B1 You and your genes Route map Over the next 12 lessons you will study : Friday 21 October 2011 B1.1 The same and different B1.2 Family values B1.3 The human lottery B1.4 Cystic fibrosis End of module test B1.5 Male or female? B1.6 Ethics – making decisions B1.7 Genetic testing and screening B1.8 Knowing information about your genes B1.9 Can you choose your child? B1.10 Gene therapy B1.11 Cloning – science fiction or fact? B1.12 Stem cells
B1.1 The same and different Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how characteristics are controlled by genes and that we inherit out genes and characteristics form our parents family trees provide evidence for inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that how we look (our characteristics) are affected by both inheritance & environment </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Compare yourself with the student sitting next to you in class. Write down five things that make you look different from each other & five things that are the same. Now compare yourself with either of your parents, are you more or less simialr to your parents and why ? Literacy: Genes, DNA, genome, Inherited, characteristics, traits, chromosomes, alleles, recessive, dominant, features, environment, nucleus, chromosomes, protein and enzymes Numeracy: There are about 30 to 31,000 genes or instruction in the human genome. All the information needed to create a whole human being fits into the nucleus of a cell. The nucleus is just 0.006 mm across. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners Team workers Effective participators Self managers We will focus on
B1.1 The same and different Extension questions: 1: Look at the class and list the different hair colours. Which colour forms the largest and smallest group of students ? 2: With who do you share the most genes with, your brother and sisters or your parents ? 3: Give two characteristics that are controlled by our genes only and two that are controlled by both our genes and our environment. 4: Name fives features that all humans have in common. 5: explain why identical twins begin to look less identical as they age ? Know this: a: Know that our characteristics are controlled by our genes which are inherited form our mother and father . b: Know that both the environment and our DNA can affect what we look like. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: New plants and animals look a lot like their parents. They have inherited information from them. This information controls how the new organisms develop. A lot of information goes into making a human being. All people have most features in common. The differences between humans are very small, but these differences make us unique . Almost all your features are affected by the information you inherited from your parents e.g. eye colour. However most of your features are also affected by your environment e.g. skin colour.
Key concepts B1.1 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain the difference between a) a gene and DNA and b) a chromosome and gene ? Explain why your chromosome stay in the cell nucleus ? We humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes making 46 in total (23 from mother 23 from father) that carry the many thousands of genes, in sequence, that determine the our characteristics. Each chromosome normally consists of one very long double strand (or molecule) of DNA, coiled and folded to produce a compact structure. The exception is just before cell division when each chromosome contains two double strands of DNA, a result of the copying of each molecule of DNA. The point on a chromosome where a particular gene occurs is known as its locus. Genes and chromosomes inside the cell
B1.1 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Write down whether you inherited your hair and eye colour form your mum or dad ? Can you always predict the traits that the children will inherit, by looking at the mother and father ? Traits Eye colour Skin colour Hair colour Height Blood group Hand span Tongue roller Freckles Proteins/enzymes Zygote 2 sets of DNA Newborn Genes hold the instructions for making protein products (like the enzymes to digest food or the pigment that gives your eyes their colour). As your cells duplicate, they pass this genetic information to the new cells. Genes can be dominant or recessive. Dominant genes show their effect even if there is only one copy of that gene in the pair. For a person to have a recessive disease or characteristic, the person must have the gene on both chromosomes of the pair. Key concepts
B1.1 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Each human has a unique set of genes that code for all our traits. This is called their genotype and it cannot be changed. A human’s phenotype is what they look like and is the result of a person’s genotype and their environment. For example, a human cannot change their blood group, but they can change their hair colour by dying it. A study showed that the weight difference between twins was less than the weight difference between siblings, do these results suggest that genes control our weight ? Explain why identical twins look more alike when they are newborn when compared to how they look at 20 ? List using a table a) three traits that you could change and b) three traits that you could not change ? Key concepts
B1.1 Plenary Lesson summary: features develop environment inherit Friday 21 October 2011 Of the 30,000 different genes that humans have, each gene will code for a protein for example an enzyme which speeds up a chemical reaction or some other trait. Unless we are identical our genes are unique to us although we do share 50% of our genes with our closest living relative our mums and dads. Brothers and sisters normally share between 25 to 40% of their genes with one another. How Science Works: Research into inherited diseases and ask your parents about any features like feckless or diseases like cystic fibrosis that have been passed down in your family genes from generation to generation. Preparing for the next lesson: We all ________ our genes that determine our characteristics from our parents that makes us look similar to them and controls how we _______ . Your ________ or characteristics can also be affected by your __________. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: Chromosomes are found protected inside a cell nucleus ? False True 2: Genes have two alleles, one from your mother, the other from your father ? False True 1: DNA is short for deoxyribonucleic acid ?
B1.2 Family values Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how you inherit genes from your parents and that some genes are faulty giving rise to inherited disease like cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anaemia. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how Huntington’s disorder arises and know some of the symptoms. </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Make a list of five features that you have discovered that you may have or have inherited from your family ? Numeracy: Cystic fibrous, sickle cell anaemia and Huntington's disorder are all inherited disease that reduce the life expectancy of an individual. Because sufferers die young, these mutated genes are still rare in our communities. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: Genes, DNA, genome, Inherited disorders, characteristics, traits, chromosomes, alleles, recessive, dominant, sickle cell, cystic fibrosis, Huntingdon's disorder
B1.2 Family values Extension questions: 1: Give two characteristics that you've inherited form your parents that you a) like and b) dislike ? 2: List two examples of inherited diseases ? 3: Explain why the number of people born with cystic fibrosis is low ? 4: If you had a family history of relatives dying from cystic fibrosis, what advice would you give a pregnant sister ? 5: Would you advised them to have a gene test on the foetus ? Know this: a: Know how inherited disease like sickle cell and cystic fibrosis are passed form parent to young. b: Know the symptoms of Huntingdon’s disorder. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: It can be funny to see that people in a family look like each other. Perhaps you don’t like a feature you’ve inherited e.g. big ears or freckles. For some people, family likenesses are very serious e.g. Huntington’s disorder. Huntington’s disorder is an inherited condition. You can’t catch. The disorder is passed on from parents to their children. The symptoms don’t happen until middle age. First the person has problems controlling their muscles (shows up as twitching) and then gradually a sufferer becomes forgetful and they find it harder to understand things. After a few years, people with Huntington’s disorder can’t control their movements. Sadly the condition is fatal.
Key concepts B1.2 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Huntington's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative genetic disorder, which affects muscle coordination and leads to dementia and death. It typically becomes noticeable in middle age. The disease is caused by an dominant mutation on either of an individual's two copies of a gene called Huntingtin, which means any child of an affected parent has a 50% risk of inheriting and dying prematurely from the disease About 1 in 50,000 children are born with this inherited disease. If you had a parent with Huntington's disorder, would you have children nd explain your decision ? Explain what advise or counselling you would give for any with an inherited disorder that was thinking about starting a family ? In this family, the grandfather was diagnosed with Huntington’s disease. His children (3 girls and 1 boy each had a 50% chance of inheriting the faulty gene. Two girls were diagnosed with the gene, one boy’s genotype was unknown the third girl did not inherit the faulty gene. The children of the two girls with the faulty gene each had a 50% of inherited the disease whereas the off spring of the third daughter did not inherit the gene. The children of the son had a 25% change of inherited the disorder. Huntingdon's disorder in Humans
B1.2 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Sometimes people in the same family look a lot alike but in other families the brothers and sisters look very different. They may also look very different from their parents. The key to the mystery lies in our genes. Parents pass on genes in their sex cells. In animals these are sperm and egg cells (ova). Fertilisation Egg Sperm 1 set of DNA 1 set of DNA Write down whether you inherited your hair and eye colour from your mum or dad ? Looking around the class, which is the dominant allele for a) hair colour brown or blonde and b) eye colour blue or brown ? Explain using your knowledge of inheritance why children look more like their parent that their sisters or brothers ? Key concepts
B1.2 c Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Gametes cells, in males the sperm and in females the egg carry only half the parent’s chromosomes. This makes sure that the fertilised egg (called a zygote) has the right number (23 pairs) of chromosomes. This code is unique to you (unless you are an identical twin) and determine your characteristics from your skin colour to your blood type. Explain why your parents are your closest biological relatives ? Which a) organs store the eggs cells until they mature and b) how often are egg cells released by the female ? Once the zygote has formed form the fusion of the sperm and egg, how does the zygote then continually divide forming the embryo and then foetus ? Key concepts
B1.2 Plenary Lesson summary: chromosomes genes copies inherited Friday 21 October 2011 There is no cure for Huntington’s disease, but there are treatments available to reduce the severity of some of its symptoms. As the disease progresses and a person's ability to tend to their own needs reduces, carefully managed multidisciplinary care giving becomes increasingly necessary. How Science Works: Research about how variation occurs in humans and how you inherit your unique set of genes from your mother and father. Preparing for the next lesson: Parents pass on ______ in their sex cells. Every human body cell has 23 pairs of ___________ . Sex cells are made with ______ of half the parent’s chromosomes. Certain diseases like cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anaemia and Huntingdon’s disease can be _________ from generation to generation through the family genes. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: The fertilised egg will have genes from only the mother ? False True 2: Every human body has 23 pairs of chromosomes ? False True 1: Huntington’s disorder is not fatal ?
B1.3 The human lottery Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that most characteristics are controlled by pairs of genes and that different version of the same genes are called alleles </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that alleles can be either dominant or recessive for example the allele for blue eye colour is recessive to the allele for brown eye colour </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: Look around the class and list the different alleles present for hair colour. Which do you think is the dominant allele for hair colour the allele that determine a person has brown or blonde hair ? Numeracy: Human beings have about 30,000 genes. Each gene has different versions or alleles. Simplistically eye colour for example has four different alleles and can either be blue, green, hazel or brown. PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers Literacy: DNA, genes, alleles, chromosomes, traits, characteristics, DNA, genome, inherited disorders, recessive, dominant, sickle cell, cystic fibrosis and Huntingdon's disorder
B1.3 The human lottery Extension questions: 1: Explain the difference between a) gene and allele b) DNA and gene c) chromosome and gene and d) dominant and recessive ? 2: For the following traits give two possible different alleles a) eye colour b) blood group and c) hair colour ? 3: Using your answer form question 2, which is the dominant and which is the recessive alleles. 4: Give two traits or characteristics that are a) affected by our genes only b) the genes and environment and c) the environment only. Know this: a: Know that most traits or characteristics are controlled by pairs of genes and that different version of the same genes are called alleles b: Know that alleles can be either dominant or recessive Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Humans have about 30,000 genes found in 23 chromosomal pairs. A pair of genes found on the same location of a chromosome (one inherited from your mother the other from your father) code for a particular trait or characteristic like eye colour, hair colour and blood group. Different versions of the same gene are called alleles . E.g. the gene that controls dimples has two alleles. The dominant allele (D) gives you dimples. The recessive allele (d) on its own won’t give dimples. The dominant (D) allele is dominant. You only need one copy of a dominant allele to have its feature. For the recessive allele (d), you must have two copies of a recessive allele to have its feature i.e. in this case no dimples.
B1.3 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Genes that control a particular characteristic or trait come in different versions called alleles. The gene that controls dimples has two alleles. The dominant ( D ) allele gives you dimples, whereas the recessive (d) allele won’t give you dimples if both alleles that you inherit are recessive ( dd ). In order to have dimples you only need one copy of the dominant ( D ) allele. Explain why two parents with dimples could have children that either have or do not have dimples ? Explain why two parents with no dimples cannot have a child with the dimple trait or characteristic ? What is the e percentage chance of inherited dimples if one parent has no dimples and the other parent has dimples ? D D d d D d D D d d D d Dimples No dimples Dimples Genotype Phenotype Human chromosomes Different alleles of the same gene Key concepts
B1.3 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Is the allele for dimples recessive or dominant in Humans ? Imagine the following: A father with no dimples a genotype or alleles of dd has children with a mother who has dimples but also carries a hidden recessive allele. Her genotype is therefore hetrozygous Dd . We can work out the genotypes of their offspring by doing a genetic cross where we show what happens when sperm and egg cells fuse carrying the different alleles from both parents. These genetic cross can be used for working out the chance of inherits any trait or characteristic from our parents. D d d d Alleles in dominant and recessive form Mother (Dd) Father (dd) d d d d d d D D d d d D The diagram shows the possible genotypes of all offspring of the female and male. What are the chances that the couple have a) a child with dimples and b) a child with no dimples and why does a child with no dimples need both copies to have that characteristic ? Key concepts
B1.3 Plenary Lesson summary: recessive dominant trait alleles Friday 21 October 2011 Brothers and sisters are different because they each get a different mixture of alleles from their parents, however they do share some similarities because they can share in common with one another about 25 to 40% of their genes. Except for identical twins, each one of us has a unique set of genes. How Science Works: Huntington’s disorder is caused by a dominant allele. You only need to inherit one allele from either parent to have the condition. Research if this is the same for true for the disease Cystic fibrosis. Preparing for the next lesson: A gene that controls any _____ or characteristic like eye and hair colour comes in different versions called ______. Alleles for the same trait can either be ____________ or recessive. In the case of recessive alleles you need both copies form your mother and father to have the trait. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: An allele is a different version of the same different gene ? False True 2: Huntington’s disorder is caused by a inherited two recessive alleles ? False True 1: The blue allele for eye colour is recessive to the brown allele for eye colour ?
B1.4 Cystic Fibrosis Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how faulty alleles can give rise to inherited diseases like cystic fibrosis and know the health effects of this disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Understand why families with relative diagnoses as carries or sufferers of cystic fibrosis might what to genetically screen their embryos </li></ul>Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: If one in twenty five or 4% of the UK population carries the cystic fibrosis gene. If you risk assessed 1000 couples a) what would be the odds of two carriers meeting one another and b) if two carriers did than go on and have children, what would be the percentage chance of their offspring developing the disease ? Literacy: Inherited disease, recessive, dominant, genetic screening, allele, carries, faulty gene, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia and Huntington’s disease, termination. Numeracy: Cystic Fibrosis affects over 8,500 people in the UK. Over two million people in the UK carry the faulty gene that causes CF - around 1 in 25 of the population. If two carriers have a child, the baby has a 1 in 4 chance of having CF. . PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers
B1.4 Cystic Fibrosis Extension questions: 1: Give two example of other genetically inherited disorders like cystic fibrosis ? 2: A doctor tells a mother that nothing she did during her pregnancy caused her baby to have CF. How can the doctor be sure ? 3: People born with CF make thick, sticky mucus. Describe the health problems that this may cause to the respiratory system ? 4: Explain the difference between a carrier of CF and a sufferer of CF ? Know this: a: Know how faulty alleles can give rise to inherited diseases like cystic fibrosis. b: Know why families with relative diagnoses as carries or sufferers of cystic fibrosis might what to genetically screen their embryos. Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: You can’t catch cystic fibrosis (CF). It is a genetic disorder. This means it is passed on from parents to their children i.e. it is inherited. The disease causes a number of respiratory and digestive problems. Humans who have the disease die in their early thirties because the lung cells that make mucus in the body don’t work properly. The mucus is much thicker than it should be. This causes infection, scaring of the lungs and eventually organ failure and death. Cystic fibrosis is still rare because both recessive alleles need to be inherited from both parents and people with CF are usually sterile, unable to have children.
B1.4 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Most people with CF can’t have children. The thick mucus affects their reproductive systems. So babies with CF are usually born to healthy parents who are carriers of the recessive CF allele. Carriers suffer no health problems and are sometime unaware that they have the faulty gene unit they mate with another carrier and give birth to a child with cystic fibrosis and both faulty genes. Explain what it means when someone is a ‘carrier’ of CF ? <ul><li>Two carriers (male and female) of CF plan to have children. Use the diagram opposite left to work out the chance that they will have: </li></ul><ul><li>a child with CF ? </li></ul><ul><li>a child who is a carrier of CF ? </li></ul><ul><li>a child who has no CF alleles ? </li></ul>Key concepts
Key concepts B1.4 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: T Why would parents ant to genetically test their unborn foetus ? Describe how a gene probe can be used to identify a faulty gene that would cause an inherited disorder like cystic fibrosis ? Parents with a family history of inherited disease like cytic fibrosis can now request a genetic test on their unborn baby. A small amount of amniotic fluid is remove and tested with gene probes that can identify diseases including sickle cell anaemia, haemophilia, Down’s syndrome and cystic fibrosis. During the procedure there is a small risk of termination.
B1.4 Plenary Lesson summary: respiratory terminate screen disorder Friday 21 October 2011 CF can’t be cured yet but treatments are getting better and life expectancy is increasing all the time. Physiotherapy helps to clear mucus from the lungs. Sufferers take tablets that supply the digestive system with the missing gut enzymes. Antibiotics are used to treat chest infections and an enzyme spray can be used to thin the mucus in the lungs, so it is easier to get rid of. How Science Works: Research into how sex is determined in humans by the XY XX chromosomes and what makes females different to men. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited ________ which affects mainly the ___________ system because of an over production of mucus . Couples who both carry the recessive allele that causes cystic fibrosis often _________ their embryo during pregnancy prior to their decision to _________ or not. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: CF can be cured by drug treatments like antibiotics ? False True 2: A child of parents who are both caries will have a 50% chance of being CF ? False True 1: A person with only one recessive allele for CF will all the symptoms of CF ?
B1.5 Male or female? Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how sex is determined in humans by the XX and XY chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that the male gender is determined by ‘SRY’ genes on the Y chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that hormones unique to males and female are controlled by genes. </li></ul>We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 First activity: A recent study that looked into to the DNA or murders discovered that these men had a greater chance of being XYY or supper Y males. XYY males tend to be hyper- aggressive a trait which most murderers share. Explain how the double Y causes this aggression in men ? Literacy: Sex determination, male, female, XX, XY, chromosomes, chance, hormones, testosterone, oestrogen, androgens, sperm, egg, zygote, embryo and foetus. Numeracy: When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg cell, the chances are 50% that it will be an X or a Y sperm. This means that there is a 50% chance that the baby will be a boy or girl PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers
B1.5 Male or female? Extension questions: 1: Explain why there is a 50%chance of having a baby girl or boy ? 2: What sex chromosome (s) would be in the nucleus of a man’s body cell and a women’s body cell ? 3: What sex chromosome (s) would be in the nucleus of an a) egg cell and b) a sperm cell ? 4: Give the name of a) the male hormone and b) the female hormone ? 5: Females have more genes than males (males are missing part of the X which makes it into a Y ‘some) what do these extra genes do ? Know this: a: Know how sex is determined in humans by the XX and XY chromosomes b: Know that the male gender is determined by ‘SRY’ genes on the Y chromosome . Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: Gender is determined in the developing foetus six weeks after fertilisation. What triggers these events are the chromosomes know as pair 23. A fertilised human egg cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes. Pair 23 are the sex chromosomes. Males have an X and Y chromosome (XY). Females have two X chromosomes (XX). A parent’s chromosomes are in pairs. When sex cells are made they only get one chromosome from each pair. So half a man’s sperm cells get an X and half get a Y chromosome. All a woman’s egg cells get an X chromosome. When a sperm cell fertilizes and egg the chances are 50% that it will be an X or a Y sperm. This means that there is a 50% chance that the baby will be a boy or girl.
B1.5 a Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: A male embryo’s testes develop when it is about six weeks old. This is caused by a gene on the Y chromosome – the SRY gene (‘sex-determining region of the Y chromosome’). Testes produce the male sex hormone called androgen, which makes the embryo develop into a male. If there is no androgen, the sex organs develop into ovaries, clitoris and vagina of a female. How do these hormones that you name in question one get a) travel around the body and b) where are they produced in males and females ? Give the name of one other hormone found in both men and women and say what role it plays ? Which hormone is responsible for a) male secondary sexual characteristics and b) female secondary sexual characteristics ? Key concepts
B1.5 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Explain why there is a 50/50 chance of a couple having a female or male baby ? What sex chromosome or chromosomes would you find in a) a male skin cell b) a female egg cell c) a female skin cell and d) a male sperm cell ? A humans' sex is predetermined in the sperm gamete. The egg cell is said to be homogametic, because all its cell possess the XX sex chromosomes. Sperm gametes are deemed heterogametic because half of them contain the X chromosome and others possess the Y chromosome. In light of this, there are two possibilities that can occur during fertilisation between male and female gametes, XX and XY. Since sperm are the variable factor (i.e. which sperm fertilises the egg) they are responsible for determining the sex of the child. X X X Y Determining sex in Humans egg XX Sperm XY X X X X X X X X X Y X Y Key concepts
B1.5 Plenary Lesson summary: hormone embryo X Y Friday 21 October 2011 Did you know that although the chances of having a boy or girl is 50:50, the percentage of boys born is actually around 51% versus 49% for girls. Y carrying sperm which produce boys when they fuse with an X carrying egg are able to swim slightly faster, therefore changing the odds slightly. Boys also die more often because they are greater risk takers., maybe this is natures way of dealing with this. How Science Works: Research into the ethics of genetic testing and why families sometimes genetically screen their embryos before decide whether to continue with their pregnancy or not. Preparing for the next lesson: Males have an X and a ____ chromosome and females have two _____ chromosomes. During foetal development in the first 4 to 6 weeks inside the mother’s womb, androgen, a male sex ________ produced in the testes, makes the _______ develop into a male. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: A fertilized human egg cell has 46 pairs of chromosomes ? False True 2: Hormones are a group of proteins made using genes ? False True 1: Pair 13 in Humans are the sex chromosomes ?
Decide whether the following statements are true or false: <ul><li>Lesson objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how genetic information can be used to detect inherited disorders like sickle cell anaemia and cystic fibrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how genetic information could be used to determine a person life expectancy or even their insurance costs </li></ul>We will focus on. Friday 21 October 2011 PLTS Independent enquirers Creative thinkers Reflective learners We will focus on Team workers Effective participators Self managers First activity: Heart disease and high blood pressure runs in your family. Explain what advise you would give an expectant mother in your family if she was about to consider having her developing foetus genetically tested for genes that increase the risk of developing heart disease and high blood pressure ? Literacy: Genetic testing, false postive, ethics, DNA, genes, chromosomes, probes, genetic fingerprinting, autoradiography and DNA sample Numeracy: The first genetic tests were launched in the 1980s and were used to identify inherited disorders like cystic fibrosis, down’s syndrome, sickle cell anaemia and haemophilia. B1.6 Ethics – making decisions
B1.6 Ethics – making decisions Extension questions: 1: When parents are thinking about termination because of an inherited disorder. Describe three different points of view that a couple with an unborn baby that has CF, might take ? 3: Do you think genetic testing should be use to inform the parents of all health risks that an child may have through their lives 4: Is it right to have a child knowing they have a life limiting genetic disease ? 5: Is it wrong to terminate a foetus because they may have a risk of contracting a cancer later on in life ? Friday 21 October 2011 Introduction: When a person has to make a decision about what is the right or wrong way to behave, they are thinking about ethics e.g. deciding whether to have a termination if your developing baby has inherited a genetic disorder like cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anaemia. For some ethical questions, the right answer is very clear e.g. should you feed and care for your pet...of course, but some situations, people may not agree on one right answer, for example, parents deciding whether to terminate a pregnancy when the child is going to have CF...they have to weigh up the consequences of either choice. Know this: a: Know how genetic information can be used to detect inherited disorders like sickle cell anaemia and cystic fibrosis b: Know how genetic information could be used to determine a person life expectancy.
Key concepts Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: B1.6 a Genetic tests for mutations in single genes that are causally related to rare diseases and are inherited in a simple mendelian fashion can have profound implications for the individual and family members. Genetic tests for inherited diseases including cystic fibrosis, haemophilia, sickle cell anaemia and down’s syndrome. If an inherited disorder is identified, parents are able to decide and access counselling should they wish to give birth to a baby with a life limiting genetic disorder. Sickle cell ? Haemophiliac ? Cystic fibrosis ? Down’s syndrome ? Is it ethical to screen for the following in embryos N.B assume that parent will use the information to deicide whether or not they will terminate: a) cystic fibrosis b) high blood pressure c) child hyper-activity d) colour of eyes e) gender and f) Down’s syndrome ?
Key concepts B1.6 b Look at the photograph and information and answer all the questions: Increasingly scientists are identifying genes that increase the risk of certain health problems like cancer , heart disease, depression and high blood pressure. Adults can now have their DNA screened. A DNA sample and cut into short pieces using restriction enzymes; The DNA fragments from individuals are added to the gel. When an electric current is applied to the solution, the fragments migrate through the gel toward the positively charged pole. They do so at different rates, and so they separate into bands according to length. By looking at how genes fragments separate scientists can identify key genes likely to cause health problems later on in life. If doctors offered you a gene test to determine your life expectancy and the likely cause of death, would you take the test ? Several male relatives in your family have died from heart disease, how might this genetic screening help you know the risks and change your lifestyle accordingly ? Blood sample taken and DNA extracted using restriction enzymes DNA is separated using gel electrophoresis, probes are prepared, probes bind to the DNA X ray film is placed next to separated DNA. The film is then developed and a pattern emerges of the DNA fragments
B1.6 Plenary Lesson summary: disorder ethics cons genetic Friday 21 October 2011 Not everyone weighing up the consequences of each choice will come to the same decision. Some people feel that any illness would have a devastating effect on a person’s quality of life. However people lead very happy, full lives in spite of very serious disabilities. Science and technology are definitely key players in helping people with disabilities lead happy lives. How Science Works: Research into genetic testing and its use for detecting genetic disorder, other health effects and also how this information might be used to design drugs specific. Preparing for the next lesson: Terminating a pregnancy on the basis of a _______ test which shows that the foetus has a genetic __________ demands the parent considers the ________ of the right and wrong thing to do. Weighing up the pros and ____ of caring for a life limited child is never easy. Decide whether the following statements are true or false : False True 3: All people feel the same way about termination after a genetic foetal screen ? False True 2: A false positive could lead parents to terminate a perfectly healthy foetus ? False True 1: Deciding whether or not to have an abortion is not an ethical question ?