Managing Lock in

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Managing Lock-in

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Managing Lock in

  1. 1. EKONOMI INFORMASI Managing Lock-In Mohamad Ariefiandi Nugraha : 23511028 Samsun H : 23511103 Kadek Suar Wibawa : 235110871
  2. 2. Apa itu Lock In?Suatu kondisi dimanakonsumer tergantungkepada suatu produk ataulayanan dari satu vendor,sehingga bila konsumerakan beralih ke vendorlain akan diperlukan biayayang besar danketidaknyamanan2
  3. 3. Keuntungan Lock In Buyer • mendapatkan layanan yang lebih dari produsen dengan harga yang lebih rendah • memiliki pilihan untuk beralih dari satu produk ke produk lain dengan switching-cost yang rendah bahkan bisa tanpa switching –cost dikarenakan para produses berkompetisi menekan biaya switching-cost Seller • mendapatkan kesempatan keberlanjutan bisnis dengan konsumen yang selalu setia3
  4. 4. Tug of War Between Buyers & Sellers • Sellers Hope to profit from locked-in buyers.4
  5. 5. Tug of War Between Buyers & Sellers • Buyers Seek to strengthen bargaining position by keeping their options open5
  6. 6. Lock Strategy for Buyer Brand selection Lock In Sampling Entrenc hment6
  7. 7. Strategy for Buyer • Menawar pada awal proses lock-in • Membatasi ketergantungan: – Dual sourcing – Permintaan kompensasi pada setiap step • Melakukan parsial kontrak – Kemungkinan untuk penurunan kualitas produk7
  8. 8. Lock Strategy for Seller Invest Entrenchment Leverage8
  9. 9. Investing in an Installed Base Customers • Perhatikan lock-in cycle • Selalu mencari pelanggan baru • Rencanakan kerjasama seumur hidup • Mengembangkan produk dan layanan • Menerapkan Multiplayer Strategies • Dapatkan customer yang berpengaruh9
  10. 10. Encouraging Customer Entrenchment • Entrenchment by Design. • Loyalty Programs & Cumulative Discounts10
  11. 11. Laveraging Your Installed Base • Menjual Produk Tambahan • Menjual Akses Terhadap Konsumen • Menyediakan Beberapa Versi Harga • Meminimalkan Search Cost terhadap produk kita. • Memanfaatkan Keuntungan menjadi First- Mover • Mengontrol Cycle Length11
  12. 12. Strategy for Sellers • Design products and promotions to attract customers • Lengthen and strengthen cycle • Sell complementary products to these consumers • Tension: claim openness, but don’t deliver – Example: simple open interface (RTF), powerful closed interface (DOC)12
  13. 13. Basic Tension in Buyer’s Strategy • Say you have large switching costs to get large compensation • But want to minimize lock-in as much as possible13
  14. 14. Strategic Variables in Lock-in Cycle • Magnitude of switch costs • Loyalty programs • Cumulative volume discounts • Rely on infotech – Loyalty programs will become more widespread – Convert conventional markets to lock-in markets14
  15. 15. Loyalty Programs • Requirements contracts • Frequent buyer program • Tension with promotions -- offer better deal to non-customers • Burden of locked-in customers: offer too high a price to attract new customers – Price discrimination, stripped down product • Consumer switch costs – Will go down due to Internet15
  16. 16. Multiplayer strategies • Decision maker and payer – Frequent flyer miles – Infant formulas at hospitals – Automobile tires • Buyers of complements – Different customers buy razors and blades – Subsidize the far-sighted group, tax the short- sighted group • BBS operators • Netscape suite16
  17. 17. Lock-in and Complementary Products • Visa and Amex:Visa gave away payment services to capture interest charges • Operating system and applications • Extra profits on complements makes primary market more competitive • Differential prices • BargainFinder, MusicMaker – Unique – Cycle length17
  18. 18. Contractual Commitments • Lifetime of durable equipment • Complementary assets with different lifetimes • Buyer side: try to synchronize • Seller side: try pre-emptive renewal18
  19. 19. Structuring Deal • Be sensitive to budgets • Open systems, copyright protection • Multi-year contracts with large customers • Makes it hard to get scale to compete19
  20. 20. New Versions and Upgrades • Dont want to leave opportunities open • Pre-announcements, vaporware • Avoid charges of predation20
  21. 21. Lessons • Buyers – Bargain hard – Use second-sourcing and open systems – Improve bargaining position at choice stage • Sellers – Invest in your installed base – Cultivate influential buyers – Design product and pricing to get customers to invest in your technology – Sell your customers complementary products21 – Sell access to your installed base
  22. 22. Merci bien ありがとう Matur Nuwun Hatur Nuhun Obrigado Dank Thanks Matur se Kelangkong Syukron Kheili Mamnun ευχαριστίες Danke Grazias 谢谢 Terima Kasih22

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