B1 You and your genes Route map Over the next 12 lessons you will study : Friday 21 October 2011 B1.1 The same and differe...
B1.7  Genetic screening and testing Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: ...
B1.7  Genetic screening and testing Extension questions: 1: What are the argument s for and against using DNA profile to d...
B1.7 a   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Look at the arguments for and against geneti...
Key concepts B1.7 a   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Genetic Testing involves direct...
B1.7 Plenary Lesson summary:   heart disorders health risk Friday 21 October 2011 Some people think that having the inform...
B1.8  Knowing information about your genes Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objec...
B1.8  Knowing information about your genes Extension questions: 1: Would you want to have more information about your gene...
Key concepts B1.8 a   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: The government would like to ge...
Key concepts B1.8 b   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Pharmacogenetics is the study o...
B1.8 Plenary Lesson summary:   genes risk increased screen Friday 21 October 2011 Scientists already use information about...
B1.9  Can you choose your child ? Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </...
B1.9  Can you choose your child? Extension questions: 1: Explain how IVF helps infertile couple have children ? 2: If you ...
Key concepts B1.9 a   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: PGD is the application of genet...
B1.9 a   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain why the female is given hormones pri...
B1.9 Plenary Lesson summary:   termination treatment  In-vitro outside Friday 21 October 2011 The first use of PGD to choo...
B1.10  Gene therapy Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><l...
B1.10  Gene therapy Extension questions: 1: Draw a flow chart to explain the main steps in gene therapy ? 2: In the 1990’s...
B1.10 a   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Gene therapy could be developed as a ‘direc...
Key concepts B1.10 b   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: In the future it may be possib...
B1.10 Plenary Lesson summary:   normal copies disorder proved Friday 21 October 2011 David Vetter  suffered from a rare ge...
B1.11  Cloning – science fiction or fact? Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson object...
B1.11  Cloning – science fiction or fact ? Extension questions: 1: Why is natural cloning more common in plants than anima...
Key concepts B1.11 a   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: 1: A donor cell is taken from ...
B1.11 b  Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Occasionally a vital organ like a heart may ...
B1.11 Plenary Lesson summary:   identical asexual without clones Friday 21 October 2011 Dolly died in 2003, aged 6. The av...
B1.12  Stem cells Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Imagin...
B1.12  Stem cells Extension questions: 1: How are stem cells different from other cells ? 2: Why would scientists think st...
Key concepts B1.12 a   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Stem cells can now be grown an...
B1.12 b   Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Give two ethical reasons for and against wh...
B1.12 Plenary Lesson summary:   unspecialized cloned treat different Friday 21 October 2011 Opponents of the research argu...
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B1 lesson part two

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B1 lesson part two

  1. 1. B1 You and your genes Route map Over the next 12 lessons you will study : Friday 21 October 2011 B1.1 The same and different B1.2 Family values B1.3 The human lottery B1.4 Cystic fibrosis End of module test B1.5 Male or female? B1.6 Ethics – making decisions B1.7 Genetic testing and screening B1.8 Knowing information about your genes B1.9 Can you choose your child? B1.10 Gene therapy B1.11 Cloning – science fiction or fact? B1.12 Stem cells
  2. 2. B1.7 Genetic screening and testing Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how genetic information can be used to detect inherited disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the ethics to using how genetic information and/or screening should be used by governments, parents and even businesses in pricing life insurance or pension products </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers First activity: If insurance companies, private health care provider or even pension companies use DNA profiling to determine the cost in pounds of a policy, do you think this is fair for a) an at risk individual or b) someone who is not at risk ? Literacy: Genetic testing, genetic screening, false positive, ethics, DNA, genes, chromosomes, probes, genetic fingerprinting, autoradiography and DNA sample Numeracy: Currently the DNA profiles of up to four million people are held by the UK government. Over 250,000 children have also had their DNA profiles taken and held by police data bases. Businesses also want to use this information in assessing risk.
  3. 3. B1.7 Genetic screening and testing Extension questions: 1: What are the argument s for and against using DNA profile to determine the cost of a) pension cover b) life insurance and c) private healthcare 2: If a person has false positive result how might this affect him or her if companies used DNA screening ? 3: What’s the difference between a false positive and false negative result ? 4: Do you think the National health service should have a record of our DNA so it could know our likely future health problems ? Know this: a: Know how genetic information can be used to detect inherited disorders like sickle cell anaemia and cystic fibrosis b: Know how genetic information could be mis-used by companies including life insurance providers. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Genetic testing is used to look for alleles that cause genetic disorders, when parents are identified as carriers of an inherited disorder like cystic fibrosis. In the future we may all be genetically screened to look for genes linked to diseases like cancer and heart disease. Despite the obvious many advantages of ‘at birth genetic screening’ many people are opposed to the health service, police and even companies holding information about our genes. Most are worried that people will suffer discrimination because of their genes and that people will faulty genes will suffer discrimination.
  4. 4. B1.7 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Look at the arguments for and against genetic testing what is your view point ? Should parent use genetic screening to know whether children are at risk of diseases like cancer, heart disease and depression ? All life should be given a chance of survival regardless of a genetic disorder Police may use our DNA to link us to a crime Pension companies may not offer us a pension if we are going to live too long Health companies may not provide health care if we are going to suffer form heart disease or cancer Genetic testing can be divided into two basic types: diagnostic and predictive. Diagnostic tests involve determining the cause of a disease in a patient with symptoms, much the same as standard blood tests or x-rays would be used. Predictive tests are those in which a person is found to be at increased risk for a disorder, but no symptoms of the disorder are present. There are fundamental differences in the ethical and procedural issues involved in using these different forms of testing. Is genetic screening ethical We will be able to deicide to terminate a foetus if it has a ‘genetic disorder We will know our future health risks like heart disease, cancer and even depression Scientists will be able to design drugs that work using our genes ? Arguments for ? Arguments against ? We might find genes for example that lead to overeating, where we can control by drug treatment the effects of these genes in humans Key concepts
  5. 5. Key concepts B1.7 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Genetic Testing involves direct examination of the DNA molecule itself. Genetic tests are used for several reasons, including: testing for inherited disorder, paternity testing forensic testing and generating information on health risk to the individual. Currently the government via the National Health Service, primary care trust, doctor and other medical staff are responsible for the health care of individuals which may include genetic screening. Give one advantage to your family doctor knowing your DNA profile ? Explain why secondary health care providers might not need to know your DNA profile ? Minister of health Department of health Regional health authorities Primary health care Secondary health care Community nursing, GP’s Dentists, Pharmacies & Opticians Hospitals, Mental health, Occupational therapy, ambulance & education
  6. 6. B1.7 Plenary Lesson summary: heart disorders health risk Friday 21 October 2011 Some people think that having the information from genetic testing or screening is useful, but there are also good reasons why not everyone agrees. A decision may benefit many people, but it may not be the right decision if it causes a great amount of harm to a few people. How Science Works: Research about how the government plants to increase the number of people on its DNA database and how it intends to begin to use this information to predict life expectancy health problems a person might have. Preparing for the next lesson: Genetic testing is used to look for alleles that cause genetic __________ and other health problems like depression, cancer and _______ disease. Increasingly companies and _________ care providers will use this information to better treat you and asses your _____ for certain disease. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Doctors could treat you with drugs designed around your DNA False True 2: If you have a long life expectancy you pension costs may decrease ? False True 1: Drug treatment based on ‘false positive’ genetic tests could be dangerous ?
  7. 7. B1.8 Knowing information about your genes Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how genetic information can be used and misused </li></ul><ul><li>Understand who are the potential users of the information, to include genetic screening, insurance companies and employers </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Give three potential uses of DNA profile by a) the police b) the health service and c) companies like pensions companies? Numeracy: Over the next 20 years 500 000 people will donate genetic samples and answer questions about their lifestyles. This for the first time will give scientists data link a persons DNA to their life expectancy, the disease they may suffer even their behaviour PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: Genetic testing, genetic screening, false positive, ethics, DNA, genes, chromosomes, probes, genetic fingerprinting, autoradiography and DNA sample
  8. 8. B1.8 Knowing information about your genes Extension questions: 1: Would you want to have more information about your genes and what disease you might suffer in the future. Suggest some pros and cons of knowing about your genes from birth. 2: Why do many scientists think that Biobank will benefit society ? 3: Give one argument that people have given against Biobank. 4: Other than the health service, do you think any other organisation (government or business) should have access to your DNA profile ? Know this: a: Know how genetic information can be used and misused b: Know who are the potential users of the information, to include genetic screening, insurance companies and employers. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: In the future it may be possible to screen children at birth for many different alleles. People would know if they had genes that increased their risk of a particular disease. But remember that most diseases are affected by many genes and your lifestyle. Biobank, a new research project, began in 2005 to investigate genes linked to common diseases. Many people think that only you and your doctor should know information about your genes. They’re worried that it could affect a person’s job prospects and chances of getting life insurance. Despite this doctors could use this information to better treat you if your were at risk from high blood pressure, certain cancers (breast and prostate) early onset diabetes and even depression or other mental illness.
  9. 9. Key concepts B1.8 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: The government would like to genetically screen the entire population at birth and share information with the NHS (health service) the police and business. People are worries that the information will always be used for the good of all people in a population. Genetic tests are done by analyzing small samples of blood or body tissues. They determine whether you, carry genes for certain health problems Explain how might the way the police and the NHS use information on your DNA profile differ ? Do you think all newborns should have their DNA profile taken and shared with the a) NHS b) the police and c) businesses ? Using DNA/genetic screening NHS Police Business Healthcare Drugs Life expectancy Forensics Crimes profiling Pensions Insurance Drug treatments
  10. 10. Key concepts B1.8 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Pharmacogenetics is the study of how genes influence an individual’s response to drugs. Though the field would seem to be brand new, it is really half a century old. In the 1950’s, scientists first identified deficiencies in enzymes that explained adverse reactions to drugs and that they could be inherited. Explain why using your DNA to design a drug treatment may make that drug a) more effective and b) safer ? Why do people response to drugs differ ? Would the cost of drugs designed specially for you be less or more than regular drugs ? Designing drugs around your DNA
  11. 11. B1.8 Plenary Lesson summary: genes risk increased screen Friday 21 October 2011 Scientists already use information about people’s DNA to help them solve crimes. They produce DNA profiles from cells left at a crime scene and link then to suspects in an criminal case. Also over the next 20 years 500,000 people will donate DNA and answer questions about their lifestyles. This for the first time will give scientists data linking a persons DNA to their life expectancy, the disease they may suffer even their behaviour. How Science Works: Research what pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is and find out how it is carried out step by step. Preparing for the next lesson: The future may provide us with opportunities to _______ children at birth for many different alleles, which would show us if the child had ______ that would _________ their ______ of getting a particular disease. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Insurers will definitely insure someone who has a genetic disorder ? False True 2: Health care providers may not treat people with faulty genes ? False True 1: People with genes that help them live longer may pay higher pension costs ?
  12. 12. B1.9 Can you choose your child ? Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how new techniques can allow people to select embryos based on their DNA profile given by genetic screening </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the implications, (ethical, economic and social) of widespread genetic screening in a population </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: A lot of news coverage about so called ‘designer babies’ has opened a debate about whether parent should be able to select traits that they consider desirable in their unborn children, for example behaviour, intelligence, life expectancy, colour of hair or eyes. Do you think this should be allowed ? Literacy: Numeracy: IVF has been used since 1977 to help couples who could not conceive a child naturally. Since then over 300,000 women worldwide have become pregnant by IVF treatment PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) Genetic testing, genetic screening, false positive, ethics, DNA, genes, chromosomes, probes, genetic fingerprinting, autoradiography and DNA sample
  13. 13. B1.9 Can you choose your child? Extension questions: 1: Explain how IVF helps infertile couple have children ? 2: If you had a risk of having a child with a generic disease, what would you decide to do and why and write down one viewpoint that embryo selection shouldn’t be done? 3: Couple who are carries of faulty alleles can now use IVF and OCG together to ensure that their children are disease free. Explain how the embryos are screen for genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis ? 4: Draw a flow diagram to show the main steps in embryo selection using PGD ? Know this: a: Know how new techniques can allow people to select embryos based on their DNA profile given by genetic screening b: Know the ethical implications of using PGD Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Infertile couple since 1977 have been offered in vitro fertilisation (IVF) by doctors as a way on having children. In this treatment the mother’s egg cells are fertilized outside her body and the developing embryo are implanted into the womb, where normal pregnancy and child birth result. Doctors can also use IVF to help couples whose children are at risk from a serious genetic disorder through Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Here the DNA of several embryos are screened and only the healthy embryos are implanted back into the womb.
  14. 14. Key concepts B1.9 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: PGD is the application of genetic testing on a live embryo prior to womb implantation. embryos produced by IVF are cultured until they are between 6-10 cells in size so that one or two cells can be removed (cell biopsy) for genetic analysis. Embryos can then be selected on the basis of their DNA and the absence of genetic disorders like cystic fibrosis. At £6000 per IVF cycle per couple should the NHS pay for unlimited attempts for all couples ? Should all families that carry faulty genes only be allowed to have children using the IVF PGD method which ensures a disease free baby ? IVF and PGD Case one Case two Parents are able to use IVF and PGD to screen embryos for genetic disorder and to see if they are a match for a brother or sister who requires a bone marrow transplant Parents might want to use IVF and PGD in the future to screen their embryos for other traits including physical and behavioural characteristics In vitro fertilisation PGD screening Implantation The process of IVF and PGD
  15. 15. B1.9 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain why the female is given hormones prior to egg harvesting ? Why are several embryo implanted into the womb and have IVF led to a rise in twin and triplet births ? In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process by which eggs are fertilised by sperm outside the womb. IVF is a major treatment in infertility when other methods of assisted reproductive technology have failed. The process involves hormonally controlling the ovulatory process, removing eggs from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a fluid medium. The fertilised egg zygote is then transferred to the patient's uterus with the intent to establish a successful pregnancy. The first successful birth of a &quot;test tube baby&quot;, Louise Brown Overview of ‘in vitro’ fertilisation Stage one: Injected hormones increase production in the ovaries Stage two: Eggs are harvest and fertilised with sperm and incubated Stage three: Embryos can be screened and implanted back into the female womb Key concepts
  16. 16. B1.9 Plenary Lesson summary: termination treatment In-vitro outside Friday 21 October 2011 The first use of PGD to choose embryos was in the U.K. in 1989. At the moment, PGD is only allowed for families with particular inherited conditions like cystic fibrosis. In the future, parents may use IVF and PGD to screen for traits like child behaviour, life expectancy, intelligence and long term health. How Science Works: Research into how gene therapy technologies are being developed to treat inherited faulty genes and also inherited disorders like cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anaemia Preparing for the next lesson: For those people who are carriers of a genetic disease and do not agree with __________ but still want to have children, there is a __________ available where the mother’s egg cells are fertilized _______ her body, that is, in _____ fertilisation. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Some parents might use IVF and PGD to produce designer babies ? False True 2: IVF is used with PGD to help parents have children free of genetic disorders ? False True 1: IVF used to help infertile couple to conceive has been used since 2001 ?
  17. 17. B1.10 Gene therapy Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how gene therapy is being developed to eventually replace faulty inherited genes </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how gene therapy could be a possible treatment for some genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anaemia </li></ul>We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Gene therapy was put forward as a possible cure for people with cystic fibrosis, however it has proved unsuccessful so far. One of the problems is that the lung contains billions of cells which all carry the faulty gene. Replacing all those faulty genes would be impossible using gene therapy...explain why ? Numeracy: Gene therapy although first researched in the 1990s has failed so far to offer therapies for humans with inherited disorder like cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anaemia . PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: Gene therapy, gene screening, Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) Genetic testing, false positive, ethics, DNA, genes, chromosomes, probes, genetic fingerprinting, autoradiography and DNA sample
  18. 18. B1.10 Gene therapy Extension questions: 1: Draw a flow chart to explain the main steps in gene therapy ? 2: In the 1990’s some people thought that gene therapy would soon be able to treat CF. Explain the main problems scientists have had trying to do this ? 3: Why do you think these improvements did not last ? 4. Why is gene therapy of the sex cells is currently banned under UK law ? 5: Give three other uses for gene therapy in the future ? Know this: a: Know how gene therapy is being developed to treat faulty inherited genes. b: Know how gene therapy could be a treatment for cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anaemia and Huntingdon’s disease. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Cystic fibrosis patients carry two faulty, recessive alleles. These recessive alleles makes a faulty protein that causes symptoms associated with CF including excessive mucus in the lungs. Some scientists have been trying to develop a new treatment for CF. Their plan is to put copies of the normal allele into the cells of CF patients. This treatment is called gene therapy . Scientists in the mid-1990s trapped normal alleles in fat droplets and used nose sprays to get them into the lung cells of CF patients. Although the health of some of the patients did improve, these improvements didn’t last because only a few of the many billions of lung cells had their faulty alleles replaced.
  19. 19. B1.10 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Gene therapy could be developed as a ‘direct delivery’ treatment where new genes are inserted into target organs using a virus, or by creating new cells which carry the functioning genes in the laboratory which are then injected into the target organ. Currently more research is required before the treatment becomes available. Why would a patients own cells be used in cell based delivery of new genes ? Why are current gene therapy treatments not solving the problem of passing a faulty gene onto their children ? SCID is caused by a faulty gene. Explain what SCID stands for, how it is caused and how people with SCID protect themselves. Gene therapy Key concepts
  20. 20. Key concepts B1.10 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: In the future it may be possible to use gene therapy to prevent known genetic diseases. New and functioning genes could be put into the sex cells or fertilized egg cells replacing faulty genes. This type of therapy could provide a treatment for SCID, Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease. Humans born with this disease spend their entire life in a sterile bubble because they have virtually no immune system, meaning that the first minor infection would kill them. Why did the boy pictured opposite left have to spend his entire life in a sterile plastic bubble ? The boy in the picture died after an unsuccessful bone marrow transplant, do you think his parents were right to treat him and take that risk ? Gene Virus Using gene therapy to treat SCID
  21. 21. B1.10 Plenary Lesson summary: normal copies disorder proved Friday 21 October 2011 David Vetter suffered from a rare genetic disease now known as severe combined immune deficiency syndrome (SCID). Forced to live in a sterile environment, he became know as the boy in the plastic bubble . He spent most of his life at Hospital but in 1981, David was discharged to his parents'. He died of cancer in 1984 after an unmatched bone marrow transplant from his sister , How Science Works: Research into cloning and the potential uses of cloning. Preparing for the next lesson: Gene therapy is where _______ of the _______ functioning allele are put into a target tissue directly or into target cells of a patient with a known genetic _________. patients. Currently gene therapy treatments have only _______ to be partially successful. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: SO far gene therapy is a well proved and successful treatment ? False True 2: Gene therapy of the gametes (sperm and egg) are currently not allowed ? False True 1: Human trials for gene therapy are allowed in all countries ?
  22. 22. B1.11 Cloning – science fiction or fact? Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that asexual reproduction result in a genetically identical offspring which is termed a clone </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that cloned stem cell may offer therapeutic treatments in the future for disease or damaged organs </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Imagine a person requires a liver transplant after years of heavy drinking, do you think it is right to offer that person stem cell therapy at the tax payer’s expense ? Literacy: Asexual reproduction, clones, cloning, identical, twins, fertilisation, sperm, egg, molly, dolly, stem cells, undifferentiated, differentiated Numeracy: In the next 20 year scientists believe they will be able to produce, clone and harvest stem cells which can them mature to form any other type of cell. The potential of this is to treat diseased or damaged organs with a simple stem cell injection. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers
  23. 23. B1.11 Cloning – science fiction or fact ? Extension questions: 1: Why is natural cloning more common in plants than animals ? 2: Why are a pair of identical twins genetically identical to each other, but not to their parents? 3: Do you think cloning of humans should be allowed ? 4: Who would decide which humans could be cloned if you allowed society to clone ? 5: If you lost a brother or sister do you think that you would clone them to bring them back to life ? Know this: a: Know that asexual reproduction result in a genetically identical offspring which is termed a clone b: Know that cloned stem cell may offer therapeutic treatments in the future for disease or damaged organs Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Many living things only need one parent to reproduce. This is asexual reproduction . Single-celled organisms e.g. bacteria, use asexual reproduction. The new bacteria only inherit genes from one parent, so their genes are identical to each others and their parents. Genetically identical organisms are called clones . The only variation between them will be caused by differences in their environment. Larger plants and animals have different types of cells for different jobs. As an embryo grows, cells become specialized e.g. blood, muscle and nerve cells. Plants keep some unspecialised cells all their lives. These cells can become anything that the plant may need e.g. new stems and leaves if cut down. These cells can also grow whole new plants so they can be used for asexual reproduction.
  24. 24. Key concepts B1.11 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: 1: A donor cell is taken from the skin of a male and an egg cell is taken from a female. 2:The egg is emptied of its genes and then fused with the donor skin cell DNA. The two cells are allowed to fuse. 3: A small electric charge is applied across the two fusing cells. 4:The zygote now contains 23 pairs of chromosomes identical. 5: Like any other normal zygote, the cell starts dividing. It is then implanted into a host womb, where it develops during a normal pregnancy. 6 Nine months later a Human clone of the donor is born . Do you think humans should be allowed to clone either a) themselves of b) a child that died ? Molly and dolly, the first cloned sheep lived until they were 6, normally sheep live between 12 to 14 years. What could be a problem with cloning humans ? Cloning in humans Donor cell Donor egg Donor cell Donor egg Fusing cells are shocked Fused cell contains 23 pairs of genes Embryo is placed inside a host womb Cloned Humans Host female
  25. 25. B1.11 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Occasionally a vital organ like a heart may fail even when we’re young. Scientists are now researching how to repair these organs using ‘stem cells.’ Unlike transplants, where you require a donor organ, stem cells once injected into a damaged organ can turn into new cells that can repair that organ. Stem cells unlike transplanted organs are not rejected by the body’s immune system. Explain why there is a real need to research the use of ‘stem cells’ as a source of cells that could produce any type of new cell as our own population ages ? Most stem cells used in scientific research are taken from embryos that are unwanted...what are the ethical issues of using cells taken from embryos ? If stem cell technology worked and was simple to administer we could all live to about 140...discuss the consequences of this on society ? Harvested stem cells Stem cell Blood cells Nerve cells Heart cells Stem cell technology Key concepts
  26. 26. B1.11 Plenary Lesson summary: identical asexual without clones Friday 21 October 2011 Dolly died in 2003, aged 6. The average lifespan for a sheep is 12-14 years. It took 277 attempts before Professor Wilmut’s team managed to clone Dolly. Many other cloned animals have suffered unusual illnesses. So scientists think that more research needs to be done before cloned mammals will grow into healthy adults. How Science Works: Research into cloning humans and should cloning be allowed, even thought the technology is proven and scientists have successful cloned sheep, monkeys and dogs. Preparing for the next lesson: _________ reproduction is when an organism has offspring ________ a mate, that is the offspring have just one parent and will thus have _________ genes to their parents. ______ are genetically identical organisms. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Majority of animals use sexual reproduction False True 2: Identical twins are clones of each other, but not of either parent False True 1: An organism with two parents is not a clone
  27. 27. B1.12 Stem cells Decide whether the following statements are true or false: Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Imagine you have been diagnosed with life changing or threatening Parkinson's disease, dementia, Alzheimers or even liver cancer, why could doctors and laboratories who offer stem cell therapy potential take advantage of you PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that cloned stem cell may offer therapeutic treatments in the future for disease or damaged organs </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the ethical questions that may arise when using stem cell technology to treat patients with life changing o threatening diseases. </li></ul>Literacy: Asexual reproduction, clones, cloning, identical, twins, fertilisation, sperm, egg, molly, dolly, stem cells, undifferentiated, differentiated, Parkinson's disease, dementia and Alzheimer's. Numeracy: Currently stem cell therapy where stem cells are injected into a target organ like the liver or brain to form new brain or liver cells is banned in this country. In Switzerland, certain doctors now offer stem cell therapy at a cost of £20,000.
  28. 28. B1.12 Stem cells Extension questions: 1: How are stem cells different from other cells ? 2: Why would scientists think stem cells would be useful in treating Parkinson’s disease ? 3: Explain how stem cell technology/treatment is different from cloning an adult ? 4: For each of these cells, say whether or not your body would reject it: bone marrow from a) your twin b) your sister and c) from stem cells with some of your own genes ? Know this: a: Know that cloned stem cell may offer therapeutic treatments in the future for disease or damaged organs b: Know the ethical questions that may arise when using stem cell technology to treat patients with life changing o threatening diseases. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Scientists are trying to improve methods for cloning animals, so in the future it may be possible to clone humans. Most scientists don’t want to clone adult human beings, however, some scientists do want to clone human embryos. They think that some cells from cloned embryos could be used to treat diseases. Stem cells are found in embryos (left over from fertility treatment) and they are unspecialised cells, which could be given to patients to repair damaged or diseased organs. To avoid rejection of the stem cells, they would need to have the same genes as the person getting them as a treatment.
  29. 29. Key concepts B1.12 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Stem cells can now be grown and transformed into specialized cells with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves through cell culture. It is hoped that stem cells source form either embryos or umbilical cord tissue will be used to treat, replace and repair damages, disease or ageing organs including the heart, brain, liver and skeletal muscle. In the future disease like dementia, may be cured by injecting stem cells into the brain. Would you take this treatment if you suffered from one of these diseases ? State the ethical issues of using stem cells from a) embryos and b) umbilical cord ? Using stem cell technology Brain Other Stem cells could treat diseases like Parkinson disease where neurons cease to produce dopamine Stem cells could treat damaged organs like the heart of skeletal muscle. They could also treat organs identified with tumour for example liver cancer
  30. 30. B1.12 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Give two ethical reasons for and against why we should all have access to stem cell therapy/treatment ? If stem cell technology could improve life expectancy should we use it ? Stem cell technology is yet proven may never work Stem cell technology would only be available to those patients who could afford to pay ? Human embryos should not be used as a source of stem cells ? The money could be better spent on preventing people form smoking or drinking and leading an unhealthy life Medical researchers believe that stem cell therapy has the potential to dramatically change the treatment of human disease. In the future, medical researchers anticipate being able to use technologies derived from stem cell research to treat a wider variety of diseases including cancer, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, and muscle damage, However, there still exists a great deal of social and scientific uncertainty surrounding stem cell research, which could possibly be overcome through public debate and future research. Is using stem cell technology ethical Stem cell technology could help people live longer free of disease The cost of treating an elderly person with dementia using stem cell technology would be cheaper than having to provide long term care Scientists will be able to use embryos as a source for stem cells that would normally be destroyed Arguments for ? Arguments against ? If the technology works then we have the duty to make sure that we all benefit from it Key concepts
  31. 31. B1.12 Plenary Lesson summary: unspecialized cloned treat different Friday 21 October 2011 Opponents of the research argue that embryonic stem cell technologies are a slippery slope to reproductive cloning and can fundamentally devalue human life. The pro-life movement argues that a human embryo is already a human life that is entitled to protection. Contrarily, supporters of embryonic stem cell research argue that such research should be pursued because the resultant treatments could have significant medical potential. How Science Works: Revise and study for your End of Module B1 test next lesson. Preparing for the next lesson: Stem cells are ___________ animal cells which can develop into _________ types of cells. This is advantageous for scientists who want to use some cells from _______ human embryos to _______ diseases. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Using stem cells could help cure diseases like the common cold and flu ? False True 2: Everyone feels the same about cloning humans ? False True 1: We now clone humans all the time ?

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