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Overview of c++ language


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Overview of c++ programming language

Overview of c++ programming language

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  • 1. Overview of C++ language
  • 2. Lecture’s outline What is C++? Identifiers. Constant Semicolons & Blocks in C++ Data type Comments Operator Declaration of variables Giving value to variable C++ statements prepared by Taif.A.S.G
  • 3. What is C++?• Developed by Bjarne Stroustrup (in 1979 at Bell Labs)• C++ is regarded as a middle-level language, as it comprises a combination of both high-level and low-level language features.• C++ is a statically typed, compiled, general purpose, case- sensitive, free-form programming language that supports procedural, object-oriented, and generic programming.• C++ is a superset of C that enhancement to the C language and originally named C with Classes but later it was renamed C++. prepared by Taif.A.S.G
  • 4. identifiersThey are used for naming classesfunction, module, variables, object in a program.They follow the following rules:1) They can have alphabets , digits, and the underscore(_).2) They must not begin with a digit.3) Uppercase and lowercase are distinct.4) They can be of any length.5) It should not be a keyword.6) White space is not allowed. prepared by Taif.A.S.G
  • 5. ConstantConstant is one whose value cannot be changed after it hasbeen initialized-any attempt to assign to field will produce acompile-error .So, we can declare the constant by usingconst field and use all uppercase letter.Syntax of declare the constant is: const type name=valueExample:const int STRENGTH = 100;const float PI = 3.14; prepared by Taif.A.S.G
  • 6. Semicolons & Blocks in C++:• In C++, the semicolon is a statement terminator. That is, each individual statement must be ended with a semicolon. It indicates the end of one logical entity.• For example: following are two different statements: x = y; y = y+1; prepared by Taif.A.S.G 6
  • 7. Data typeprepared by Taif.A.S.G
  • 8. CommentsC++ can use both the single line comments and multi-linecomments .single line comments begin with // and end at the end of line.For longer comments we can create multi-line comments bystarting with /* and ending with */ prepared by Taif.A.S.G
  • 9. Operator* / % + - are the mathematical operators* / % have a higher precedence than + or – mathematical operators ++ Increment operator –– Decrement operator == Equal (careful) != Not equal >= Greater than or equal Relational <= Less than or equal operators > Greater than < Less than && logical (sequential) and Logical || logical (sequential) or operators = assignment prepared by Taif.A.S.G
  • 10. Declaration of variablesThe general form of declaration of variables: Type variable1, variable2,...., variableN;Example:int count;float x,y;double pi;char c1,c2,c3;byte b; prepared by Taif.A.S.G
  • 11. Giving value to variableThe general form of giving value to variables: variableName= value;Example:finalValue=100;x=y=z=0;Yes = ‘x’; prepared by Taif.A.S.G
  • 12. Simple programs Write C++ Program to find Sum and Average of two numbers?Write C++ Program to find area of a circle? prepared by Taif.A.S.G
  • 13. C++ statement Control statement Selection iteration jump statement statement statementIf if-else switch for while do break continue return prepared by Taif.A.S.G
  • 14. Decision making• C++ supports the following statements Known as control or decision making statements.1. if statement.2. switch statement.3. Conditional operator ? : statement. prepared by Taif.A.S.G 14
  • 15. Decision making with if statementThe general form of simple if statement is : if (<conditional expression>) <statement action>Example: if (a > b) cout<<"a > b"; prepared by Taif.A.S.G 15
  • 16. Decision making with if statement cont..The general form of simple if else statement is : if (<conditional expression>) <statement action> elseExample: <statement action> if (a > b) cout<<" a > b"; else cout<<"a<b"; prepared by Taif.A.S.G 16
  • 17. Decision making with if statement cont..The general form of Multiple if else statement is : if (<conditional expression>) <statement action> else if (<conditional expression>) <statement action> elseExample: <statement action>if (a > b)cout<<" a > b"; else if (a< b) cout<<"b > a";else cout<<" a=b"; prepared by Taif.A.S.G 17
  • 18. Decision making with switch statement• The if statement allows you to select one of two sections of code to execute based on a boolean value (only two possible values). The switch statement allows you to choose from many statements. prepared by Taif.A.S.G 18
  • 19. Decision making with switch statement cont..switch (expr) {case c1:statements // do these if expr == c1 break;case c2:statements // do these if expr == c2 break; case c3:case c4: // Cases can simply fall thru.statements // do these if expr == any of cs break; . . .default: // OPTIONALstatements // do these if expr != any above } prepared by Taif.A.S.G 19
  • 20. The ? : Operator:• can be used to replace if...else statements. It has the following general form: Exp1 ? Exp2 : Exp3; Where Exp1, Exp2, and Exp3 are expressions.• The value of a ? expression is determined like this: Exp1 is condition evaluated. If it is true, then Exp2 is evaluated and becomes the value of the entire ? expression. If Exp1 is false, then Exp3 is evaluated and its value becomes the value of the expression. prepared by Taif.A.S.G 20
  • 21. Simple programs Write C++ Program to find Number is Positive or Negative?Write C++ Program to find the Grade of student ? Write C++ Program to check the day of week by using SWITCH-CASE? prepared by Taif.A.S.G
  • 22. LoopingThe C++ language provides three constructs for performing loop operations, there are: 1. The for statement. 2. The while statement. 3. The do statement. prepared by Taif.A.S.G 22
  • 23. Looping cont..The general form of for statement:for (initialization; test condition; increment) { Body of loop }Example:for( x=0; x<=10; x++){cout<<x;} prepared by Taif.A.S.G 23
  • 24. Looping cont..The general form of while statement: initialization; while(test condition) { Body of loop }Example:x=0;while(x<=10){cout<<x;x++; } prepared by Taif.A.S.G 24
  • 25. Looping cont..The general form of do statement: initialization; do { Body of loop } while(test condition);Example:x=0;do{cout<<x;x++; }while(x<=10) ; prepared by Taif.A.S.G 25
  • 26. Int num2 Int num1 0 0 Nested Looping 1for(num2 = 0; num2 <= 3; num2++) 2{ 3 end of loop for(num1 = 0; num1 <= 2; num1++) 1 0 { 1 cout<<num2 << " " <<num1; 2 }} 3 end of loop 2 0 1 2 3 end of loop 3 0 1 2 3 end of loop prepared by Taif.A.S.G 26 4 End of loop
  • 27. Functions• A complex problem is often easier to solve by dividing it into several smaller parts(Modules), each of which can be solved by itself. This is called structured programming.• In C++ Modules Known as Functions & Classes• main() then uses these functions to solve the original problem. prepared by Taif.A.S.G 27
  • 28. Functions (cont..)• C++ allows the use of both internal (user- defined) and external functions.• External functions (e.g., abs, ceil, rand, sqrt, etc.) are usually grouped into specialized libraries (e.g., iostream, stdlib, math, etc.) prepared by Taif.A.S.G 28
  • 29. Function prototype• The function prototype declares the input and output parameters of the function.• The function prototype has the following syntax: <type> <function name>(<type list>);• Example: A function that returns the absolute value of an integer is: int absolute(int);• If a function definition is placed in front of main(), there is no need to include its function prototype. prepared by Taif.A.S.G 29
  • 30. Function Definition• A function definition has the following syntax: <type> <function name>(<parameter list>){ <local declarations> <sequence of statements> }• For example: Definition of a function that computes the absolute value of an integer:int absolute(int x){ if (x >= 0) return x; else return -x;}• The function definition can be placed anywhere in the program. prepared by Taif.A.S.G 30
  • 31. Function call• A function call has the following syntax: <function name>(<argument list>) Example: int distance = absolute(-5); prepared by Taif.A.S.G 31