atmosphere Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Introduction: The atmosphere is a 15 km thick layer of air that surrounds the Earth. It contains the gases that all living things need to survive and also keeps the Earth warm enough to support life. Over millions of years, the atmosphere has changed. At first it was mainly hydrogen and helium but now it is mainly nitrogen and oxygen. Human activity is changing the atmosphere. By burning fossil fuels and other chemicals, we are adding pollutant like sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide a greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. Extension questions: 1: Which process produces oxygen ? 2: Which process uses carbon dioxide ? 3: What types of human activity increase the percentage of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere ? 4: Name another greenhouse gas and what's the difference between the greenhouse effect and global warming ? 5: How has the atmosphere changed over millions of years ? Know this: a: The atmosphere is a mixture of gases (mainly nitrogen and oxygen). b: Natural and human processes change the amounts of gases in the atmosphere. Friday 21 October 2011
  • 4. C1.1 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Our atmosphere can sustain life at a height of about 10 km above sea level. It is a mixture of billions of tonnes of different gases. Our atmosphere insulates us and protect us against UV radiation. The present composition of the atmosphere is 79% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, and 1% other gases including carbon dioxide and the Noble gases (Neon, Argon, Krypton & Xenon). Which gas do we exchange in our lungs and use to respire glucose producing water and carbon dioxide ? Describe how water content would change in a sample of air taken form a tropical rain forest and a desert in the sub Sahara ? Are we adding or removing carbon dioxide to our atmosphere by burning fossil fuels like petrol and diesel ? Oxygen (O 2 ) Nitrogen (N 2 ) Water (H 2 O) Ozone (O 3 ) dioxide (CO 2 ) Carbon Gases found in the atmosphere Key concepts
  • 5. Key concepts C1.1 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: A planet's atmosphere helps shield a planet from UV radiation from the Sun and it moderates the amount of energy lost to space. An atmosphere also makes it possible for life to exist. All of the planets started out with atmospheres of hydrogen and helium. The inner four planets lost their original atmospheres. The atmospheres they have now are from gases released from their interiors, but Mercury and Mars have even lost most of their secondary atmospheres. Explain why the atmospheric conditions found in both Mars and Venus are unlikely to support either simple or complex life ? Explain the difference between a primary and secondary atmosphere here on Earth ? Atmosphere 79% N 2 20% O 2 Thin mostly CO 2 97% CO 2 very dense Surface temp Average 18 o C Average -48 o C Average 425 o C Humidity Variable O% Very high Atmospheres of Earth, Mars and Venus
  • 6. C1.1 Plenary Lesson summary: ozone atmosphere oxygen clean Friday 21 October 2011 Every time we burn fossil fuels for travel. For generating electricity or for heating our homes, we add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Cows also add methane to the atmosphere. Both of these are greenhouses gases. Increasing the amount of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere causes global warming. How Science Works: Research about the main pollutants and find out who are the major pollutants of Earth’s atmosphere Preparing for the next lesson: The ___________ supplies with the _______ we need for respiration. A thin layer of high altitude _______ also protects us from UV light (ozone). Pollutants from cars and other activities can reduce air quality and damage our lungs. It is essential that we all have _____ air to breathe. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Combusting fossil fuels can add sulphur and carbon dioxide to the air ? False True 2: The atmosphere contains 79% oxygen and 20% nitrogen ? False True 1: Cancer causing UV light is stopped by a thin layer of ozone ?
  • 7. C1.2 What are the main pollutants Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
    • Lesson objectives:
    • Understand what the main pollutants are found in the lower atmosphere
    • Understand the health effects of the main pollutants
    • Understand how to measure the level of atmospheric pollutants
    We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: List as many air pollutants found in lower level atmosphere as the result of human activity ? Literacy: Air, atmosphere, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen, noble gases, pollution, air-quality, smog, dust, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxides & particulate. Numeracy: Particulates are small particles of un-burnt carbon just 10 to 20 microns in diameter. They are produced mainly by diesel engines and when inhaled can clog the lung and cause an asthma attack ! PLTS We will focus on analysing and evaluating information judging its relevance and value. Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners Team workers Effective participators Self managers
  • 8. C1.2 Friday 21 October 2011 Extension questions: 1: Write down one problem that can be caused by high levels of the following in the atmosphere a) SO 2 b) NO 2 and c) dust 2: Acid rain is caused when sulphur dioxide is release as a by product when burning fossil fuels...how can low sulphur fuels help ? 3: Explain why levels of pollutants peak at 9.00 am and 6.00 pm in cities and bear busy roads ? 4: Explain why clean air is important for all of us ? 5: Explain why the old and young are particularly vulnerable ? Know this: a: That the main pollutants are particulates, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxides and sulphur dioxide b: Know how the measure levels of these polluting molecules. Introduction: Human activities like using a car and burning fossil fuels in a power station can produce molecules that cause air pollutants: What are the main pollutants Name Environmental problems caused and health concerns Sulphur dioxide Acid rain can damage plant life. Can also cause pH of pond and river water to become acidified Carbon monoxide If inhaled into the lung can bind red blood cells and asphyxiate Nitrogen dioxide Can trigger an asthma attack in the young and old Particulates Can darken stone and make things dirty and also trigger an asthma attack in the young and old.
  • 9. C1.2 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Emissions form car exhausts contain toxic gases. These gases are breathed in and transported to all the body's major organs. These pollutants include, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, dinitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide, low level ozone, and particulates. The most obvious health impact of car emissions is on the respiratory system. Both nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) are toxic even at low levels causing lung damage and higher blood pressure...explain what effects these gases may have on a) an asthma sufferer and b) some with cardiovascular problems ? Explain why regular vehicle emission testing helps maintain good air quality in cities across the country ? What effect will sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) have on the environment ? Ozone (O 3 ) low level Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) Nitrogen monoxide (NO) Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) Dinitrogen oxide (N 2 O) dioxide (CO 2 ) Carbon monoxide (CO) Carbon Particulates Key concepts
  • 10. Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: In Beijing the average air quality index values are around 150 to 200 for any one day. What did they do to improve air quality during the 2008 Olympics ? Would you expect summer values for air quality in London to be better or worse when compared to winter values ? The Air Quality Index ( AQI ) is a number used by government agencies to characterize the quality of the air at a given location. As the AQI increases, an increasingly large percentage of the population is likely to experience increasingly severe adverse health effects. Good air quality has a range of 0 to 50 with very poor air quality a range of 301 to 500. To compute the AQI requires an air pollutant concentration from a monitor. C1.2 b Air quality index
  • 11. Key concepts C1.2 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: If you have lung problems or are particularly sensitive, the type and level of pollution you are exposed to may cause an effect, as described below. In addition to health effects, air pollution can also affect the environment surrounding us; which may include discoloration and erosion of buildings and minimised vegetation growth in city areas, the green house effect and global warming and acidification of water ways. Compare the impact on humans of high levels of Sulphur dioxide and Pollen in the atmosphere ? Explain how high levels of carbon monoxide can increase the number of hospital admissions for heart attacks or emergencies ? Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) monoxide (CO) Carbon Pollen Major air pollutants and their health effects causes acid rain can trigger asthma lowers oxygen can trigger asthma transport to tissues
  • 12. C1.2 Plenary Lesson summary: health quality clean sulphur Friday 21 October 2011 Exhaust smoke contains millions of tiny microscopic particles of un-burnt carbon known as particulates as well as three major polluting gases: Sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxides and carbon monoxide. All these pollutants can cause respiratory complications. How Science Works: Research about how we monitor air quality and what is the air quality index Preparing for the next lesson: Poor air _______ in large cities like London can have an adverse ______ effect on millions of people. _______ air should be a right for us all. Pollutants like _______ dioxide, carbon monoxide and particulates can impair quality of life and can also be potentially fatal for the young, old and people with respiratory complications. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Exhaust fumes are a mixture of three major gases ad carbon particulates ? False True 2: Sulphur dioxide can bind to blood cells and prevent oxygen getting to cells ? False True 1: Nitrous oxides like NO 2 can trigger an asthmatic attack ?
  • 13. C1.3 Air quality around the UK Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
    • Lesson objectives:
    • Understand that air quality changes depending on where you live
    • Understand what factors can influence air quality
    • Understand that levels of pollutants can fluctuate daily
    We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Explain how you would collect data on a single air pollutant to show how levels changed over a 24 hour period and a one week period. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on generate ideas and explore possibilities Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: Air, atmosphere, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen, noble gases, pollution, air-quality, smog, dust, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxides & particulate. Numeracy: Monitor any air pollutant like for example Nitrous oxides and they levels will vary or fluctuate over even small time periods like 24 hours. Nitrous oxide concentration peak when morning and evening rush hours happen over a 24 hour period.
  • 14. C1.3 Extension questions: 1: Explain why city air is more polluted when compared to air in the countryside ? 2: If you measure the concentration of nitrogen dioxide a pollutant found in traffic emissions how would you expect it to change if you took samples of air from a) London b) Beijing and c) a small village ? 3: Explain how pollutants can be transported by prevailing winds ? 4: The pollution that comes from traffic in London is blown east toward Sweden and Denmark, what effects would our dirty air have on those countries ? Know this: a: That air quality can change depending where you are in the World. b: That air pollutants can be moved by prevailing winds. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Air quality changes depending on where you are in the UK. People who live near major roads, industry, airports and building sites have air that contains higher levels of pollutant compared to people who live in unpopulated countryside. Levels of pollutants can also change daily or even hourly. Pollutants caused by traffic emissions will peak during morning and evening rush hours. Air quality around the UK
  • 15. C1.3 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Many factors can influence the overall air quality that you enjoy where you work and live. Being near to major roads, heavy industry and airports can decrease the quality of the air that you breathe. Even around London, air quality is best away from busy roads and airports like Heathrow. Prevailing winds can also affect air quality. Looking at the map of Greater London, which also shoes the motorway network, describe where you would expect to find the cleanest air ? London enjoys prevailing winds that sweep in from the South West. Explain why people in the North West of London have poorer air quality ? In the very centre of London congestion charging has reduce traffic levels by about 25%. What effect would this have on air quality for local people ? Greater London Wind Key concepts
  • 16. C1.3 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain why air quality is monitored in large cities such as London ? Describe the main qualitative differences between clean atmosphere and polluted atmosphere ? Oxygen (O 2 ) Nitrogen (N 2 ) Water (H 2 O) Ozone (O 3 ) dioxide (CO 2 ) Carbon Oxygen (O 2 ) Nitrogen (N 2 ) Water (H 2 O) Ozone (O 3 ) low level Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) Nitrogen monoxide (NO) Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) Dinitrogen oxide (N 2 O) Carbon monoxide (CO) The present composition of the atmosphere is 79% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, and 1% other gases including carbon dioxide and the Noble gases (Neon, Argon, Krypton & Xenon). Emissions form car exhausts contain toxic gases. These gases are breathed in and transported to all the body's major organs. These pollutants include, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, dinitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide, low level ozone, and particulates. The most obvious health impact of car emissions is on the respiratory system. Key concepts
  • 17. C1.3 Plenary Lesson summary: traffic live factories nitrous Friday 21 October 2011 The UK enjoys relatively clean air, not because we have the cleanest of fewest cars but because our winds take our air towards Europe. Prevailing winds across England blow in from the west carrying pollutants to the east….un lucky if you live in Sweden or Denmark. How Science Works: Research about how we measure air quality and what is the air quality index ? Preparing for the next lesson: Emissions from _______, power stations and __________ can contain pollutants like carbon monoxide, ________ oxides, sulphur dioxide and particulates. The levels of these pollutants can vary depending on where you _______ and work. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Living near a major road can affect the air quality near your home ? False True 2: Pollutants from vehicle emissions peak at around 10 p.m at night ? False True 1: High levels of low level atmospheric pollutants are found in the countryside ?
  • 18. C1.4 Measuring an air pollutant Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
    • Lesson objectives:
    • Understand how air quality is measured
    • Know that the air quality index is used around the World
    • Understand how air quality data is checked for reliability
    We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Estimate the air quality value for a sample of air taken form London, Beijing and Sydney....explain why the values differ and are these differences due to differences in human activity, government legislation protecting air quality, geography or all three ? PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on take responsibility, showing confidence in themselves and their contribution. Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: Air, air quality index, atmosphere, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen, noble gases, pollution, air-quality, smog, dust, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxides & particulate. Numeracy: The air quality index is a measure of the quality of air. The index is used around the World and gives a numerical value to air quality ranging from 0 to 50 for perfect air and 301 to 500 for heavily polluted, hazardous air !
  • 19. C1.4 Measuring an air pollutant Extension questions: 1: Explain why clean air is important for general good respiratory health ? 2: Recent studies have shown that about 30,000 people die in Europe every year from respiratory diseases caused by air pollution. Do you think the government are doing enough to ensure air quality is good in the large cities of the UK 3: Give three ways you could reduce air pollution ? 4: Explain why scientists take more than one sample in different locations around a city and repeat experiments several times ? Know this: a: That air quality is measured and given a numerical value between 0 and 500. b: That data reliability can be improve by repeating experiments many times and taking an average. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Air samples are taken regularly from major cities like London and tested for levels of sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxides, carbon monoxide and particulates. Levels of each pollutant determine the overall numerical value for air quality. This index ranges form 0 to 50 for clean air to 301 to 500 for hazardous air or heavily polluted air. Taking more samples and repeating the tests done helps to improve the reliability of results.
  • 20. C1.4 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Traffic emissions are a major threat to clean air. Petrol and diesel engined vehicles emit many pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulates (PM10), which are tiny soot particles of un-burnt carbon. Photochemical reactions also produce low level ozone (O 3 ). All these chemicals combine to produce city smog ! Explain why it is important to have clean air around major cities like London, New York and Beijing ? In Beijing before they closed factories and removed cars from the streets average pollution was about 150 –to 190 on the AQI scale. During the Olympics it fell to around 70 to 90 on the AQI scale...explain why ? Explain why the Beijing authorities wanted to improve air quality during the Olympic games ? Oxygen (O 2 ) Nitrogen (N 2 ) Ozone (O 3 ) low level Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Water (H 2 O) Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) Nitrogen monoxide (NO) Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) Ozone (O 3 ) Key concepts
  • 21. Key concepts C1.4 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Urban air pollutants arise from a wide variety of sources although they are mainly a result of combustion of fossil fuels by cars and lorries Today, the largest source of pollution in most urban areas is motor vehicles. Traffic-generated pollutants include nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and particulates. On a warm day the strong sunlight leads to a build-up of ozone. Explain why pollution levels increase in urban area close to ground levels ? If you surveyed air pollution levels around the Gherkin and obtained results as shown above where would you place your air intakes for the air conditioning systems and why ? Pollution and building design
  • 22. C1.4 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: When chemists sample, they will use a qualitative or quantitative analytical method. A qualitative method tells the chemist what is present in a sample for example the presence of a banned drug in an athletes blood. A quantitative sample will tell the chemist how much there is of a chemical compound for example the amount of vitamin C in a soft drink. Which sampling method would you use to determine a) concentration of sodium in drinking water and b) the presence of a banned drug in urine ? Why do chemists often repeat their sample test sometime up to three times ? If you took three samples and tested them in the same way and one sample result didn't match the other what would you do ? Quantitative Qualitative Quantitative tells us how much of a substance here is in a sample Qualitative tells us what chemicals, drugs or compounds there are in a sample Type of chemical analysis Key concepts
  • 23. C1.4 Plenary Lesson summary: respiratory quality Numerical; fifty Friday 21 October 2011 Air quality is regularly tested in cities and industrialised areas. Several separate samples are taken form a ‘test site’ and then tested back in the laboratory. A value between 0 and 500 obtained, with the other samples also checked giving a more reliable average value. The more sample tested the more reliable the data becomes. How Science Works: Research about who pollutant and what or who are the major polluters here in UK. Preparing for the next lesson: The air ___________ index gives us a __________ value for the quality of air. Clean air has a value less than _________, Hazardous, heavily polluted air has a value between 301 and 500. Poor air quality can cause increase ________ raetes through respiratory problems Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: A major polluter in the UK are the 30 million cars currently used every day ? False True 2: Poor air quality is not linked to respiratory complication in the young and old ? False True 1: Countryside air quality is normally better when compared to city air ?
  • 24. C1.5 How are atmospheric pollutants formed Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
    • Lesson objectives:
    • Understand the chemical changes involved that produce polluting molecules
    • Understand who or what are the major sources of atmospheric pollutants
    • Understand how to reduce the level of atmospheric pollutants
    We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Explain why low level atmospheric pollution peaks at about 9.00 am and 7.00 p.m from Monday to Friday ? PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on review progress, acting on the outcomes. Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: Air, air quality index, atmosphere, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen, noble gases, pollution, air-quality, smog, dust, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxides & particulate. Numeracy: There are three major polluters responsible for the vast majority of polluting molecules found in lower level atmosphere. The polluters are industry, fossil fuel power stations and the millions of cars, motorbikes and lorries on our roads.
  • 25. C1.5 Extension questions: 1: Write the chemical formulae for octane and oxygen and give the symbols for sulphur and nitrogen ? 2: Write the formulae for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxides ? 3: Coal used in coal burning power stations has very high quantities of sulphur...If you sample the emissions from this power station what polluting gas would you expect to find high levels of ? 4: Write a word equation to show how carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide forms during the combustion of fossil fuels ? Know this: a: That chemical changes cause air polluting molecules to be formed. b: That vehicles, power stations and heavy industries are the major polluters. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: The vast majority of air pollutants are caused by burning fossil fuels. The combustion of fuels occurs in vehicle engines and power stations. In goes octane, oxygen low amounts of the impurities nitrogen and sulphur Out comes carbon dioxide, un-burnt carbon particulates, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxides and sulphur dioxide. How are atmospheric pollutants formed
  • 26. Key concepts C1.5 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: A petrol engine is an internal combustion engine, burning fuel (petrol or diesel) with oxygen. To generate motion you burn the petrol inside the engine - if you put a tiny amount of fuel in a small, enclosed space and ignite it, it explodes and energy is released. Petrol comes from oil. Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbon that when combusted release both water and carbon dioxide. Show an energy transfer when fossil fuels like petrol and combusted to provide forward movement in a car ? What is the main polluting gas form combusting fossil fuels inside the engine of a car ? Substrates Products octane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water
  • 27. Key concepts C1.5 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: A fossil-fuel power station is a power station that burns fossil fuels such as coal, to produce electricity The flue gas from combustion of the fossil fuels is discharged to the air; this contains carbon dioxide and water vapour, as well as other gases such as, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and fly ash, mercury and other metals. Solid waste ash from coal-fired boilers must also be removed. Some coal ash can be recycled for building materials. Explain how the chemical energy trapped in coal is converted into electricity ? Low sulphur coal is now used instead of high sulphur coal, why is this better for the environment ? Pollution and coal fired power stations
  • 28. Key concepts C1.5 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Burning coal produces vast amounts of CO 2 . If burning coal were to become environmentally clean source for generating electricity, combined with energy storage using high capacity batteries it could be used by electric vehicles. Although, there is a clean burning coal testing plant that was built in Germany in 2008, it is not clear how economically feasible this technology is today. With only 50 years supply of oil and 300 years supply of coal, why could clean coal technology be very important in the next 50 years ? Clean coal technology of the future
  • 29. C1.5 Plenary Lesson summary: nitrous older pollutants particulates Friday 21 October 2011 Vehicle engines either combust LPG, petrol or diesel. Both LPG and Petrol engines create less particulate pollution when compared to diesel engines. This is because diesel contains very long chained hydrocarbons which are difficult to fully combust. Incomplete combustion of diesel is energy inefficient and also causes un-burnt carbon particulate to pollute the atmosphere How Science Works: Research what happens during combustion and look at the fire triangle Preparing for the next lesson: Transport in the UK produces the vast majority of atmospheric _______ like carbon monoxide, _______ oxides, sulphur dioxide and carbon ___________. Well maintained newer engines produce less pollution when compared to badly maintained _________ engines. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Catalytic convertors found in all new cars reduces pollution ? False True 2: Traffic emissions peak during the morning and evening rush hours ? False True 1: Diesel fuel contains more sulphur than fuels like LPG and petrol ?
  • 30. C1.6 What happens during combustion Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
    • Lesson objectives:
    • Understand the chemical changes involved in combustion
    • Understand that combusting fuels release large amount of heat energy to the surroundings
    • Understand that combustion requires a fuel, oxygen and an ignition source
    We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: List the three things that are required form combustion to occur ? PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on plan and carry out research, appreciating the consequences of decisions Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: Combustion, fuel, oxygen, ignition, heat energy, carbon dioxide, water vapour, combustion engine, pollution, air-quality, smog, dust, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxides & particulate. Numeracy: The average family cars does about 42 miles to the gallon or 14 km to the litre. Combustion engines are only about 15% efficient, meaning that a whopping 85% of the chemical energy in fuels is lost to the surrounding without doing useful work.
  • 31. C1.6 Extension questions: 1: Name five different types of fuels for example methane ? 2: Give the name of one fuel that is a) easy to transport into the home b) that is easily lit c) that produces very little pollution when combusted in air and d) that is a concentrated source of chemical energy 3: Looking at the fire triangle, explain why a) you place a damp cloth over a chip pan fire b) you are not allowed to smoke in a petrol station and c) why fire extinguishers are filled with carbon dioxide gas ? Know this: a: That combustion of fuels contain carbon release large amounts of heat energy. b: That combustion requires fuel, oxygen and an ignition or heat source. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Some chemicals, mainly fuels like methane and octane in petrol react rapidly with oxygen to release large amount of heat energy. The combustion of a fuel like octane or even charcoal which is almost pure carbon and is the fuel used by BBQ’s can be describe by a word and symbol equation: Substrates Products Carbon + Oxygen Carbon dioxide C (s) + O 2 (g) CO 2 What happens during combustion
  • 32. C1.6 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: The fire triangle is a simple model, for understanding what is needed for a fire to happen. The triangle illustrates the rule that in order to ignite and burn, a fire requires three things: heat, fuel, and an oxidizing agent (usually oxygen). The fire is prevented or extinguished by removing any one of them. A fire naturally occurs when the elements are combined in the right mixture . An open can of petrol is surrounded by air containing oxygen...explain what other factor it needed for combustion to happen ? Explain using the fire triangle why fire fighters use water to fight fires ? Explain why you have to switch off your engine and not smoke when you are filling your car at a petrol station ? Key concepts
  • 33. C1.6 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: An engine works by combusting octane (C 8 H 18 ) with oxygen (O 2 ). The fuel/air mixture is pulled into a cylinder, A spark ignites the mixture to create combustion to thrust the piston downward and the car forward. If combustion was complete are there were no nitrogen or sulphur impurities in the petrol, the only products would be carbon dioxide and water. What two elements do all hydrocarbons like methane, butane and octane contain ? How does a) carbon monoxide and b) carbon particulates affect human health and in particular the lungs ? Explain why all cars have to undergo a yearly emissions test as part of the vehicle MOT which test the level of these polluting gases ? octane + oxygen carbon dioxide + Substrates Products water Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) Nitrogen monoxide (NO) Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) Dinitrogen oxide (N 2 O) dioxide (CO 2 ) Carbon monoxide (CO) Carbon Particulates Key concepts
  • 34. C1.6 Plenary Lesson summary: particulates nitrous fossil diesel Friday 21 October 2011 An average family car with a 1.6 litre engine will produce about 275 g of CO 2 for every kilometre driven. If your family does 10,000 miles a year that a whopping 2,750 kg or 2.75 tonnes of CO 2 pumped into our atmosphere (10,000 x 0.275 kg) There are 30 million cars in the UK ! How Science Works: Research into understanding what happens during a chemical reaction and how do the properties of products differ form their substrates. Preparing for the next lesson: Atmospheric pollutants like _________, carbon monoxide and ________ oxides are formed when we burn _______ fuels like petrol and __________. Industry, power stations and transport are the three larges polluters Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Nitrous oxides can trigger an asthma attack ? False True 2: Diesel engines produce higher levels of carbon particulates ? False True 1: Electric cars produce no atmospheric pollutants where they are driven ?