Educational Development in INDIA

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Educational Development in INDIA

  1. 1. EDUCATIONALDEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
  2. 2. Topics Covered1) What is Literacy?2) Importance of Education,3) Calculation of Literacy rate,4) INDIA in World Literacy ranking,5) INDIA’s Educational Development since Independence,6) Variation of Literacy rate in INDIAN States,
  3. 3. 7) Gender disparities,8) Bihar literacy,9) Kerala literacy,10) Measures taken by INDIAN Government,11) Our Survey.
  4. 4.  What is Literacy ? The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has drafted the definition of literacy as the "ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate, compute and use printed and written materials associated with varying context’’. International Literacy Day is celebrated each year on 8th September.
  5. 5. The National Literacy Mission defines literacy as acquiringthe skills of reading, writing and arithmetic and the abilityto apply them to ones day-to-day life.Literacy is key for socio-economic development.
  6. 6.  Importance of Education Imbibing(take in) values such as national integration, conservation of environment, womens equality. Literacy is a reasonably good indicator of development in a society. Improves ones Life standards and style. About 35% of worlds illiterate population lives in India and, based on historic patterns of literacy growth across the world, India may account for a majority of the worlds illiterates by 2020.
  7. 7.  Literacy rate: The total percentage of the population of an area at a particular time aged seven years or above who can read and write with understanding. The survey is organized by National Sample Survey Office (NSSO).Survey is done and Literacy rate is calculated for every TEN years. 1) Literacy rate 2) Crude literacy rate 3) Adult literacy rate (15+)
  8. 8. The literacy rate has increased from 18.33% in 1951to 64.84% in 2001. As per 2001 Census, the overall literacy rate of Indiais 65.38%. The male literacy rate is 75.96% and femaleliteracy rate is 54.28%. As per the 2011 census India’s literacy rate is 74.04%.With Male literacy rate of 82.14%, Female Literacy rate of65.46%.
  9. 9. INDIA’s position in World India currently has the largest illiterate population of any nation on earth. A study done in 1990 estimated that it would take until 2060 for India to achieve universal literacy at then-current rate of progress. The 2011 census indicated a 2001-2011 decadal literacy growth of 9.2%, which is slower than the growth seen during the previous decade. World average Literacy rate at present is 84%, Whereas India is having a Literacy rate of 74.04%.
  10. 10. Country Adult Literacy Rate Youth Literacy RateChina 93.3% (2007) 98.9% (2004)Sri Lanka 90.8 (2007) 98.0 %(2007)Burma 89.9% (2007) 94.4% (2004)Iran 82.4% (2007) 95% (2002)World Average 84% (1998) 88% (2001)India 74.04% (2011) 82% (2001)Nepal 56.5 (2007) 62.7%(2007)Pakistan 62.2 (2007) 73.9%(2007)Bangladesh 53.5 (2007) 74%(2007)
  11. 11.  Literacy rate since Independence India had a Literacy rate of 12% at the end of British rule in India during 1947. In 1944, the Government of British India presented a plan, called the Sergeant Scheme for the educational reconstruction of India, with a goal of producing 100% literacy in the country within 40 years, i.e. by 1984. Parliament has passed the Constitution 86th Amendment Act, 2002, to make elementary education a Fundamental Right for children in the age group of 6– 14 years.
  12. 12. GENDER DISPARITIES This difference between male and female literacyrates is getting reduced. Kerala stands first in femaleLiteracy rate with 87.7% in 2001 census and 92% accordingto 2011 census. Average female Literacy rate in India during 2001census is 53.67% and during 2011 census is 65.46%. TheFemale literacy rate shows a decadal change of 11.79%,which is greater than the decadal change in Male literacyrate which is about 6.88%.
  13. 13. Historically,a variety of factors have been found tobe responsible for poor female literacy rate1) Gender based inequality.2) Social discrimination and economic exploitation.3) Occupation of girl child in domestic chores.4) Low enrolment of girls in schoolsUniversalisation for Elementary Education is introduced toovercome the hurdles.
  14. 14. Bihar literacy Bihar has the lowest literacy rate in Indiaand, in the 2011 census, was the only Indian statewhere the less than 65% of the population wasliterate. However, the literacy rate is rising: 39% in 1991 to 47% in 2001 to 63.8% in2011. Department of Adult Education of Bihar wona UNESCO award in 1981.
  15. 15. International Reading Association Literacy Award (forMeritorious Work in Literacy)/UNESCO/Year : 1981Prize winner : Department of Adult Education of the Stateof BiharMedal : Silver MedalAward : US$ 2,500
  16. 16. Kerala Literacy: Kerala undertook a "campaign for total literacy inErnakulam district with the help of voluntary groups, socialactivists and others On February 4, 1990. The Government of Kerala then replicated theinitiative on a statewide level, launching the Kerala StateLiteracy Campaign.
  17. 17.  MEASURES TAKEN BY GOVERNMENT: Problems being faced are listed below: 1) high drop-out rates 2) low participation of girl students 3) inadequate school infrastructure 4) teacher absenteeism rate high 5) large-scale teacher vacancies 6) lack of public involvement in provisioning of educational services 7) variation in the literacy rates for the Special Groups of citizens
  18. 18. In order to overcome all these hurdles Indian governmenthas undertaken revolutionary programs such as:1) NATIONAL LITERACY MISSION:The National Literacy Mission, launched in 1988, aimed atattaining a literacy rate of 75 per cent by 2007. The TotalLiteracy Campaign is the principal strategy of the NLM foreradication of illiteracy.
  19. 19. 2) SARVA SIKSHA ABHIYAN: The Sarva Siksha Abhiyan was launched in 2001 toensure that all children in the 6–14 year age-group attendschool and complete eight years of schooling by 2010. The centrally sponsored District Primary EducationProgramme, launched in 1994, had opened more than160,000 new schools by 2005,
  20. 20. 3) MID-DAY MEAL SCHEME: Of the estimated 205 million child population in theage group 6–14 years on March 1, 2002, nearly 82.5% wereenrolled in schools. However, the drop-out rate in 2002-03was 34.9% at the primary level and 52.8% at the upperprimary level. Launched in 1995. Under this scheme lunchwas supplied to pupils of government aided schools. Thisscheme is mainly designed to attract children from poorfamilies. Due to problems in execution of this scheme led toincrease in Drop-out rate.
  21. 21. YEAR SC ST BC GENERAL TOTAL 2008-09 15/22 2/3 24/29 ------- 97 2009-10 14/22 3/3 26/29 ------- 97 2010-11 21/26 3/3 24/31 1/2 111A Government school in Nellore:BOYS/GIRLS
  22. 22. YEAR TOTAL TOTAL NEW ADMI- TOTAL BOYS GIRLS SSIONS STRENGTH (LKG)2009-10 423 371 110 794 { 64/46 }2010-11 519 382 121 901 { 72/49 }A.A.N.M & V.V.R.S.R High school -Andhra Pradesh
  23. 23. Following are some statistics fromKothagudem District ofANDHRA PRADESH
  24. 24. No.of Teachers No.of StudentsSl.No Name of the Village Name of the School Male Female Total Boys Girls Total 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 Gundepudi PS Vengannapalam 0 2 2 20 28 48 2 Gundepudi PS Veerabhadrapuram 2 0 2 15 6 21 3 Gundepudi PS Ramachandrapuram 2 0 2 20 18 38 4 Gundepudi PS Gundepudi 1 1 2 30 34 64 5 Gundepudi UPS Kotha Suraram 5 1 6 83 55 138 6 Gundepudi ZPSS Gundepudi 7 2 9 122 107 229 7 Julurupad PS Koya colony 2 0 2 11 17 28 8 Julurupad PS Yerra thanda 2 0 2 10 20 30
  25. 25. 9 Julurupad PS Julurupad 2 1 3 32 28 6010 Julurupad ZPSS Julurupad 9 5 14 212 139 35111 Kakarla PS Gandhinagar 1 0 1 4 19 2312 Kakarla PS Shambunigudem 1 0 1 8 7 1513 Kakarla PS Moddulagudem 2 0 2 10 12 2214 Kakarla PS Ramakrishnapuram 1 0 1 5 11 1615 Kakarla PS Kakarla 2 3 5 68 54 12216 Kakarla PS Kakarla ( HW) 2 1 3 48 42 9017 Kakarla PS Dubbathanda 2 0 2 12 10 2218 Kakarla GPS Gangaram thanda 1 0 1 18 13 3119 Kakarla UPS Anantharam 4 0 4 48 56 10420 Kakarla ZPSS Kakarla 6 6 12 82 96 178
  26. 26. INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTIONData collection: K.SamuelEditing the Data & Preparing Graphs: J.Kamal Kumar, K.SamuelStatistics from Schools: C.Sai Phalgun, K.Samuel

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