B7 Biology ‘triple science’  Route map Over the next 12 lessons you will study : Friday 21 October 2011 B7.1 Harvesting th...
B7.1  Harvesting the sun’s energy Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </...
B7.1  Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Introduction: Plants use energy from sunlight to manufact...
B7.1 a   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: A number of cells play a key role during pho...
B7.1 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: We eat lots of animal protein like chicken. Ch...
Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Cycling of many plant nutrients, especially nitrates,...
B7.1 Plenary Lesson summary:   Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: During photosynth...
B7.2  Trapping light energy Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></u...
Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Introduction: Amazingly less than one billionth of the sun’s en...
B7.2 a   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: There are several factors that limit the rat...
Key concepts B7.2 b   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Chlorophyll, the pigment inside...
B7.2 c  Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Each chloroplast consists of two membranes. T...
B7.2 Plenary Lesson summary:   Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Glucose in conver...
B7.3  Plants using glucose Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul...
Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Introduction: Glucose is used by plants in three ways Making ot...
B7.3 a   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Both starch and cellulose can be formed when...
B7.3 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Glucose is used by plants to manufacture oils,...
B7.3 c   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: We all need energy to function and we get th...
B7.3 Plenary Lesson summary:   Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Mitochondria foun...
B7.4 The rate of photosynthesis Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li...
Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Introduction: The rate at which photosynthesis proceeds in gree...
B7.4 a   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: There are several factors that limit the rat...
B7.4 b   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Three experiments were performed where the a...
B7.4 c   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: 1: Plot a graph of CO 2  concentration (%) v...
B7.4 d   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: One of the raw materials required during pho...
B7.4 Plenary Lesson summary:   intensity leaves rate oxygen The _______ of photosynthesis can be determined by measuring t...
B7.5 Balancing respiration and photosynthesis Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson ob...
Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Introduction: Plant both photosynthesis and respire, however th...
B7.5 a   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: What plants make by photosynthesis, plants a...
B7.5 b   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: During the night, no photosynthesis takes pl...
B7.5 c   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: The carbon cycle describes how carbon found ...
B7.5 Plenary Lesson summary:   balance essential make break What plants _______ by photosynthesis, plants and animals ____...
B7.6  Feeding relationships Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></u...
Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Introduction: Food chains and webs show what eats what but they...
B7.6 a   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Draw a pyramid of numbers for these food cha...
B7.6 b   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Look at the food web opposite left, draw a f...
B7.6 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Food chains shows us how energy in food molecu...
B7.6 d   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Look at the food chain opposite, it shows th...
B7.6 Plenary Lesson summary:   Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Producers take en...
B7.7  Life in soil Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li...
Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Introduction: Soil s rich in dead and living biomass. Rich top ...
B7.7 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Soil in most parts of the World is only around...
B7.7 b   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Decomposers are the ultimate recyclers. In b...
Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Many small insects and arthropods are important first...
B7.7 Plenary Lesson summary:   Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Mineral ions are ...
B7.8  Living together Decide whether the following statements are true or false: We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 ...
Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Introduction: Symbiosis basically means ‘living together’ There...
Key concepts B7.8 a   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Between the leaf, the caterpill...
Key concepts B7.8 b   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Clown anemone fish and sea anem...
Key concepts B7.8 c   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Adult worms living in the heart...
B7.8 Plenary Lesson summary:   Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Friendly bacteria...
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B7 lesson part one

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B7 lesson part one

  1. 1. B7 Biology ‘triple science’ Route map Over the next 12 lessons you will study : Friday 21 October 2011 B7.1 Harvesting the sun’s energy B7.2 Trapping light energy B7.3 Plants using glucose B7.4 The rate of photosynthesis End of module test B7.5 Respiration and photosynthesis B7.6 Feeding relationships B7.14 Genetic testing B7.15 Blood B7.16 Blood groups and inheritance B7.17 The heart B7.18 Circulation and valves B7.19 Energy B7.8 Symbiosis in food chains B7.9 Parasites in food webs B7.10 Parasites and disease B7.11 Using biotechnology B7.20 Exercise in humans B7.21 Anaerobic respiration and ATP B7.22 The skeleton B7.23 Joints and movement B7.12 Genetic modification B7.13 GM crops and their use B7.24 Sport injuries B7.25 Exercise and training B7.7 Life in soil
  2. 2. B7.1 Harvesting the sun’s energy Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that light energy is transferred from the sun’s surface to planet Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that plants are adapted to use light energy during photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that during photosynthesis glucose is made from carbon dioxide and water </li></ul>We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: When energy is passed through an ecosystem, some of the energy is lost at every stage of a food chain. Think of three ways that energy is lost transferring energy from a) a producer to a harbivore and b) a herbivore to a carnivore ? PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners Team workers Effective participators Self managers We will focus on t Literacy: Photosynthesis, green plants, glucose, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, chloroplast, light energy, light waves, kilojoules, infra red radiation and transfer. Numeracy: About 140 billion tonnes of biomass is produced each year by all the World’s plants species each year. Only about 3 billions tonnes of crop biomass is required to feed the entire World’s population.
  3. 3. B7.1 Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Introduction: Plants use energy from sunlight to manufacture in the leaf palisade cells glucose form water and carbon dioxide. The glucose produced during photosynthesis acts as an chemical energy store. Plants are autotrophs able to make their own food. Heterotrophs including all animals cannot make their own food and rely on consuming plant or animal material. A food chain or web shows the feeding relationships between producers, herbivores and carnivore. As you move up the feeding levels energy is lost through respiration and waste. Extension questions: 1: Give one reason why life would not exist as we know it without sunlight ? 2: Name two species that are a) autotophs and b) heterotophs ? 3: Think of your own food chain and show the flow of energy of biomass through the food chain from producer to top predator ? 4: In the food chain grass cow Human. How is energy passed from plant to cow and b) from cow to human ? 5: Does the sun provide energy directly to animals ? Know this: a: Know that light energy is used by plants to manufacture glucose form carbon dioxide and water. b: Know that plants are producers supply chemical energy directly to herbivores or indirectly to carnivores. Friday 21 October 2011 Harvesting the sun’s energy
  4. 4. B7.1 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: A number of cells play a key role during photosynthesis, whereby water and carbon dioxide combine during photosynthesis to form glucose and oxygen. Palisade cells containing chloroplast are the main site of glucose production. Xylem tissue supplies water from the root and phloem tissue transports glucose around the plant Explain the role that light energy plays during photosynthesis ? Explain the role that the chlorophyll containing chloroplasts play during photosynthesis ? Explain why green leaves are broad, thin and numerous ? Key concepts
  5. 5. B7.1 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: We eat lots of animal protein like chicken. Chicken are fed corn. Animals are very inefficient at taking plant biomass and turning it into protein that we can eat. Think of a chicken, it consumes over its 9 month life 80 times its own mass of corn. Most of the food energy in the corn is used for respiration and body heat. Also, only a small fraction of the carcass is edible flesh. Explain why livestock like cows, sheep, pigs and chicken are very important to humans and the human food chain ? Explain why we would consume less food resources if we all gave up meat and ate only plant material like soya, rice, wheat, potatoes and corn ? Explain why it takes a lot more arable land to feed meat eaters when compared to vegetarians ? Sun Key concepts Corn Chicken Sun Corn Human (meat eaters) Human (vegetarians)
  6. 6. Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Cycling of many plant nutrients, especially nitrates, potassium, phosphates and carbon follows the cycling of decaying organic matter form the bodies of dead animals and plants. This organic matter becomes food for decomposers. As organic matter is broken down to simpler compounds, plant nutrients are released in available forms for root uptake and the cycle begins again. Give three types of microbes that can acts a decomposers ? Explain why farmers usually only use a field for 2 years on one year off when growing crops like corn, wheat and potatoes ? Explain why animal waste or manure is spread back onto field just prior to planting in the spring ? Recycling of micronutrients dead organic matter soil nutrients Potassium Phosphates Nitrates decomposers Soil nutrients Plant growth Plant or animal biomass Plant or animal death Magnesium B7.1 c Key concepts
  7. 7. B7.1 Plenary Lesson summary: Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: During photosynthesis water and oxygen are combined to make glucose ? False True 2: Plant leaves contain chloroplast which are specialised to make glucose ? False True 1: Producers use heat energy to manufacture glucose during photosynthesis ? carnivores energy plants web The transfer of ______ or biomass through an ecosystem can be show by a food ____. Light energy is used by ______ to make glucose and other molecules which are then consume by herbivores. These herbivores are then consumed by ________.Top predators consume carnivores Decomposers are organisms that break down the dead or decaying organisms, and in doing so carry out the natural process of decomposition Like herbivores and predators, decomposers are heterotrophic, meaning that they use organic substrates from decease organisms to get their energy, carbon and nutrients for growth and development. The primary examples are bacteria and fungi How Science Works: Friday 21 October 2011 Research into how green chloroplast function to combine carbon dioxide and water to manufacture glucose using light energy Preparing for the next lesson:
  8. 8. B7.2 Trapping light energy Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how photosynthesis captures energy in light </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that glucose is a chemical store of energy that when respired by either plants or animals releases chemical energy </li></ul>We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: The leaf is an organ contain several types of tissue including the palisade tissue, the spongy mesophyll, the epidermis, the stomata tissue and the xylem and phloem tissue. Which tissue carries water from the roots to the leaves and which tissue contains lots of green chloroplast cell organelles ? Numeracy: During photosynthesis, six molecules of water are combined with six molecules of carbon dioxide to form one molecule of glucose and six molecules of oxygen using light energy. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners Team workers Effective participators Self managers We will focus on t Literacy: Photosynthesis, green plants, glucose, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, chloroplast, light energy, light waves, kilojoules, chemical energy, stored energy and transfer.
  9. 9. Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Introduction: Amazingly less than one billionth of the sun’s energy reaches the Earth’ surface and plants only convert about 3 to 4% of this into stored chemical energy during photosynthesis. Photosynthesis take place in green chloroplast. These small cell organelle contain green pigment called chlorophyll which traps light energy which then splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen combines with carbon dioxide to form glucose and the oxygen is released into air as a waste product. Extension questions: 1: The raw materials for making glucose are water and carbon dioxide. Explain how these raw materials reach the plants palisade cells ? 2: Write down the word equation for photosynthesis ? 3: Glucose is ether used by the plant during respiration or making other molecules like starch. What other molecules is glucose used to make ? 4: A large tree like an oak can make up to 1500 kg of glucose in a single day. How many kilograms does its make in one hour ? Know this: a: Know that photosynthesis traps the energy from sunlight. b: Know that glucose contains stored chemical energy which is then sued directly by plants or by consumer food in food chains and webs. Friday 21 October 2011 B7.2 Trapping light energy
  10. 10. B7.2 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: There are several factors that limit the rate of glucose production in green leaves. The rate of photosynthesis in green plants speeds up as light intensity increases, but only up to a point. The overall rate may also be limited by the concentration of carbon dioxide, the temperature or even the colour of light. During a summer’s day at what part of the day would you expect the rate of photosynthesis to be the highest ? What specialised cell found in the upper part of the leaf contains chloroplasts which produce glucose and oxygen ? In the winter months, is it low light intensity of low temperatures that prevent green plants from making glucose ? Light energy Key concepts Light energy from sunlight Equation for photosynthesis Light energy wrong wavelength 6CO 2 (g) + 6H 2 O (l) C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) unused 35% 63% Only 2% of light energy is used for photosynthesis
  11. 11. Key concepts B7.2 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Chlorophyll, the pigment inside chloroplasts absorbs strongly between 400 nm and 550 nm (blue light) and between 630 nm and 600 nm (red light). Plants obtain all their energy from the blue and red parts of the spectrum, however, between 500-600nm, where very little light is absorbed. This light in the green region of the spectrum is reflected. This is the reason plants appear green. Explain why plants would not photosynthesis if you shone green light on their leaves ? Red seaweed is found in shallow rock pools. Which colour of light does this seaweed use during photosynthesis ? Explain how plant leaves selectively absorb light ? photosynthesis carbon dioxide water glucose oxygen
  12. 12. B7.2 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Each chloroplast consists of two membranes. The inner compartment of the chloroplast houses a complex system of thylakoid membranes that are differentiated into lamellae and stacks of disks called grana. The space around the thylakoids is named stroma. The thylakoids are the sites where the photochemical reactions of photosynthesis occur. Explain why tissue or cell types found in plant leaves have the most chloroplast and why ? What two substrates do chloroplast use to manufacture glucose ? Glucose once manufactured is made into starch polymer, where is this stored in the plant leaf ? C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 6H 2 O 6CO 2 Photosynthesis in green plants Equation for photosynthesis 6H 2 O (l) + 6CO 2 (g) C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) + 6O 2 (g) Key concepts
  13. 13. B7.2 Plenary Lesson summary: Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Glucose in converted into plastic by the plant cell for long term storage ? False True 2: During photosynthesis oxygen is formed as a by product ? False True 1: Chloroplast contain the blue pigment chlorophyll ? glucose light oxygen carbon During photosynthesis _____ energy split water into _______ and hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas then combine with _______ dioxide to form ___________. The rate of photosynthesis can depend on light intensity, external temperature, CO 2 concentration and water supply. Light provides the energy plants need to make the food required for them to grow and flower. Plants are the only organisms able to use light to produce sugars, starches and other substances needed by them as well as by other living organisms. How Science Works: Friday 21 October 2011 Research into how glucose s used by green plants for a) respiration and b) as a raw material to make other biological molecules including lipids and proteins Preparing for the next lesson:
  14. 14. B7.3 Plants using glucose Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that glucose is the end product of photosynthesis in all green plants </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that all subsequent molecules or chemical including lipids and proteins are manufactured form glucose </li></ul>We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Glucose is manufactured during photosynthesis using carbon dioxide and water as the raw materials. All other molecules and chemicals found in plants are made form this simple sugar. Think of five different molecules or chemical that can be found in plants ? Literacy: Glucose, photosynthesis, chloroplast, synthesis, metabolism lipids, proteins, cellulose, starch, polymers and respiration, Numeracy: Glucose made by photosynthesis can be used by the plant in three ways: a) for growth b) for respiration by the mitochondria and c) for food storage as starch grains. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners Team workers Effective participators Self managers We will focus on t
  15. 15. Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Introduction: Glucose is used by plants in three ways Making other molecules for growth: During growth new cells have to be formed. Cells are collection of many thousands of different chemical and molecules including lipids and proteins which are all made form glucose. Releasing energy during respiration: Like animals all cells require energy. This energy is supply respiring glucose with oxygen in the mitochondria. Storing food: Plants add many glucose molecules together to form starch which is sued a a medium to long term energy store. Extension questions: 1: Explain which tissue manufactures glucose in the green leaf ? 2: What are the two raw materials used to make glucose ? 3: Once made in green leaves how is glucose transported around the plant ? 3: Why do plant cells need to respire ? 4: Explain what starch grains are used for by plants ? 5: Explain why glucose is difficult to store inside cells ? Know this: a: Know that glucose is the product of photosynthesis in green plants. b: Know that glucose is used to manufacture other molecules, for energy and long-term energy storage. Friday 21 October 2011 B7.3 Plants using glucose
  16. 16. B7.3 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Both starch and cellulose can be formed when glucose molecules made during photosynthesis are bonded together. Cellulose and starch are both polymers of glucose and are used for very different thins. Starch is used as a long term energy store and cellulose is used to make cell wall which gives a plant its strength. When we eat starch rich foods like pasta, bread and potatoes what do we break down the starch into ? Cellulose cannot be digested by humans and is known as fibre. As such what roe does it play in our diets ? Cotton is almost 99% pure cellulose. What other products are made form plant fibres made form cellulose ? + Glucose Glucose Plant using glucose Cellulose Starch Key concepts
  17. 17. B7.3 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Glucose is used by plants to manufacture oils, proteins and carbohydrates like starch. Plants are also a rich source of minerals, vitamins and fibre. In everyday like we used crops like yam and potatoes as sources of carbohydrates, soya and corn as sources of proteins and sunflower seeds and olives as sources of oil. Plants supply us with many of the minerals and vitamins that we require for growth and development. Name two minerals and vitamins and give a role for each? Fibre in our diet can only be supplied by plant products like cereals and whole grains. What role does fibre play on our body ? Soya is a very valuable crops because its protein content is high. Explain why this is a healthier source of protein when compared to animal meat like beef, lamb or chicken ? Key concepts
  18. 18. B7.3 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: We all need energy to function and we get this energy from the foods we eat. The most efficient way for cells to harvest energy stored in food is through cellular respiration, a pathway for the production of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP). ATP, a high energy molecule, is expended by working cells. Cellular respiration occurs in both plant and animal cells. Explain why mitochondria are found in both plant and animal cells ? Where would you expect to find most mitochondria and why in a) the woody stem or growing bud of a tree ? Do plants respire a) during sun light hours, b) at night only or c) all day long ? 6H 2 O 6CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 6O 2 Respiration in animals and plants Equation for respiration 6O 2 (g) + C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) CO 2 (g) + 6H 2 O (l) Key concepts
  19. 19. B7.3 Plenary Lesson summary: Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Mitochondria found inside the cell is where respiration occurs ? False True 2: Plants only respire at night ? False True 1: Starch and cellulose are both made form sucrose sugar ? starch glucose energy chains Green plants make ________ (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) during photosynthesis. They can turn it into ____, which acts as an _______ store and this starch or other molecules made from glucose supply chemical energy to all food _____ and webs Its amazing to think that all the cells, proteins, and other complex molecules found in all plants is made form a very simple molecules glucose. Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) is the currency of life alongside water, oxygen and carbon dioxide., These four simple molecules are created and exchanged by plants and animals is very complex food chains and webs. How Science Works: Friday 21 October 2011 Research into what factors affects the rate of photosynthesis in green plants and how do scientists measure the rate of photosynthesis. Preparing for the next lesson:
  20. 20. B7.4 The rate of photosynthesis Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the rate of photosynthesis is affected by factors including light intensity, temperature, availability of water and carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that one factor always acts to limit the overall rate of photosynthesis in green plants </li></ul>We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Design an experiment where you could show that the rate of photosynthesis is affected by external temperature. You need to think about what different temperatures you would use and how you would measure the rate of photosynthesis. One way could be to use pondweed and count the oxygen bubble produced form a cut stem ? Literacy: Photosynthesis, rate, limiting factors, light intensity, temperature, glucose production, yield, and limiting factors. Numeracy: In the winter months in the UK no photosynthesis occur not because lower light intensity but low temperatures. Below 6 o C photosynthesis will not happen PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners Team workers Effective participators Self managers We will focus on t
  21. 21. Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Introduction: The rate at which photosynthesis proceeds in green plants can be determined by measuring the amount of glucose or oxygen produced over time. Using the word equation that summarises what happens during photosynthesis we know there are several factors that affect how quickly glucose is produced over time in green leaves. The rate of photosynthesis speeds up as light intensity increases, but only up to a point. The overall rate may also be limited by other limiting factors including; the concentration of carbon dioxide, the outside temperature or even the colour of light. Extension questions: 1: explain why photosynthesis does not happen in the absence of a) light b) carbon dioxide and c) moderate temperatures above 6 o C ? 2: Draw a graph to show how changing light intensity can affect the rate of photosynthesis ? (x axis light intensity y axis rate of glucose) 3: In the winter months here in the UK what is the limiting factor ? 4: You have a green and white leaf and you expose it to sunlight and then test for starch. Where would you expect to find the starch ? 5: Other than light list three other factors that limit photosynthesis ? Know this: a: Know the rate of photosynthesis is affected by several factors including light intensity. b: Know that one factor always acts to limits the overall rate of photosynthesis. Friday 21 October 2011 B7.4 The rate of photosynthesis
  22. 22. B7.4 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: There are several factors that limit the rate of glucose production in green leaves. The rate of photosynthesis in green plants speeds up as light intensity increases, but only up to a point. The overall rate may also be limited by the concentration of carbon dioxide, the temperature or even the colour of light. During a summer’s day at what part of the day would you expect the rate of photosynthesis to be the highest ? What specialised cell found in the upper part of the leaf contains chloroplasts which produce glucose and oxygen ? In the winter months, is it low light intensity of low temperatures that prevent green plants from making glucose ? Key concepts Limiting factors rate of glucose production over time Light intensity CO 2 concentration Substrate availability (CO 2 H 2 O)
  23. 23. B7.4 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Three experiments were performed where the amount of oxygen was counted over a 2 minute period for 3 different distances. The results obtained are shown below. 1: Plot a graph of distance (m) versus rate of oxygen production and is there a relationship between light intensity and rate of photosynthesis ? 2: What is this relationship ? 3: What are the other limiting factors in this experiment ? 4: How could you test out you answer for question 4 and why is important to control the temperature of the water ? 0.1m 0.2m 0.3m Light intensity and rate of photosynthesis Key concepts Time (s) Oxygen bubbles at 0.1m Oxygen bubbles at 0.2m Oxygen bubbles at 0.3m 30 23 11 3 60 45 22 7 90 67 32 12 120 109 45 17
  24. 24. B7.4 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: 1: Plot a graph of CO 2 concentration (%) versus rate of oxygen production ? 2: Is there a relationship between CO 2 (%) concentration and the rate of photosynthesis ? 3: What is this relationship ? 4: What are the other limiting factors for this experiment and how would you prove this experimentally ? Three experiments were performed where the amount of oxygen was counted over a 2 minute period for 3 different CO 2 concentrations. The results obtained are shown below. Carbon dioxide and rate of photosynthesis Key concepts 0.1% CO 2 0.25% CO 2 0.5% CO 2 0.1m 0.1m 0.1m Time (s) Oxygen bubbles at 0.1% CO 2 Oxygen bubbles at 0.25% CO 2 Oxygen bubbles at 0.5% CO 2 30 19 31 43 60 38 54 65 90 68 101 134 120 102 167 201
  25. 25. B7.4 d Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: One of the raw materials required during photosynthesis is water. Water flows through a plant from the root hair cells to the leaves and out through the stomata cells is called transpiration. The rate of transpiration is affected by several factors including, light intensity, external humidity, temperature and wind speed. During a summer’s day at what part of the day would you expect water transpiration to be at its highest rate ? What specialised cell takes water along a plant stem and into the leaf palisade cells…explain how it is specialised ? Look at the two graphs opposite...explain the relationship between the rate of transpiration and a) light intensity b) outside temperature ? Key concepts
  26. 26. B7.4 Plenary Lesson summary: intensity leaves rate oxygen The _______ of photosynthesis can be determined by measuring the amount of _______ or glucose produced over time. Several factors including light ______. External temperature and carbon dioxide concentration will determine the overall rate of glucose production in green _____. How Science Works: Friday 21 October 2011 Research into balancing both respiration and photosynthesis and how green plants can affect levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere Preparing for the next lesson: Water is an essential raw material when plants using light energy and carbon dioxide manufacture glucose. Water is taken by osmosis from the soil through the roots, the xylem tubes and into the leaves, It ten diffuses into the palisade cells. Water also evaporates form the leaf to keep the leaf cool during the day. The movement of water through eh plant is called the transpiration stream. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: At dusk and dawn the rate of photosynthesis is roughly equal ? False True 2: In winter the low light intensity limits the rate of photosynthesis to zero ? False True 1: Photosynthesis rates tend to peak at midday when light intensity is high ?
  27. 27. B7.5 Balancing respiration and photosynthesis Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how respiration and photosynthesis occur at the same time in plants </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that plants can change carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that animals net consume the products of photosynthesis </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Think about how plants and tree influence the total amount of carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere. Explain why levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have risen form around 310 ppm to 380 ppm over the last 60 years ? Literacy: Photosynthesis, respiration, glucose, carbon dioxide, water, oxygen, chloroplast, light energy, compensation point, carbon, carbon cycle and global warming. Numeracy: Carbon dioxide concentrations have risen form 310 ppm to around 380 ppm over the last 50 years. This ‘green house effect’ has caused global temperature to rise by about 0.75oC over the same time period PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners Team workers Effective participators Self managers We will focus on t
  28. 28. Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Introduction: Plant both photosynthesis and respire, however they only photosynthesise between sunrise and sunset between spring and autumn. When photosynthesis and respiration occur at he same rate this is called the compensation point. During the summer this is normally at dawn and dusk. Over the last 60 years human activity has caused an increase in carbon dioxide levels by burning fossil fuels like coal and oil and by deforestation of large areas of land. Rising carbon dioxide levels is linked to rising global temperatures Extension questions: 1: List two ways in which carbon dioxide is a) added to the atmosphere and b) subtracted from the atmosphere ? 2: Explain why the levels of carbon dioxide have risen over the last 60 years ? 3: Explain why deforestation is adding to rising levels of carbon dioxide ? 4: Give three effects of rising global temperatures, for example melting polar ice caps ? 5: How can we reduce our use of fossil fuels like petrol ? Know this: a: Know that a the compensation point plants respire and photosynthesise at the same rate. b: Know that plants influence levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Friday 21 October 2011 B7.5 Balancing respiration and photosynthesis
  29. 29. B7.5 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: What plants make by photosynthesis, plants and animals break down by respiration. In any community, the balance of carbon dioxide and oxygen is essential to all elements of the community. In individual organisms, detailed analysis of gas exchange can give an insight into the chemical processes within the organisms . List three ways in which carbon dioxide is added to the atmosphere ? Explain what impact burning fossil fuels like petrol and coal have on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels ? Explain why you would expect to find more mitochondria in muscle cells when compared to skin cells ? Balancing respiration and photosynthesis photosynthesis carbon dioxide water respiration glucose oxygen Key concepts
  30. 30. B7.5 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: During the night, no photosynthesis takes place, just plant respiration. At dusk and dawn when the light intensity is low, the rate of respiration and photosynthesis are roughly the same. During the day, when there is greatest light energy and outside temperatures peak, there is a net production of glucose and oxygen. The stomata cells, open during daylight hours and partially close during the night. Explain why the rate of photosynthesis peaks at around midday ? Explain why respiration rates slow between dusk to dawn (8 pm and 8 am)? Compensation points for carbon dioxide production and consumption Key concepts 8 10 12 14 o C time days 12pm 8pm Night Dawn Daylight time hrs Dusk 8 10 12 14 C time days 12 am 8 am 12 pm 8pm 12am Carbon dioxide Night Dawn Daylight time hrs Dusk Night Oxygen
  31. 31. B7.5 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: The carbon cycle describes how carbon found in organic molecules, fossil fuels like coal and oil or in the air as carbon dioxide is cycled over time. Because humans are extracting fossil fuels like coal and oil from underground and then combusting them we are currently adding 3 billions tonnes of carbon (in CO 2 ) to the atmosphere every year. This is slowly warming our planet because the carbon dioxide molecules traps infra red energy from the sun. This effect is known as global warming. The carbon cycle Look at the diagram opposite left, it shows the carbon cycle. Which activity adds most carbon dioxide to the atmosphere which already contains 775 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide ? List three changes to the Word’s climate if atmospheric carbon dioxide continues to rise at the current rate of 3 billions tons a year ? Key concepts
  32. 32. B7.5 Plenary Lesson summary: balance essential make break What plants _______ by photosynthesis, plants and animals _______ down by respiration. In any community, the ________ of carbon dioxide and oxygen is __________ to all elements of the animal and plant community How Science Works: Friday 21 October 2011 Research how energy or biomass moves through food chains and food webs from producers to herbivores, to carnivores to top predators. Preparing for the next lesson: Plants respire glucose 24 hour a day. They photosynthesis only during daylight hours. In a survey done recently in the USA, they questioned 100 Harvard graduates. Only 13% answered correctly that plants increase their biomass (dry weight) by taking carbon dioxide and water and making new cells and only 22% answered correctly that leaving a plant by your bed at night would decrease oxygen levels ! Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Plants remove carbon form the atmosphere trapping it its biomass ? False True 2: During the winter plants cannot photosynthesise because of low light levels ? False True 1: Plants only respire glucose between sunset and sunrise ?
  33. 33. B7.6 Feeding relationships Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how energy and nutrients move through food chains and webs </li></ul><ul><li>Understand what pyramids or number, biomass and energy show and which is the best model to use </li></ul>We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Think of a simple food chain involving a producer, herbivore, carnivore and top predator. Show the flow of energy form producer to top predator. Also think what would happen to the number of producers and carnivores in the herbivore suddenly died from a disease ? Literacy: Food chains, webs, producers, herbivores, carnivores, top predator, energy, biomass, food pyramid, photosynthesis and respiration Numeracy: Energy is always measured in joules or kilojoules. There are 1000 joules in every kilojoules. Each day the average adult (male) requires about 10, 500 kJ from his diet, the average female require about 9,500 kJ for her diet. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners Team workers Effective participators Self managers We will focus on t
  34. 34. Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Introduction: Food chains and webs show what eats what but they don’t show how many plants or animals there are at each level. A pyramid of numbers shows how many organisms there are in each feeding level, however a pyramid of biomass or energy is a more accurate and shows the flow of biomass or energy between levels. Decomposer are often over looked in food webs and chains. These organism including microbes, fungi and invertebrates breakdown decomposing matter and help to recycle nutrients and make them available for producers Extension questions: 1: Explain why there are fewer top predators when compared to herbivores or producers in the same food chain ? 2: If 10 oaks trees produce enough food for 300 snails which then feed 20 robin birds. Draw a pyramid of number to show this food chain ? 3: Explain how a scavenger can recycle nutrients from the dead bodies of plants and animals ? 4: Explain the difference between a food chain and web ? Know this: a: Know that energy and nutrients move from producer to top predator in food chains and webs. b: Know that pyramids of biomass show the mass of organisms at each level Friday 21 October 2011 B7.6 Feeding relationships
  35. 35. B7.6 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Draw a pyramid of numbers for these food chains a) 1000 oak leaves 30 caterpillars and 5 robins b) 1 oak tree 30 caterpillars and 5 robins...explain which works best ? In the pyramid of biomass, it shows that as you move from producer to top predator biomass is lost...explain three ways how biomass is lost between feeding levels ? Draw a pyramid of biomass for this food chain 10,000 kg of grass 800 kg of impala and 150 kg of lion ? (use 1 mm for every kilogram) A pyramid of numbers shows how many of each organisms there is a a particular food chain. In the food chain opposite left, the shape of the pyramid is spoiled because many giraffe can feed on a single tree. A pyramid of biomass shows the mass of the living things at each level. Biomass is lost at each level and all pyramids of biomass always have a perfect pyramid shape. Lion Tree Pyramid of numbers Pyramid of biomass Giraffe Key concepts
  36. 36. B7.6 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Look at the food web opposite left, draw a food chain that includes grass and impala ? Explain how cheetahs are adapted to catch both zebra’s and impalas ? During a dry season, the amount of grass would be much less...explain why this would affect numbers of zebra and impala, but not giraffe ? In most habitats, primary, secondary consumers and top predators feed on more than one species of plant or animal. Furthermore, if two species relies on only one food source this will increase competition among species. A food web is made up of many food chains and gives a more complete picture of how herbivores and carnivores feed. Lion Cheetah Giraffe Zebra Impala Acacia tree Grass Key concepts Food chains and webs
  37. 37. B7.6 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Food chains shows us how energy in food molecules move through from producers to top predators. The food chain opposite shows how cows can convert the nutrients in grass into high quality protein. Using an pyramid of energy also shows us how much energy is lost between each feeding level. Energy is lost because of respiration, body heat and waste. Look at the food chain opposite left, identify the s) producer, b) the herbivore and c) the carnivore ? Less than 1600 kJ of the 40,000 kJ of energy contained in grass enters the human food chain as beef. Explain why this value is so low ? Explain how micronutrients (minerals) move from plants into herbivores and beyond into the human food chain ? Key concepts energy energy 200,000 kJ 40,000 kJ 3200 kJ 1600 kJ respiration waste respiration waste body heat energy waste indigestible Flow of energy (kJ) Sun Grass Cow Beef (human)
  38. 38. B7.6 d Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Look at the food chain opposite, it shows the transfer of biomass from producer to top predator. It also shows how available biomass for the next feeding level is lost through supplying energy for activities like respiration, body heat, movement and reproduction. Some biomass is also lost as indigestible nutrients and waste. What kingdom to all producers come from, the animal or plant kingdom ? Between the grass and the caterpillar, how much biomass in kg is lost ? The diagram opposite shows how the energy supplied to the caterpillar is used. Work out the percentage of energy available as biomass to the next feeding level ? Key concepts
  39. 39. B7.6 Plenary Lesson summary: Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Producers take energy from the sun and uses it during photosynthesis ? False True 2: Energy is always lost from producers top predators ? False True 1: There are always less top predators than prey in a food chain ? biomass numbers web level A food chain or ______ does not show how many organisms there are at each ______. A food pyramid can show the ________ of organisms at each level. A pyramid of _______ shows the mass of organisms at each level. Friday 21 October 2011 Some food pyramids in the tropical regions of Africa are incredibly productive producing up to 1000 kg of biomass per acre of land. This is compared to an average of 300 kg of biomass for land used to grow crops like wheat or barely found here in the UK. Research into our impact on ecosystems and feeding relationships and food chains and webs involving decomposers. Preparing for the next lesson: How Science Works:
  40. 40. B7.7 Life in soil Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the role of soil in supporting growth of producers </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that soil’s biomass contains both decaying material and living organism </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how micronutrients are recycled by soil microbes, fungi and invertebrates </li></ul>We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: When an animal or plant dies explain how the nutrients lock in molecules found in tissue of the plant and animal are recycle by decomposers including microbes and small invertebrates ? Literacy: Soil, micronutrients, minerals, microbes, fungi, bacteria, invertebrate, decomposers, recycle, scavengers, nitrates, phosphates, potassium and humus. Numeracy: The total mass of all the microbes and other decomposers found in the top soil across the continents outweigh the mass of all other species (plants and animals) combined PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners Team workers Effective participators Self managers We will focus on t
  41. 41. Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Introduction: Soil s rich in dead and living biomass. Rich top soil can take many hundreds of years to form and the humus of the soil contains dead or decaying plant and animal matter as well as microbes and small invertebrates. The nutrients trapped in decaying plant and animal tissue must be recycled and made available for producers. Without this recycling producers would be unable to grow. Microbes contain an array of enzymes which they use to break down large organic molecules into simpler in organic molecules which can be absorbed by the plant's roots. Extension questions: 1: Describe the main layers found in soil ? 2: The dead biomass of plants and animals is found in which layer of the soil ? 3: There are up to 100,000,000 bacteria in one tonne of soil. Estimate the number of a) fungi b) flatworms and c) insects in the same amount of soil ? 4: Why do farmers add manure to soil during a growing season ? 5: Other than water what else does soil provide a plant ? Know this: a: Know the role of soil in supporting the growth of producers. b: Know that the soil contains both dead and living material. Friday 21 October 2011 B7.7 Life in soil
  42. 42. B7.7 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Soil in most parts of the World is only around one to two metres thick above bedrock and yet this layer supplies the minerals and water plant life requires to grow. Soil contains weathered rock particles, dead plant material, water and even some living material. The quality of soil can decrease over time if crops are continually grown on it List three things soil provides all growing plants ? Compare the typical soil of this country to the soil found in an dry region like North Africa ? You suspect that your soil had become acidic due to acid rain. How would you test the soil’s pH ? Crop Humus Fine sediments Course sediments Bedrock Structure of soil Key concepts
  43. 43. B7.7 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Decomposers are the ultimate recyclers. In breaking down dead matter, decomposers obtain and release nutrients and energy-yielding compounds, leaving behind simpler fragments for other decomposers along with simple forms of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, and other plant nutrients. Plant roots then can take up these nutrients to sustain new plant growth, How do microbes help recycle essential nutrients in the soil humus ? Why does this rate of recycling slow down during the winter months here in the UK ? Explain how waste organic material form kitchen is made into soil compost by using microbes ? Key concepts
  44. 44. Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Many small insects and arthropods are important first-stage shredders and partial decomposers of plant and animal remains. In soils where such decomposers are excluded by intensive cultivation or excess chemicals, the natural recycling of organic matter is slowed down. This can lead to decreased soil fertility and plant growth; farmers or gardeners are then forced to add fertilizers. Explain what happens to the organs and tissue of the dead fox in the days following its death ? There’s an old wives tale that states that cemetery soil is very nutrient rich...could this be true and why ? How are nutrients recycled in marine environments (oceans and seas) ? Key concepts B7.7 C Recycling by microbes and invertebrates Decomposers
  45. 45. B7.7 Plenary Lesson summary: Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Mineral ions are use by plants during the growing season ? False True 2: Microbes contain enzymes which breakdown dead organic matter ? False True 1: Soil has four main components, inorganic particles, air, water and biomass ? crops nutrients microbes humus Soil contains billions of ________ which breakdown trapped essential ______ forming a rich _________ layer in the soil. These nutrients and minerals can then be made available for the next growing season for plants and/or ________. Soil has huge quantities of living biomass. Although we cannot see bacteria with the naked eye, the class of species is the most successful types of organisms globally. Although some are harmful to human health without microbes, the nutrient cycle would cease and plants and crops would fail shutting down the many millions of food chains and webs that rely on producers. How Science Works: Friday 21 October 2011 Research into how two or more species can coexist and mutually benefit one another. Look into examples of symbiosis and/or co evolution. Preparing for the next lesson:
  46. 46. B7.8 Living together Decide whether the following statements are true or false: We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Cows produce beef, milk and leather they are also very successful at digesting cellulose found in grass and turning it into high quality food products including beef and milk. Cows have several stomachs which are home to bacteria which breakdown the cellulose fibre. Think of another relationship where two species co exist and benefit one another ? PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners Team workers Effective participators Self managers We will focus on t <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that some species mutually benefit by co existing in the same habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Understand some examples of symbiotic relationships and commensalism </li></ul>Literacy: Symbiosis, symbiotic relationship, beneficial commensalisms, co-existence, habitats, niches, and relationship. Numeracy: Symbiotic relationships between different species means that the sum of their joint behaviour or biology is great the sum of the individual behaviour or biology.
  47. 47. Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Introduction: Symbiosis basically means ‘living together’ There are three main categories: Mutualism; When both species involved benefit from the relationship, Commensalism ; When one species benefits and the other isn’t affected Parasitism ; When one species benefits, and the other is harmed in the process. Why live together? There is always competition for food and territory. To avoid competing with other species animals habit a ‘specific’ niche. Another way to avoid direct competition is to form a stable relationship with another species. This allows two species to share the same space and/or a food supply. Extension questions: 1: Red cod is a carnivorous fish which allows shrimp to clean its mouth parts, is this an example of mutualism or commensalism ? 2: A tape worm found in a cows’ digestive system, is this an example of commensalism or parasitism ? 3: So called friendly bacteria found in our gut and on our skin, is this an example for parasitism or commensalisms ? 4: Explain why biologists believe that many flowers co evolved with certain insects like bees ? 5: The human and head live what type of relationship is this ? Know this: a: Know that some species benefit by living in a symbiotic relationship. b: Know that there are three categories to symbiosis, mutualism, commensalism and parasitism. Friday 21 October 2011 B7.8 Living together
  48. 48. Key concepts B7.8 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Between the leaf, the caterpillar and the wasp who wins and who loses ? Explain how the plant evolved the ability to produce a volatile compound which then attracted wasp which then went on to lay eggs inside the caterpillar ? Mutualism. In this relationship both the paristoid wasp and the plant both benefit, how ever there is a twit to this relationship, the caterpillar is the big loser. When a caterpillar begin to eat the plant leaf, the plant release a sweet smelling compound which attracts the wasp. The wasp then lays its eggs inside the caterpillar. The plant benefit because the caterpillar is killed and the wasp benefits because it has a ready food supply for its wasp larvae. Mutualism
  49. 49. Key concepts B7.8 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Clown anemone fish and sea anemones have a mutually beneficial relationship. The fish bring small particles of protein to the vicinity of the anemone and the fish are protect from predators by the poisonous anemones. Most symbiotes have no idea that they're helping another creature. They're just surviving using instinctive behaviour driven by natural selection. How does the clown anemone fish benefit from this relation ? Give two other examples of symbiotic relationships where both species benefit ? Are humans involved in symbiotic relations with other organisms ? Commensalism
  50. 50. Key concepts B7.8 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Adult worms living in the heart release larvae into the dogs bloodstream. These larvae are ingested by mosquitoes feeding on the dog’s blood. They mature in the mosquito and then are transmitted to other dogs when the mosquito feeds again. After some time developing in the skin, they enter the bloodstream and go to the heart where they mature into adult worms. This cycle takes 6 months. How does the larvae enter the host’s body in the life cycle of the heartworm ? Why does the worm chose to habit the right rather than to left hand side of the heart ? Why is prevention (monthly tablets) better than cure (surgery) ? Parasitism
  51. 51. B7.8 Plenary Lesson summary: Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Friendly bacteria in our gut is an example of a commensalism ? False True 2: Some insects like bees and flowers have co-evolved over time ? False True 1: Parasite are mutually beneficial to their host species ? genes harmed species benefit There are many examples of different ________ living together, sometimes in relationships that ______ both species, sometimes in relationships where one species is _______. Occasionally, two species can coevolved means that their ______ have changes alongside the other species. There are many examples of two species co-existing where both benefit. There are few examples where two species have co-evolved meaning that their survival is dependant one another. Hummingbirds have co-evolved with certain flowers. The beak shape and length can only access the nectar in these flowers which in return ensures that their pollen travels to the next individual How Science Works: Friday 21 October 2011 Research into the tape worm and its lifecycle and how it infects humans and can affect our health. Preparing for the next lesson:

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