B6 The Brain and mind. Route map Over the next 12 lessons you will study : Friday 21 October 2011 B6.1 What is Behaviour ? B6.2 Simple reflexes in humans B6.3 Your nervous system B6.4 Receptors and effectors End of module test B6.5 Control of reflexes B6.6 Synapses B6.7 The brain B6.8 Learned behaviour B6.9 Human learning B6.10 What is memory ? B6.11 Stored memory B6.12 Active memory
B6.7 The brain Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand both the function and the structure of your brain </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how scientists and the field of neuroscience has helped determine the function of each part of the brain. </li></ul>We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: How have you used your brain today ? Draw a picture of the brain and list all the functions that your brain allows you to carry out ? Literacy: Brain, senses, neuroscientists, consciousness, cerebral cortex, complex, MRI, scan, neurons, speech, hearing, smell, reading, vision and taste. Numeracy: The average human brain weigh about 3kg and is roughly the size of a small grapefruit. How it differs from our ancestor’s brain is that our frontal lobe associated with intelligence, speech and complex behaviour has increased in size. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on describing the structure of the brain and how it is studied. Team workers Effective participators Self managers
B6.7 The Brain Extension questions: 1: What is a brain and give five different functions of the brain ? 2: How are human brains different from simple animals like a flatworm ? 3: How were the different sections of brain, that control different activities such as taste and smell identified by neuroscientists ? 4: Why do human brains have such large frontal lobes ? 5: MRI scans monitor blood flow to the brain, how can we use this information to look a brain activity ? Know this: a: Know the function and structure of the human brain. b: Know the part of brain that controls consciousness is called the cerebral cortex. b: Know that the brain is a collection of neurons connected together. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Every complex activity that you do – watching TV, walking even talking, requires your brain. We still are unsure exactly how the brain works but we know that it is involved in every activity and decision that we make. Scientists who look at the brain are called ‘neuroscientists’ and it is a fairly new science. In simple animals the brain is just a mass of neurons that carry impulses. More complex animals have brains with a number of different sections made up of billions of neurons. Different activities are processed in different sections. Information on the brain has come from operations on the brain as well as MRI scans that monitor blood flow to the brain to detect activity.
Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: The human brain is the centre of the human nervous system and is a highly complex organ. Our brains are over three times as large as the brain of a typical mammal. Most of the expansion comes from the cerebral cortex. Especially expanded are the frontal lobes, which are associated with executive functions such as self-control, planning, reasoning, and abstract thought. B6.7 a The human brain Almost 20% of our brains is dedicated to speech. Is this unique for humans or do other animals have these highly developed regions ? Women have smaller brains than men by mass...does this make them less in telligent than men ?
Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a type of scan that is often used to diagnose health conditions that affect organs, tissue and bone. MRI scans use strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce a detailed image of the inside of the body. The device that carries out MRI scans is known as an MRI scanner. The scanner consists of a large tube that contains a series of powerful magnets. Explain why it is necessary for blood flow to increase to parts of the brain that are very active ? What is an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan and what is it used for ? In the past scientists mapped which parts of the brain did what by surgery and stimulation using micro-electrodes, why is using MRI a much better method ? B6.7 a
B6.7 Plenary Lesson summary: functions brain complex neurons Friday 21 October 2011 You cannot replace neurons, they never re-grow. From adulthood, approximately 9000 neurons in our brain die each day. Some drugs like alcohol can cause brain cells to die, but some drugs like ketamine, nitrous oxide (laughing gas) and volatile inhalants (glue, gasoline, paint thinner) can cause brain cell death at THIRTY TIMES normal rates - that's almost 300,000 neurons a day! Drug abuse can prematurely age your brain cause age associated memory impairment How Science Works: Research into what learned behaviour is and how animals like dogs can be conditioned. Preparing for the next lesson: Your brain is very ______ and controls everything that you do. Human brains are made up of billions of _________ and is in different sections that control different __________. The structure and working of the _______ is still ongoing and is completed by scientists called neuroscientists. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: The larger your brain the more intelligent you are ? False True 2: Our brain is involved in all actions that we make ? False True 1: The human brain is the largest of all animals by mass ?
B6.8 Learned Behaviour Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how we can condition reflexes in animals and humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that conditioned reflexes in organisms can help that organism to survive. </li></ul>We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Give three examples of conditioned behaviour found in animals or humans for example when a dog see its owner take a lead it associated this with going for a walk ? Literacy: Conditioning, learning, stimuli, response, learning pathway, conditioned reflex, learn, survival and behaviour. Numeracy: In 1904 the Russian neuroscientist Ivan Pavlov was awarded the Noble prize for his work on how dogs can be conditioned to expect food when a bell was rung. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on learning that we can overcome certain reflexes. Team workers Effective participators Self managers
B6.8 Learned Behaviour Extension questions: 1: What is a conditioned reflex ? 2: Why is it important that we are able to learn new things ? 3: Think of five things that you think you have learned that is vital to your survival ? 4: Draw a flow diagram to show how a dog can be conditioned to expect food when a whistle is blown ? 5: Give one example of a behaviour of a bird that is a conditioned reflex ? Know this: a: Know how conditioning can occur in animals and humans. b: Know that a conditioned reflex is learning to link a new stimulus with a reflex action allowing animals to change their behaviour. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Newborn animals have reflexes that allow them to survive for a short period of time. However, much of the behaviour that animals have is learned. For example a lion cub will learn to hunt from its mother, a beaver will learn to build its home by its parents. This is called learned behaviour. The learning of new behaviour allows us to change our behaviour if our environment changes and so is vital for survival. Animals are conditioned to do act when faced with a particular situation. A bird that eats a bitter coloured caterpillar once will avoid any other caterpillar with the same colouring. A dog will salivate when he sees a food bowl as he knows he will be fed.
Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Pavlov, the Russian scientist did the following experiment. He knew that dogs would salivate in response to being fed. He then rang a bell at the same time as feeding the dog. He repeated this procedure over several days. He then just rang the bell and failed to give the dog any food. The dog still salivated and therefore had learned a conditioned response. B6.8 a Conditioning in animals Give another example of a conditioned reflex in a) animals and b) humans ? Lessons end and begin with bells in schools do you think our behaviour has become conditioned in schools ?
Key concepts B6.8 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Look at the picture and graph left. It shows a trap that a cat can escape from. It also shows the time taken for the cat to escape and how that differs mover 70 trials. Over the 70 or so trials the time taken for the same cat to escape reduces. This suggests that the cat learns how to escape and is able to use that learning for each subsequent trial. If you time how long a child took to tie their shoes laces over many repeats do you think you would see a similar graph ? If you time the pupil reflex (eye) over and over again would the time taken for the pupil to close change or stay the same ? Suggest why (using the above example with the cat) should sprinters practise their starts over and over again ? Learning in animals
B6.8 Plenary Lesson summary: time skills trained reflex Friday 21 October 2011 You can teach animals to connect a behaviour with a cue and then reward the animal for correct behaviour. Whenever the animal behaves in the desired way -- or even close to the desired way -- the trainer offers positive reinforcement (usually in the form of food). The idea is that positive reinforcement of a seemingly random behaviour increases the likelihood of it happening again. How Science Works: Make a list of everything you have learned to do and how easy you find doing these things. Preparing for the next lesson: Animals will learn new ______ that help them survive. Over a period of ______ these actions become part of their behaviour and it is called a conditioned ______. Animals can be _______ to do certain things like sit when whistled at or come to the surface of the bowl when food is on its way! Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Humans cannot be conditioned ? False True 2: Conditioning is a temporary process ? False True 1: Animals can be taught to do things ?
B6.9 Human Learning Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how humans learn and to be able to draw a pathway of learning.. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand different explanations that scientists have for how human memory functions </li></ul>We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Do you think everyone has the same ability to learn ? What factors do you think are involved in how much we learn and the ways in which we learn ? Literacy: Learning, memory, neurons, synapses, neuronal networks, pathways, repetition, behaviour, feral, learning, cerebral cortex, response, stimulus. Numeracy: In humans most scientists snow agrees that we acquire our ability to communicate and our command of grammar by the age of five. Children who have been deprived this, rarely go on to acquire full use of their language. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on showing how we set up a neuron pathway to learn new things. Team workers Effective participators Self managers
B6.9 Human Learning Extension questions: 1: Draw a flow chart showing how new neuron pathways are built up in the brain. 2: Why do some people say that you need to see or hear things 7 times before you remember them ? 3: What can you learn by practising using visualisation ? 4: What is a feral child ? 5: Why do feral children found in later life find it difficult to learn new skills or even acquire full use of their language ? Know this: a: Know how human learn and recognise a learning pathway. b: Know that humans learn by building up new neuron pathways in their brain and the more times you repeat something the stronger the neuron pathway and the quicker the response. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Humans learn things by experiencing something new. We learn to develop our responses. We uses the part of our brain called the cerebral cortex which is where intelligence, memory and language are all controlled. We learn because new neuron pathways become set up in our brain. Each time we repeat the new experience more neurons take the same pathway which strengthens it.The stronger the pathway the quicker the response becomes. Language and new experiences are easier to learn at an early age. Children who do not have access to language and words will find them harder to learn. Feral children are children who have not experienced human behaviour.
Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Learning does not just belong to school or formal lessons. Children learn very quickly in the earliest years and in many ways. This is because their neurons form new connections with other neurons forming learning pathways. It is believed that repeating a stimulus forms and strengthens this leaning pathway, where they acquire knowledge or a skill permanently like language for example. B6.9 a What is human learning Explain why the development in the early years of a child's life is the most important ? Look at the diagram above and explain why when revises, revisiting work over and over again places facts in your long term memory ?
Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Learning is acquiring new knowledge, behaviours, skills, values or understanding. The ability to learn over time tends to follow learning curves. Human learning may occur as part of education, personal development or training. Quite how the brain learns all its skill sis still not fully understood, but it is certainly based on learning pathways and neurons forming new connections. B6.9 b How does the brain learn ? Explain why footballers, snooker players and darts player practise over and over again ? Why are young children best at learning new skills when compared to the elderly ?
Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Occasionally patients suffer brain damage to one or more regions of the brain through stoke (where the blood supply is cut of to a region of the brain) or blunt force trauma. If scientists know where the damaged part of the brain and also what areas of brain function that are effect we can tell which part of the brain does what . B6.9 c How does the brain work? Look at the diagram above, which parts of the brain and therefore which roles does Alzheimer’s disease knock out ? Aborigines roam their huge country without maps without getting lost. Which part of their brain may be high developed compared to Europeans ?
B6.9 Plenary Lesson summary: learning easier change pathways Friday 21 October 2011 Humans have 100,000,000,000 neurons in the brain, chimpanzees have 6,200,000,000 while a frog only has 16,000,000. The large number of neuron pathways that can be obtained in a human brain is therefore far greater than the other 2 which is why we have a high ability to learn. How Science Works: Research about human memory. Also write down your earliest memory. Why do you think you can remember that so well ? Do you remember how you felt ? What did you see ? Preparing for the next lesson: New experiences _______ human behaviour, this is called ________. We learn by building up neuron _______ in the brain. Repetition strengthens the pathways and makes it easier to respond. Young children find it _______ to set up these pathways and learn new things. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: The older you are the easier it is to learn new things ? False True 2: Visualising doing an activity strengthens the neuron pathways ? False True 1: We will learn everything we hear once ?
B6.10 What is memory ? Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the difference between short term and long term memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the multi-store model of memory and what the working memory model is. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how diseases like Alzheimer's may give us clues how memory works. </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Write down the difference between short and long term memory. Also see how well you do in the memory tests! http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/stm0.html Literacy: Memory, short-term memory, long-term memory, remember, neurons, neuronal pathways, Alzheimer’s disease, image, information, sensory memory and retrieve. Numeracy: There are currently 700,000 people with dementia in the UK. Largely dementia is associated with aging. By 2025 there will be over a million people with 60% of those people with dementia will be women. One third of all people over 95 have dementia. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on describing the differences between short-term and long-term memory. Team workers Effective participators Self managers
B6.10 What is Memory? Extension questions: 1: What differences are there between short-term and long-term memory ? 2: List things that you do that requires a) your short term memory b) your long term memory ? 3: People with Alzheimer’s often need people to cook and clean for them. Explain why this is ? 4: How can we know that short-term and long-term memory is not linked ? Know this: a: Know the difference between short and lon term memory and know that we use our short term memory to read and our long-term memory to recall past events. b: Know that short-term and long-term memory are not linked. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Memory is the ability to store and retrieve information. When you read a sentence you are using your short-term memory, most people have a short-term memory of 30 seconds and without it you would not be able to make sense of what you are reading. Your long-term memory allows you to remember words of songs that you have heard and you will often remember it for years. Your short-term and long-term memory work separately and people who have a condition like Alzheimer’s disease cannot remember what they ate for dinner but they can remember childhood memories. People who have brain disease or damage can suffer from long-term memory loss and cannot remember being married or their kids.
Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Dementia is a term used to describe various different brain disorders that have in common a loss of brain function that is usually progressive and eventually severe. When a person with dementia finds that their mental abilities are declining, they often feel vulnerable and in need of reassurance and support. The people closest to them - including their carers, friends and family - need to do everything they can to help the person to retain their sense of identity and feelings of self-worth. Explain why people who have Alzheimer’s disease or dementia need extra help around the home ? There are approximately 700,000 people suffering from dementia in the UK. How is dementia different from brain damage ? Memory Language Alzheimer's disease B6.10 a
Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Alzheimer's disease largely effects the elderly and the gradually and relentless deterioration of the brain can lead to loss of short-term memory and of course a loss of language skills. Taking care of patients that suffer dementia is very costly to society. It is also an increasing problem as more and more of us become elderly, living longer. B6.10 b Explain why people suffering from Alzheimer’s disease cannot do the simplest things like cook their own dinner ? Explain why a patient who can’t remember what day it ism can remember their early childhood ? Alzheimer's disease
B6.10 Plenary Lesson summary: connected memory damage long-term Friday 21 October 2011 60,000 deaths a year are directly attributable to dementia in the elderly. Memory loss is likely to be very severe in the later stages of dementia. People may be unable to recognise those close to them or even their own reflection. They may no longer be able to find their way around familiar surroundings or identify everyday objects. However, they may occasionally experience sudden flashes of recognition. How Science Works: Research into short term memory and how individual used various methods to improve their short term memory and recall. Preparing for the next lesson: The study of the human mind is carried out by psychologists. They look at short-term and long-term ________. The two are not _________ as short-term memory is effected by dementia while brain ________ can cause problems with _________ memory. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: We can only retain information for 2 years ? False True 2: Dementia is not a problem in the UK ? False True 1: Short-term and long-term memory are not linked ?
B6.11 Stored memory Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how much information can be stored in our short term memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that your short-term, long-term and sensory memory are all called a multi-store model of memory. </li></ul>We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: How do we learn and remember things ? Write at least three sentences using the key words neuron, pathway, repetition and memory. Literacy: Memory, recall, information, short-term, long-term, model, multi-store, nerve impulses, vision, hearing and touch. Numeracy: It has been estimated that if our brain was a computer it would have the capacity to store 1,000,000,000,000,000 bytes of information. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on explaining the multi-store model of memory. Team workers Effective participators Self managers
B6.11 Stored memory Extension questions: 1: Name 2 ways in which you have remembered something that you have learned – using a poem or logo ? 2: In a concert there are 25 acts. You read their names in the programme and yet when your friends ask who is on you cannot remember. Why ? 3: There is not a definitive explanation to how memory works in the brain. Why do you think this is ? Know this: a: Know how short term memory functions in humans. b: Know that the multi-store model of memory can be used to explain hoe some information is passed on to the long-term memory and some is lost. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Short-term memory is so called as this memory can only store about 7 items of information. To make remembering things easier with this type of memory we tend to group the information together. For example, the sequence GHTIVDAST is hard to remember as one long sequence but if you make it into 3 ‘chunks’ – GHT IVD and AST then you only have 3 pieces to learn. The multi-store model of memory shows how we remember things like a group of words. We see the words and nerve impulses travel from our eyes to the sensory neuron. The words that we have noticed will then be passed on to our short-term memory – but only a small amount. The rest will be forgotten! Some is then passed on to your long-term memory.
Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Sensory memory is a very short-term buffer where senses store what they have received before any cognitive processing occurs. Short-term sensory memory is a useful tool that allows us to pay attention to one thing whilst also being aware and able to process events in the wider surroundings. Sensory memory is used when comprehending a single sentence, that is the brain will hold all the word in short term memory, understand and then dump those works a the second sentence is read. B6.11 a Short term memory How do you encourage information held in your short term memory to be passed into your long term memory ? Write the letters in the box above. Cover up all but the first line read and memorise and then recall. Repeat this with each line, how many letters can you remeber ? Memory Language XTK NWTR HAGTY JUAORG MKPAERF OTPRFGSE VBASWTGHJ
Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Try and lean 2, 4, 5 and 6 objects from the picture with 49 objects. For each task you have 8 seconds to memorise the objects ? Short-term memory acts as a scratch-pad for temporary recall of the information under process. For instance, in order to understand this sentence you need to hold in your mind the beginning of the sentence you read the rest. Short term memory decays rapidly (200 ms.) and also has a limited capacity. Chunking of information can lead to an increase in the short term memory capacity. This is the reason why a hyphenated phone number is easier to remember than a single long number. The successful formation of a chunk is known as closure . Interference often causes disturbance in short-term memory retention. This accounts for the desire to complete the tasks held in short term memory as soon as possible. B6.11 b Testing short term memory
B6.11 Plenary Lesson summary: forgotten model stored memory Friday 21 October 2011 Revision is not, as the word suggests, simply 'looking again' at the material covered in a course - it is a more active task. It involves organising material and finding ways of remembering it, that suit your own particular learning style. Although the time you set aside for revision is important, the approach you adopt and the techniques you use to revise are more vital. Sometimes the thought of having to revise can seem daunting, but be reassured, revision skills and techniques can be learned and practised. How Science Works: Find definitions for the following - stored memory, working memory, neuron pathway and revision. Preparing for the next lesson: We have both a short-term and long-term ______. They are linked by a multi-store _________ of memory that shows that some things are ___________ but some will be taken into the short-term memory and then passed on and ________ in the long-term memory. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: How the short and long-term memory is linked is by a multi-functional model? False True 2: Some information from your short-term memory is passed to the long-term ? False True 1: There is unlimited space in your short term memory ?
B6.12 Active memory Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand what an active working memory is. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how to use active working, how to improve it and how certain revision techniques can improve the recall of facts and information form long term memory ! </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Make a list of all the revision techniques that you can think of that help you to improve your use of long term memory ? Literacy: Working memory, short-term memory, long-term memory, revision, practice, repetition, neurons, synapses, neurotransmitters, brain spinal cord and peripheral nerves. Numeracy: The youngest person of all time to successful pass a GCSE was a 6 year old girl who passed an IT exam with a C grade. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on learning to revise!! Team workers Effective participators Self managers
B6.12 Active memory Extension questions: 1: Explain what your active working memory is ? 2: Think of 3 things that you remember due to a particular sense eg colour, taste or smell ? 3: What did neuroscientists conclude about the multi-store model ? 4: Why is it easier to remember a list of words in chunks rather than individually ? 5: Why is using a highlighter during revision useful ? Know this: a: Know that your working memory allows you to use both your short and long-term memory. b: Know that by repeating things, rehearsing them and highlighting points will make it easier to learn things. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Your short term memory can be called an active ‘working memory’ as you process and hold information that you are consciously thinking about. This means that communication happens both ways so you retrieve information you need as well as storing what you need for later. Psychologists suggest that this process can be used to help you with your school work: Repetition, Rehearsal and Active memory – do things more than once, read and write small amounts of information and use highlighters to pick out key points.
Key concepts B6.12 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: How does using a highlight pen or underlining help you revise and pick out key important facts ? How does rehearsal help you improve your performance for example playing a computer game or practising a sport ? Long-term memory is intended for storage of information over a long time. Information from the working memory is transferred to it after a few seconds. Unlike in working memory, there is little decay. There are two types of long-term memory: episodic memory and semantic memory. Episodic memory represents our memory of events and experiences in a serial form. It is from this memory that we can reconstruct the actual events that took place Semantic memory , on the other end, is a structured record of facts, concepts and skills that we have acquired for example in school. Long term memory repetition Memory rehearsal active memory
Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: B6.12 b Long term memory Memory Scientists have found that hearing specific sounds during deep sleep can improve memory and recall. The technique could also help anyone studying a foreign language or actors trying to learn their lines, they believe. The findings add to growing evidence that we consolidate memories as we sleep and that we can influence which ones we will later remember more strongly. How do you remember the way to the cinema or how to play a computer game ? Explain how rehearsal has helped you. Scientists suggest that if you have a link to the information you are learning then you will learn it more clearly. Why ? The formula of water is H 2 O Plants cells have cell walls Force = mass x acceleration
B6.12 Plenary Lesson summary: points memopry process repeat Friday 21 October 2011 Everyone feels nervous about taking exams. Here are some tips to help you make the most of your revision time and keep those nerves under control. An examination is a test of learning, not memory. Examiners want to see evidence that you have drawn on your knowledge to develop a reasoned argument, rather than replicate course notes and textbook facts. Revision should be a process of consolidating understanding rather than cramming as much information as possible before the morning of the exam. How Science Works: Revise for end of module test. Preparing for the next lesson: Communications between long-term and working _______ is in both directions. You can ________ and hold information that you are consciously thinking of. The best way to remember things is to _____ them over and over again, rehearse them by writing and reading small pieces and picking out key _______. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Your short-term memory can be called a working memory ? False True 2: The multi-store method is the best method available ? False True 1: Repeating information allows you to learn it more thoroughly ?