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The Penang-Langkawi Tunnel (Proposal) report
 

The Penang-Langkawi Tunnel (Proposal) report

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This is a report of proposal for the construction of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel in Malaysia.

This is a report of proposal for the construction of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel in Malaysia.

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    The Penang-Langkawi Tunnel (Proposal) report The Penang-Langkawi Tunnel (Proposal) report Document Transcript

    • SWINBURNE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL PROPOSAL REPORT MOHD AZHAR ZULKIFLI BIN HANDERI : 7440030 KEITHAN GOONASAGARAN : 4304934 MD.SIFAT ZAHAN TOUHID : 4304926 GROUP MEMBERS:
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 1 - | P a g e TABLE OF CONTENT TABLE OF CONTENT ..................................................................................................................................- 1 - ABSTRACT..................................................................................................................................................- 3 - CHAPTER 1 ................................................................................................................................................- 4 - 1.0 INTRODCTION .....................................................................................................................................- 4 - 1.1 Objectives........................................................................................................................................- 5 - CHAPTER 2 ................................................................................................................................................- 6 - 2.0 LITERATURE RIVIEW............................................................................................................................- 6 - 2.1 The Design of the Chunnel Tunnel..................................................................................................- 6 - 2.2 The Analysis of the Construction of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel ................................................- 7 - CHAPTER 3 ................................................................................................................................................- 8 - 3.0 METHODOLOGY ..................................................................................................................................- 8 - 3.1 The Constructional Methods of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel.......................................................- 8 - 3.1.1 The Constructional Timeline of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel ................................................- 8 - 3.1.2 The Constructional Process of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel................................................- 10 - 3.2 THE DESIGN OF THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL......................................................................- 14 - Main Railway Tunnels (RTs) ............................................................................................................- 16 - Service Tunnel (ST)..........................................................................................................................- 16 - Safe Station.....................................................................................................................................- 17 - CHAPTER 4 ..............................................................................................................................................- 19 - 4.0 DISCUSSION.......................................................................................................................................- 19 - 4.1 The Maintenance of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel ......................................................................- 19 - Main Inspection ..............................................................................................................................- 19 - Medium Inspection.........................................................................................................................- 19 - Simple Inspection............................................................................................................................- 19 - Special Inspection ...........................................................................................................................- 19 - 4.2 The Possible Risks towards the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel............................................................- 20 - 4.2.1 The Possible Risks During The Construction..........................................................................- 20 - 4.2.2 The Possible Risks While the Tunnel Is In Use .......................................................................- 20 - CHAPTER 5 ..............................................................................................................................................- 22 -
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 2 - | P a g e 5.0 CONCLUSION.....................................................................................................................................- 22 - REFERENCES............................................................................................................................................- 23 -
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 3 - | P a g e ABSTRACT In today’s time, the travel method from Penang to Langkawi and vice versa is not efficient and affordable for the people who are traveling back and forth every day. This is because the cost and the time taken to travel back and forth is very expensive for most the travelers. As the solution, a proposal to build a tunnel underwater from Penang to Langkawi has been proposed based on the objectives of the report. The objectives of this report are to analyze the best travel solution from Penang to Langkawi and vice versa, to analyze the constructional methods of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel and to identify the design suitable for the tunnel proposed tunnel. This will be the best solution from the study that has been made as mentioned in the introduction. Furthermore, the critics have been mentioned in the literature review for the solution. Then the constructional methods and the project’s design have been proposed in the methodology part. In the discussion, the maintenance of the tunnel before and after the construction has been proposed. There will be some benefits from the construction of the Penang- Langkawi Tunnel. One of the benefits is the travel system for the people will be improved. The time taken to travel from Penang to Langkawi and vice versa will be shortened. Besides, people can bring along their vehicles when they travel from the two islands. Furthermore, it does not pollute the environment compared to other transformational method.
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 4 - | P a g e CHAPTER 1 1.0 INTRODCTION Currently, there are two methods of transportation between Penang and Langkawi. The types of transportations are by air and by ferry. Firstly, flying by air would mean a lesser travelling time but it would be very costly. This method would be very convenient and safe but not reasonable. Only the higher middle class families would be able to afford the cost. For example, if one was to fly with AirAsia, the travelling time between Penang and Langkawi is approximately 30 minutes and an average ticket would cost from RM 150- RM 300. Apart from that, there is only one flight in and out between these two destinations everyday. AirAsia operates using Airbus A320 which has a seating capacity of 180 passengers. Furthermore, AirAsia has not recorded any casualties throughout their service (AirAsia 2013). This will mean a safe, convenient and time saving travel method but it is not reasonable. On the other hand, travelling by ferry would mean a longer travel time but will cost cheaper compared to travelling by air. Travelling using this method will be reasonable but not as safe and convenient. According to Trip Advisor (2013), many passengers have negative remarks about the facilities and the safety precautions taken by the Langkawi Ferry Services Sdn. Bhd. 2013. As for example, the excess luggage are left by the doors and this will block the entrance during and emergency evacuation. Besides that, there are no vomit bags provided to passengers in case one suffers sea sickness during the journey. The travel time between Penang and Langkawi by ferry is about 2 hours and 45 minutes and the ticket costs RM 60 for adults and RM 45 for children. There are only two trips between these two destinations everyday and the ferry used is called KENANGAN 1 which has a seating capacity of 117 passengers. Travelling by sea can be very dangerous at times since the weather is very unpredictable in this part of the world, thus one might choose not to travel by ferry if a choice was given (Langkawi Ferry Services Sdn. Bhd. 2013). Furthermore, looking at how environmental friendly these two modes of transports are, they both emit carbon monoxide gas which is harmful to nature. Taking all these points into account, I would say the engineers today are more than capable of coming up with technology which is all safe, reasonable, convenient, comfortable, fast, eco-friendly and efficient. Since these two transportations still does not prove to be the safest, affordable and most convenient mode of transportation between these two places, we have proposed to build the Funnel Tunnel. This tunnel will connect the Penang Island to Langkawi. This tunnel will be operated by trains. This means passengers will have a shorter travel time, cheaper fare rates, eco-friendly, safer, no delays and efficient. The train will be able to carry more passengers and vehicles in one trip. The idea of building the funnel was actually from the Chunnel Tunnel which connects the UK and France. According to Richards (2013), the two reasons why the Channel Tunnel was built was because Great Britain which is an island had only air and ferry access to the rest of Europe, which directly disallows train travel to the continent. The
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 5 - | P a g e Channel was built to minimize the isolation by making it easier to exchange cultural ideas, tourism and commerce. As Penang and Langkawi are both islands, applying the same technology with some improvements would be an ideal method of transportation between these two destinations. Apart from that, it would also mean a safe, reasonable, eco-friendly and convenient to public. 1.1 Objectives The objectives for this report study is mentioned as followed:- 1. To determine the best travel solution between Penang and Langkawi 2. To analyze the construction methods of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel 3. To identify the design suitable for the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 6 - | P a g e CHAPTER 2 2.0 LITERATURE RIVIEW 2.1 The Design of the Chunnel Tunnel The Chunnel Tunnel is the second longest tunnel in the world. The design of the tunnel is very unique since it is build underwater to connect Britain and France. The main purpose of The Chunnel to be built was to make it easier and convenient for people to travel between these two destinations (Jane 2006). The design of The Chunnel Tunnel is made up of three tunnels parallel to each other underwater. Two of the tunnels are ferrying passengers and vehicles while the tunnel in the middle is made as a service tunnel (Pompee n.d). The tunnels are 50km long and 7.6m in diameter. The same design will be adopted to build the tunnel that links the Penang Island to Langkawi Island. According to Kirkland (2002), the fire that occurred in the tunnel on the 18th November 1996 which was a few years after it started operation which questions the safety of the tunnel. The incident only involved minor injuries and operations resumed completely after 6 months. The design of the tunnel walls which are made from linings is a safe substance to be used because it is made from precast concrete which means it was not only for fire resistance but also capable to resist severe heat. The firefighting system which was installed provides water supply as close as possible to any fire in the tunnels. It includes 4 tanks with each having 800 m3 portals and shaft and associated with a pump house. Besides that, the pipe network includes 60 km of pipes and is able to deliver 120 m3/h (Pompee n.d). Based on this, it is proven that the safety system of the Chunnel Tunnel is safe and reliable to be adopted and used for the tunnel that links Penang Island to Langkawi. The train that runs in the Chunnel Tunnel consists of two shuttles, the tourist shuttle and the Heavy Goods Vehicles Shuttle. The tourist shuttle can carry 135 vehicles that consist of 14 wagons. The shuttle is 775m long and also has a double deck which fits 5 cars. The Heavy Goods Vehicles Shuttle can carry up to 44 tonnes of heavy load like freights and containers. This shuttle consists of open wagons, platform wagons and a club car (Pompee n.d). Again, the same concept will be adopted since people can also transport their vehicles and also goods while traveling between Penang and Langkawi.
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 7 - | P a g e 2.2 The Analysis of the Construction of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel The transportation from Penang to Langkawi and vice versa is a hassle to most people. Hence, the underwater tunnel is the best solution of travel. A reference can be taken from The Chunnel Tunnel which connects United Kingdom and Britain across the English Channel (Sudra 2010). The English Channel is the narrow arm of the Atlantic Ocean separating the southern coast of England from the northern coast of France and tapering eastward to its junction with the North Sea at the Straits of Dover (Kirkland, n.d). The English Channel faces frequent storms, high wind speed and also a slight shake in the earth’s crust regularly but disasters like earthquake and underwater volcanic eruption does not occur. On the other hand, Penang and Langkawi is located in the Straits of Malacca which is almost free from natural disasters such as earthquake and underwater volcanic eruptions. In case of these mishaps, the effects will be very insignificant because most of the effects will be on the Sumatera Island which protects the Straits of Malacca from direct open sea (Choong 1999). Referring to the geographical aspects mentioned above, the tunnel is suitable to be constructed underwater. According to Hereford(n.d) the Chunnel was constructed using the Tunnel-Boring-Machines method. This was used because the earth under the English channel is moderately hard and consists of many small rocks and stones which may be difficult to be bored through using other methods such as small boring machines which are used elsewhere. The tunnel was bored through the chalk marl stratum layer. Since the earth at the Straits of Malacca has almost the similar features as compared to the English Channel(Gail 2012), therefore the same method can be applied for the construction of the Penang Langkawi tunnel. Hence, less time will be wasted to find out a new method and application of methods to construct the Penang-Langkawi tunnel. Apart from that, the safety factor also needs to be taken into account before the construction of the Penang-Langkawi tunnel. According to GroupeEurotunnel(n,d) uses the SAFE system in which a patent application has been filled, demonstrates Eurotunnel’s enormous capacity for innovation, contributes to guarantee maximum system availability and above all enhance the long term sustainability of the Cross Channel Fixed Link. In case of a fire, there are two solutions. Firstly the train is driven to a SAFE station where the fire can be extinguished or to drive out of the Channel Tunnel. Four stations are located in the middle of the tunnel, just after two cross overs so that when a fire is detected, the driver has time to move the train to a SAFE station or to exit the tunnel where special tracks have been laid for the fire fighting department close to the two portal entrances. Hence, the safety is better compared to other tunnels around the world. Therefore, the Penang-Langkawi tunnel is to be installed with these safety features as well to minimize potential death of any accidents or mishaps.
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 8 - | P a g e CHAPTER 3 3.0 METHODOLOGY As the description of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel has been introduced in the earlier chapters, in this chapter, the constructional methods and the designs of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel have been discussed thoroughly. 3.1 The Constructional Methods of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel In this part, the constructional timeline is proposed with reference to the timeline of the construction of the Eurotunnel being made. After that, the constructional methods have been discussed. The methods that had been used in the constructional of the Eurotunnel are adopted in this Penang-Langkawi Tunnel and hence, the methods being used are the same. 3.1.1 The Constructional Timeline of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel The constructional timeline of the tunnel is proposed in the Vertical Chevron list (refer Figure 1) in the following page. This proposed timeline may be followed during the construction of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel or modifications to this timeline could be made according to the situation being faced while the construction of this tunnel begins.
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 9 - | P a g e Sometime in 2017: •Governmental approval is estimated to be aproved and companies like (Mott MacDonald andDB Schenker Rail) are to put forward to the achievement of plans for the construction of the tunnel. By 2020: •The decision for the construction of the tunnel should be done and all the preparations for the construction of the tunnel should be prepared. The construction should be able to begin at once. The tunnel is to be dug simultaneously from Penang and Langkawi. In between: •Giant boring machines are to be used to shift tonnes of rock and soil every day. Same machines will be used which were used for the construction of the Eurotunnel, with a combination of extremely high pressure water jets and rotating disc cutters used to burrow through the land beneath the Penang Langkawi sea. Sometime in 2030: •The project is estimated to be completed and be opened to public use by the government of Malaysia. Figure 1: The Proposed Timeline of The Penang-Langkawi Tunnel
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 10 - | P a g e 3.1.2 The Constructional Process of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel As been mentioned earlier, the construction of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel is adopted from the Eurotunnel which connects the UK and France. Therefore, the constructional methods that will be used to construct the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel will be the same as the constructional methods used to construct the Eurotunnel. The first thing to be put to consideration is that the distance between France and UK is just 31.4 miles apart and the distance from Penang to Langkawi is 68.6 miles, which is a little more than double the distance from France to UK. Therefore, there are some elements and resources that need to be doubled up. The Foundation of the Tunnel In the foundation of the tunnel, a total of eleven TBMs (Tunnel Boring Machine) are proposed to be used in the construction of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel. On the Penang side, six open, full-face TBMs will be used. Three will be used at undersea and the other three at the under land. The three boring machines that will be used at under land will be operated in conjunction with unbolted, expanded precast concrete linings using wedge-shaped key. On the other hand at the Langkawi side, five other TBMs will be used, where three of it will be used undersea and two will be used under land. TBMs are full-faced, earth-pressured, which allows erection of watertight precast segments inside the shield concurrently with face excavation. This unique design combines technologies for boring of both hard rock and soft ground underwater. The three TBMs that will be used at the Langkawi side are equipped with articulated double shield. Double Shield TBMs are among the most technically sophisticated tunnel boring machines. They unify the functional principles of Gripper and Single Shield TBMs in one machine (refer Figure 3). Under stable geological conditions, the combination of methods allows for the installation of concrete segments parallel to tunneling, achieving very high tunneling performances. This powerful technology is therefore perfectly suited for excavating long tunnels in hard rock (refer Figure 3). This double shield TBM can operate in closed mode in wet zones at a minimum rate of 3m/h, or in open mode at high speed in dry zones. Cutter chambers will be sealed to withstand a hydrostatic pressure of approximately 11 bars which is equivalent to 1.1MPa. The excavated chalk had to pass through a two-stage pressure lock before being ejected at atmospheric pressure into the muck wagons. Containment will be gained at the end of the spoil extraction screw either through a dual discharge pump system or through a second screw creating a plug. Meanwhile, the two under land TBMs equipped with a single shield incorporating Archimedes screw containment and a “casing rotator” able to withstand a hydrostatic pressure of approximately 3 bars, also equivalent to 0.3MPa. Figure 2: Articulated Double Shield TBM Figure 3: Single Shield TBM
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 11 - | P a g e Lining for the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel The lining is normally the critical operation that dictates the tunneling progress. The basic materials for tunnel lining construction are cast-in-place concrete, cast-in-place and prefabricated reinforced concrete, cast iron and steel. These materials are chosen according to conditions of construction area and tunneling methods. The lining has permanent application as opposed to temporary lining (mine working support). The shape and size of lining are defined by size, depth and function of the tunnel and sort of take up load such as, rock pressure, hydrostatical pressure, traffic load, etc. Cast-in-place lining is mainly used for construction of tunnels with most complex structure and big cross- section. Precast lining is widely used for shield and erector-arm tunneling, mainly in subway tunnels. Technological production schemes of concreting for tunnel construction are defined according to hardness of rock, tunneling methods, depth, length and appropriation of tunnel and applied mechanic machines. The concreting of one section of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel in Malaysia on the basis of factors above is proposed to be performed after the following works are finished. These works are the excavation form which will be carried out as the proposed design of the project, excavation consolidation by means of Shotcreting, (refer Figure 4), the installation of rock bolt support (refer Figure 5), film waterproofing and reinforcement cage and placing of formwork in permanent position and releasing of covering materials. Precast concrete unbolted wedge block with pads on the extrados to allow for a 40mm grout layer will be used as a lining for the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel. Ten segments per ring will be placed in the service tunnel and fifteen segments per ring will be placed in the running tunnel. The thickness of the ring varies depending on the overburden, from 64cm (land), to 30cm (sea, from zero to seven kilometer to the shore) or 40cm (sea, over seven kilometers to the shore). The placing of segments is considerably to be altered when the stability of the ground is not adequate. Figure 4: Shotcreting Activity Figure 5: Rock Bolt Support
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 12 - | P a g e From the Langkawi side, the main design constrain is waterproofing with hydrostatic water pressure up to around 13 bars or equivalent to 1.3MPa. Complex numerical models are used in addition to the convergence-confinement method in order to evaluate the interaction between tunnels. The influence of the proximity of the Gault Clay layer and the quality of grouting behind the segments also require evaluation for the purpose of interaction between the tunnels. “Pinched rings” will be used to allow the lining to follow the curves. This can be done by rotating the position of the ring into four possible locations. Besides, the tunnels are to be lined with bolted precast concrete segments erected within the shield. Ten main segments which include 16 tonnes of concrete with 80 cm thickness, in addition of a key, formed a complete ring of 3.2m wide for running tunnels. Twelve other components arrived at the tail-end of the backup train and will be lifted by an overhead conveyor. They are supposed to be moved by vacuum lifting arms to one of two independent vacuum erectors, which will install them into position. The designed cycle is about 30 minutes but the rings are estimated to be fixed in 15 minutes. After that, grout will be injected in the 15 cm gap between segments and ground, at about 300 m behind the TBM head. The TBM head consists of two components prepared on surface. They are the retarded sand mortar and the aluminous cement slurry. The 10 cm gap between the tail of the pressurized chamber and the concrete lining rings will be sealed by grease injected into four rings of metallic brushes inside the TBM shield. The summary of the constructional process has been summarized in the constructional chart below in Figure 6 .
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 13 - | P a g e START The foundation of the tunnel 11 TBMs are proposed to be used 6, open, full-faced TBMs on Penang side (3 undersea, 3 underland) 5 TBMs are proposed on Langkawi side (3 undersea, 2 underland) Under stable geological condition, concrete segments will be installed parallel to tunneling The powerful technology will excavate long tunnels in hard rocks Cutter chamber will be sealed to withstand hydrostatic pressure of ~ 11 bars/ 1.1MPa The excavated chalk will pass through a two-staged pressure lock end of the spoil extraction screw 1 1 Lining for the tunnel Cast-in-piling will be used with most complex structure Precast lining will be used for shield and erector-arm- tunneling (subway tunnel) Concreting for the tunnel section will be performed Precast concrete unbolted wedge block with pads will be used 10 segments per rings will be placed in service tunnel and 15 segments per ring for the running tunnel Complex numerical model will be used to the convergence- confinement method in order to evaluate the interactions between tunnels 2 2 Pinched rings will be used to allow the lining to follow the curves Grouts will be injected Concrete lining rings will be sealed by grease injection into four rings at metallic brushes END Figure 6: The Constructional Chart
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 14 - | P a g e 3.2 THE DESIGN OF THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL The Penang-Langkawi Channel Tunnel is adopting the design of the Euro Channel Tunnel which was designed by Channel Tunnel Group-France Manche (CTG-FM) in 1986. Following the exact concept, this Penang-Langkawi tunnel has two parallel railways tunnel and another small tunnel between it for maintenance and services. Considering the distant between Penang and Langkawi is doubled of the length of the English Channel, the tunnel for this project is longer i.e. 110 000 m. The Penang- Langkawi tunnel will have two 7.3m internal diameter railway tunnels and another 4.5m internal diameter service tunnel lies between the two rail tunnels. Each tunnel is distant 15 m away from each of the tunnel. All three tunnels are 110 000 m long which is the distance connecting Penang to Langkawi (refer Figure 7). 15.00m 15.00m 7.3m internal diameter 4.5m internal diameter 7.3m internal diameter railway railway tunnel service tunnel railway tunnel Figure 7: Tunnel Cross-section
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 15 - | P a g e A terminal will be built in Batu Feringgi in Penang as a departure and arriving hall for the users of the tunnel. Whereas in Langkawi, the existing Eagle Square will be the departure and arriving hall for the users (refer Figure 8). Batu Feringgi and Eagle Square are chosen as a terminal due to its high number of tourists. Figure 8: Channel Tunnel Map
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 16 - | P a g e Main Railway Tunnels (RTs) The two main tunnels are constructed using high strength precast concrete segments. There are lined with high strength precast concrete segments. In each tunnel, it has a single line rail track, two overhead catenary, power supply, drainage, cooling pipes, supplementary services and two walkways (refer Figure 9) for maintenance purposes and for emergency clearing, emergency removal and for the passenger to walk to the safety door in case of emergency. Figure 9: Two walkways in railway tunnel Service Tunnel (ST) The service tunnel plays important roles in channel tunnel. According to Groupe Eurotunnel (2013), for every 375m, the trains are linked to a central service tunnel by cross-passages situated. This will allow for the technician to do maintenances and services. If there any incident happen, the passenger can go into the service tunnel (refer Figure 10) through cross passage also allows emergency rescue teams.
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 17 - | P a g e Figure 10: Service tunnel Only electric and diesel-powered are allowed inside the service tunnel. 24 rubber-tyred vehicles rolling (top speed 80kph) is included inside service tunnel. In case of fire, the pressure inside the service tunnel has to be higher than the railway tunnels in order to prevent access of smoke. Safe Station 4 SAFE fire- fighting stations are located in the middle of both tunnels because of strategic location so that the train can go to one of the station, in case of fire, where the fire can be extinguished from the tunnel directly. Figure 11: Location of the SAFE stations.
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 18 - | P a g e Each SAFE station is 870 metres long and can accommodate the longest trains. It is designed in 200- metre intervals, each equipped with a heat detection system. Once the train has stopped, water mist is immediately released in the section where the fire is detected. (refer Figure 12) (Groupe Eurotunnel 2013). Figure 12: High pressure water-spray
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 19 - | P a g e CHAPTER 4 4.0 DISCUSSION 4.1 The Maintenance of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel After the construction of the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel is completed, it will be recognized as the world’s longest underwater tunnel. People will often use the tunnel to travel back and forth from the two islands using the tunnel constructed. More than 210 train’s trips are expected to run each day. Hence, the maintenance of the tunnel is essential. Companies like Mott McDonald, Syarikat Mengurus Air Banjir & Terowong Sdn Bhd (or SMART SDN BHD) are to put through for the job as the company is designed for such kind of jobs. Respecting to the high value of tunnel strategically planned maintenance has to be realized. In defined intervals inspections have to be carried out. Especially when running net of tunnel, e.g. at underground networks the maintenance effects high costs. Therefore, maintenance will be carried out as mentioned below. Main Inspection The man inspection is to be carried out in every six years. This inspection is a close examination. During the examination is carried out, all of relevant parts like grounding, load capacity, sign posting, construction elements, water seals, disguising corrosions and lines will be examined and repaired accordingly. Medium Inspection The medium inspection will be carried out every three years. In this inspection, the detailed visible inspection of relevant elements will be carried out. These visible inspections of the building elements mentioned in the main inspection will be inspected. If in case in need of change, it will be changed. Simple Inspection Simple inspection will be carried out annually. In this type of inspection, the officer in-charge will walk through for getting notice of visible irregularities. Special Inspection Special inspection is the main inspection which normally being carried out after the happening of any incidents such as accidents and natural disasters or break in of water in the tunnel. This inspection will be carried out if any of the mentioned occurs unfortunately to the tunnel.
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 20 - | P a g e 4.2 The Possible Risks towards the Penang-Langkawi Tunnel There could be some possible risks that could occur while and after the construction of the Penang- Langkawi Tunnel. These risks may affect the constructional process of the tunnel and also while the tunnel is in use after the opening for public. 4.2.1 The Possible Risks During The Construction It would be impossible to compute all the risks which may arise during the development of construction project, as the likelihood of accidents are sufficient factors to have them covered. Therefore, we shall focus on those usually subject to insurance coverage. These are divided into three different categories:- 1. Conventional risks (ordinary) 2. Catastrophic risks (extraordinary) 3. Risks inherit to the works Conventional risks This type of risks is like natural risks that do not involve the natural environment. The most occurring risks in this type are the occurring of fire, explosion, bird falling, lightning, and theft activity. Catastrophic risks This type of risks happens due to the natural environmental reasons. In other words, they are derived as the Acts Of God, as well as, other risks that is inevitable. Such risks are like the natural disaster (wind, storms, hurricanes, and cyclones), floods and water introduced damage. Besides, they also include earthquake, landslides, and rock falls. Risks inherit to the works These include the risks due to the activities carried out during the construction stage. Among the infinity of risks which may be present, the most frequent are:  Defects in workmanship, unskillfulness, negligence and malicious acts  Errors in calculations and design and employment of defective or inadequate materials 4.2.2 The Possible Risks While the Tunnel Is In Use While the tunnel is in use, there could be risks in the operation management. In this, the managers who are responsible do careless mistake, this could affect the entire management system. Thus, rescheduling is necessary to settle things up. Besides, accidents can occur anytime in the tunnel. This could due to the malfunction of the train’s operation or due bad luck. Other risks due to natural phenomenon such as underwater earthquake and underwater volcanoes could erupt while the tunnel is in service.
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 21 - | P a g e 4.3 Contingencies to minimize risks Amongst the three types of risks during the construction period mentioned earlier, there is no way to avoid the catastrophic risks because that is something not under man’s control. Therefore the only thing that might work is due to prayer. For conventional risks, the project manager in charge must ensure that rules and regulations are strong enough and if not, they must improve it from time to time and make sure that all the workers and the employees are following them. Besides, he must make sure that paper works is done according to the project’s situation and take good action towards it. For the third one, the project manager must ensure that new workers or employee taken must possess the quality and have good discipline and are responsible towards their job. This is so to minimize risks during construction.
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 22 - | P a g e CHAPTER 5 5.0 CONCLUSION In conclusion, the Penang- Langkawi tunnel is suitable for the people to travel from Penang- Langkawi and vice versa because of the affordable cost and the shorter time taken for travel. Plus, it is safer because it is free from natural disasters such as earthquake and underwater volcanic eruptions. On a wider scale, it enables the rapid transfer of passengers and freight and so is more efficient than surface ferries. The trains use electricity rather than diesel and so are less polluting in the immediate area. The construction method will be improved using the latest technologies. Hence, with the latest technologies, the timeline of the construction will be shorter and get a better result. Besides that, the design of the Penang- Langkawi tunnel is safe for the users of the tunnels where it is to be installed with these safety features as well to minimize potential death of any accidents or mishaps. Since the distance between Penang and Langkawi is doubled between Britain and France, so the Penang- Langkawi Tunnel is the best solution for the people to travel between Penang and Langkawi.
    • THE PENANG-LANGKAWI TUNNEL - 23 - | P a g e REFERENCES Groupe Eurotunnel 2013, Safety, Eurotunnel Group, viewed 21 November 2013, <http://www.eurotunnelgroup.com/uk/eurotunnel-group/operations/safety/>. Groupe Eurotunnel 2013, The Channel Tunnel infrastructure, Eurotunnel Group, viewed 3 November 2013, < http://www.eurotunnelgroup.com/uk/the-channel-tunnel/infrastructure/>. Kehne, G 2010, Maintenance of Tunnels with the Help of Spatial Information Systems, Germany. Sparke, M 2004, Chunnel Vissions: unpacking the anticipatory geogragphies of an Anglo-European Borderland, University of Washington, viewed 3rd October 2013, <http://faculty.washington.edu/sparke/jbs.html> Engineering.com 2004, The chunnel tunnel, viewed 2nd October 2013, <http://www.engineering.com/content/ContentDisplay?contentld=41007026>