TYPES OF ENGINE
Piston engine (Reciprocating engine).
Gas turbine engine.
When it is invented?
Frank Whittle’s patent award on the jet engine in
1930 and his static test of a jet engine in 1937.
The gas turbine in replacing the reciprocating engine
as a power plant for high-speed aircraft.
This is one of the growing at a rapid pace all over the
Description of Gas Turbine
The gas turbine is a machine that burns fuel to
provide energy to create a moving flow of air.
In both the gas turbine and the motor car engine, air
is compressed fuel is added and the mixture is
The resulting hot gas expands rapidly and is used to
produce the power.
Cycles and Laws
The fundamental thermodynamic cycle on which gas
turbine engines are based is called the Brayton Cycle
or Joule cycle.
A jet engine employs Newton’s laws of motion to
Perfection in engineering
There are four main types of gas turbine:
• The Turbojet ,
• The Turbofan,
• The Turboprop,
• The Turboshaft.
Turbo Jet Engine
Simplest form of gas turbine
High velocity hot gas provides thrust
High fuel burn and high noise levels
Most famously the Olympus 593 that powered
Turbo Prop & Turbo Shaft
The exhaust stream drives an additional turbine This turbine drives a propeller or a helicopter rotor
The propeller accelerates air generating thrust or lift.
AE2100, the world’s leading high power
turboprop, powering the Hercules C-130J.
RTM322 turbo shaft powering Apache helicopters.
Also called the bypass engine.
Bypass and core flows both provide thrust, with the
bypass flow accounting for around 80 per cent of the total
More environmentally friendly with better propulsive
efficiency and lower noise levels.
RB211 and the Trent family such as the:
Trent 1000 powering the Boeing 787 Dreamliner™
The latest Trent powering the Airbus A350 XWB
Types of Shaft
There are two types of shaft used in gas turbine.
Shorter, stiffer shafts allowing improved performance retention
Optimised blade speeds improving engine efficiency.
Lighter weight engines resulting in higher revenue earning
Modular design allowing easier maintainability
Fan (Low Pressure Compressor)
Its primary jobs are drawing air into the
engine, compressing the bypass stream to produce
80 per cent of the engine’s thrust.
The fan system must be strong, light and quiet.
The tip of the fan blades can be travelling at speeds
of over 1000mph.
The compressor is made up of the fan and
alternating stages of rotating blades and static vanes.
This compressor having eight intermediate pressure
stages and six high pressure stages.
There are Three Types of combustion chamber.
The multiple chamber,
The tubo-annular chamber and
The annular chamber.
The Annular Combustion
The annular combustion chamber is located within a
Kerosene is introduced through fuel injectors into
the front of the chamber.
It is made up of nickel alloy walls.
Cooling air and thermal barrier coatings are
therefore used to protect the walls and increase
The turbine is an assembly of discs with blades that
are attached to the turbine shafts, nozzle guide
vanes, casings and structures.
The turbine extracts energy from the hot gas stream
received from the combustor.
In a turbofan this power is used to drive the fan and
Applied by thermal barrier coatings.