Managing Lock in

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Managing Lock-in

Managing Lock-in

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  • 1. EKONOMI INFORMASI Managing Lock-In Mohamad Ariefiandi Nugraha : 23511028 Samsun H : 23511103 Kadek Suar Wibawa : 235110871
  • 2. Apa itu Lock In?Suatu kondisi dimanakonsumer tergantungkepada suatu produk ataulayanan dari satu vendor,sehingga bila konsumerakan beralih ke vendorlain akan diperlukan biayayang besar danketidaknyamanan2
  • 3. Keuntungan Lock In Buyer • mendapatkan layanan yang lebih dari produsen dengan harga yang lebih rendah • memiliki pilihan untuk beralih dari satu produk ke produk lain dengan switching-cost yang rendah bahkan bisa tanpa switching –cost dikarenakan para produses berkompetisi menekan biaya switching-cost Seller • mendapatkan kesempatan keberlanjutan bisnis dengan konsumen yang selalu setia3
  • 4. Tug of War Between Buyers & Sellers • Sellers Hope to profit from locked-in buyers.4
  • 5. Tug of War Between Buyers & Sellers • Buyers Seek to strengthen bargaining position by keeping their options open5
  • 6. Lock Strategy for Buyer Brand selection Lock In Sampling Entrenc hment6
  • 7. Strategy for Buyer • Menawar pada awal proses lock-in • Membatasi ketergantungan: – Dual sourcing – Permintaan kompensasi pada setiap step • Melakukan parsial kontrak – Kemungkinan untuk penurunan kualitas produk7
  • 8. Lock Strategy for Seller Invest Entrenchment Leverage8
  • 9. Investing in an Installed Base Customers • Perhatikan lock-in cycle • Selalu mencari pelanggan baru • Rencanakan kerjasama seumur hidup • Mengembangkan produk dan layanan • Menerapkan Multiplayer Strategies • Dapatkan customer yang berpengaruh9
  • 10. Encouraging Customer Entrenchment • Entrenchment by Design. • Loyalty Programs & Cumulative Discounts10
  • 11. Laveraging Your Installed Base • Menjual Produk Tambahan • Menjual Akses Terhadap Konsumen • Menyediakan Beberapa Versi Harga • Meminimalkan Search Cost terhadap produk kita. • Memanfaatkan Keuntungan menjadi First- Mover • Mengontrol Cycle Length11
  • 12. Strategy for Sellers • Design products and promotions to attract customers • Lengthen and strengthen cycle • Sell complementary products to these consumers • Tension: claim openness, but don’t deliver – Example: simple open interface (RTF), powerful closed interface (DOC)12
  • 13. Basic Tension in Buyer’s Strategy • Say you have large switching costs to get large compensation • But want to minimize lock-in as much as possible13
  • 14. Strategic Variables in Lock-in Cycle • Magnitude of switch costs • Loyalty programs • Cumulative volume discounts • Rely on infotech – Loyalty programs will become more widespread – Convert conventional markets to lock-in markets14
  • 15. Loyalty Programs • Requirements contracts • Frequent buyer program • Tension with promotions -- offer better deal to non-customers • Burden of locked-in customers: offer too high a price to attract new customers – Price discrimination, stripped down product • Consumer switch costs – Will go down due to Internet15
  • 16. Multiplayer strategies • Decision maker and payer – Frequent flyer miles – Infant formulas at hospitals – Automobile tires • Buyers of complements – Different customers buy razors and blades – Subsidize the far-sighted group, tax the short- sighted group • BBS operators • Netscape suite16
  • 17. Lock-in and Complementary Products • Visa and Amex:Visa gave away payment services to capture interest charges • Operating system and applications • Extra profits on complements makes primary market more competitive • Differential prices • BargainFinder, MusicMaker – Unique – Cycle length17
  • 18. Contractual Commitments • Lifetime of durable equipment • Complementary assets with different lifetimes • Buyer side: try to synchronize • Seller side: try pre-emptive renewal18
  • 19. Structuring Deal • Be sensitive to budgets • Open systems, copyright protection • Multi-year contracts with large customers • Makes it hard to get scale to compete19
  • 20. New Versions and Upgrades • Dont want to leave opportunities open • Pre-announcements, vaporware • Avoid charges of predation20
  • 21. Lessons • Buyers – Bargain hard – Use second-sourcing and open systems – Improve bargaining position at choice stage • Sellers – Invest in your installed base – Cultivate influential buyers – Design product and pricing to get customers to invest in your technology – Sell your customers complementary products21 – Sell access to your installed base
  • 22. Merci bien ありがとう Matur Nuwun Hatur Nuhun Obrigado Dank Thanks Matur se Kelangkong Syukron Kheili Mamnun ευχαριστίες Danke Grazias 谢谢 Terima Kasih22