Loading…

Flash Player 9 (or above) is needed to view presentations.
We have detected that you do not have it on your computer. To install it, go here.

Like this presentation? Why not share!

Generation of electricity by nuclear fusion

on

  • 2,187 views

English presentation:

English presentation:

What are the reactions of fission and fusion?
Why there is an interest in nuclear fusion?
How can we get to use it?

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,187
Views on SlideShare
2,172
Embed Views
15

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
29
Comments
0

2 Embeds 15

https://jujo00obo2o234ungd3t8qjfcjrs3o6k-a-sites-opensocial.googleusercontent.com 14
http://www.sciencesphy-bac.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Generation of electricity by nuclear fusion Generation of electricity by nuclear fusion Presentation Transcript

    • GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY BY NUCLEAR FUSION 11/16/10 HASPOT Samuel
    • Fission and Fusion reactions 2 1) What is a fission reaction? A fusion reaction? Atomic nucleus composed of nucleons: protons + neutrons Z which defines the element e.g. Hydrogen Z = 1 Hydrogen stable element (majority) Z = 1 ; A = 1 but existence of deuterium Z = 1 ; A = 2 tritium Z = 1 ; A = 3 several isotopes (A different) of the same element (same Z) Remark: masses of isotopes which are different (proportional to A)
    • Fission and Fusion reactions 3 Binding energy El = (Z * mp + (AZ) mn - m (X)) * c ² Stability of a nucleus: The higher the ratio El / A is, the more stable it is Aston curve El / A = f (A) A lower than 20 -> fusion reaction eg: A higher than 190 -> fission reaction eg: Conservation of the number of protons and mass number
    • Production of electricity 4
      • What are main criteria to consider in the production of electricity?
      • Access to raw materials
      • Radioactivity (and quantity) of the products of reaction
      • Energy
      • Nuclear power plants: thermal
      • 1.Nuclear energy released by the
      • reaction as heat
      • 2. Heated water. Steam that turns
      • turbines
      • Conversion of thermal energy into
      • mechanical energy
      • 3. Alternator
      • Conversion into electricity
      • Now, we use fission.
      • Why an interest in nuclear fusion?
    • Why an interest in nuclear fusion? 5
      • Comparative FISSION / FUSION
      • 1st criterion: Access to raw materials
      • FISSION FUSION
      • - Limited resources - Unlimited resources: sea water
      • - Extraction of Uranium in containing large quantities of
      • unstable countries deuterium (0.015% of hydrogen).
      • - opportunity to produce tritium artificially
      • after, need to enrich by centrifugation
      • 2 nd criterion: Radioactivity of products
      • FISSION FUSION
      • Need to store long-lived - Little or no radioactive products
      • radioactive waste
    • Why an interest in nuclear fusion? 6 3rd criterion: Energy released Mass loss -> energy release Mass defect ∆m = mass before (reactants) - mass after (products) Energy released = ∆m * c ² FISSION E = ((234.9935-(93.8945 + 139.8920 + 1.008))* 1.66054.10^(-27)) x (3*10^8)² = 2.974*10^(-11) J = 184.7 MeV For 1g of uranium 235: 7.5.10 ^ 10 J FUSION E = ((2.0160+3.0247-4.0015-1.0087)*1.66054.10^(-27)) x (3*10^8)² = 4,5.10*(-12) J = 28.41 MeV For 1g of mixture D-T: 5.4.10 ^ 11 J Fusion releases more energy
    • ITER project 7 Fusion has great advantages, but problematic experimental and industrial aspects Difficulty: Cause fusion of deuterium and tritium, although they tend to repel Solution: Mixture at a temperature of 100 million degrees, plasma having enough energy to overcome the repulsive forces Difficulty: No material that resists with this heat Solution: Confine the plasma at center of the reactor, away from walls in a virtual magnetic enclosure created by electromagnets -> Objectives of the ITER project
    • ITER project 8
      • Country: Russia, China, South Korea,
      • USA, Japan, European Union, India
      • Site: CADARACHE, End: 2019
      • Technical objectives of ITER
      • Generate 500MW with 50MW during
      • 6min40s
      • Be able to maintain fusion reactions
      • in plasma for 16min40s
      • No electricity (thermal only), just check
      • the feasibility
      • Futures, REACTOR DEMO - 1500W electric power after losses
      • Commercial reactors from 2050