Airline Hijacking And Maritime PiracyPresentation Transcript
Hijacking: In the Air and On the Sea By: Sam Rozenberg
Introduction Purpose To find commonalities between two deadly methods used by terrorists and criminals. Airline Hijacking Sea Hijacking To show that the groups that carry out these attacks are for the most part the same. How can we prevent these two major means of transportation from being terrorist tools?
Introduction Ctd. Sources of Literature Books on each topic Historical articles on specific attacks RAND Corp. Theoretical Articles Scholarly Journal articles on preventing hijacking Limited amount of published research linking these two crimes, as the research is progress as terrorists groups increase Sea Hijacking and decrease Airline Hijacking.
General Trends and Magnitude Airline hijacking Statistics US High: 39 hijackings in 1969 International High: 70 hijackings in 1970 Trends Trend is like a heartbeat, spikes up and down with various political situations. We are in a lull right now, which if no more action taken, we will see a spike in coming years. Sea hijacking and piracy Statistics International Maritime Bureau: Live Piracy Map http://www.icc-ccs.org/extra/display.php?yr=2008
Description of Problems Airline hijacking History US: Used by regular run of the mill criminals and psychotics in early days of hijacking. International: Used as a way of escaping country. Used many times and still today to escape Cuba for political asylum in the United States. Used to escape other communist countries..USSR. Sea hijacking History Began as a tactic used in pirate attacks. Has been adopted by terrorist organizations and used just as airline hijacking. As you saw from graph, Africa and Southern Asia have tremendous hijacking and piracy issues.
Description of Problems Airline hijacking Case of TWA Flight 847 June 1985 Hijacked out of Athens, Greece by Hezbollah. Flew between Beirut and Algiers for 2 weeks. Hijacked to negotiate the release of 18 Hezbollah members in Kuwaiti prison. Sea hijacking Case of AchilleLauro Hijacked by PFLP terrorists posing as passengers on Mediterranean cruise. Original plan to run cruise ship into Israeli oil refinery. Aborted plan, when crewmember spotted weapons and proceed to hijack ship. Demanded release of Prisoners in Israel Lasted for 2 days with 1 casualty.
Theoretical Issues Rational Choice Theory in Hijacking Increase Certainty of Apprehension Increase in Security Screening, Police Patrols, Metal Detectors Increase Punishment Severity Increased prison time, no reduced sentences, etc. Decrease Benefits of Hijacking Again, no reduced sentences, restrict media portrayal as a success. Useful in NON-TERRORIST RELATED HIJACKINGS
Theoretical Issues Ctd. Deterrence Theory in Hijacking State Sponsored Hijacking can be deterred MAD=Mutually Assured Destruction Non-State Sponsored Hijacking Cannot be deterred Less Powerful Terrorist Groups
Discussion Major findings The increase in Aviation Security has led to the decrease in airline hijacking attempts The decrease in airline hijacking attempts has increased sea hijacking attempts To prevent hijacking of any kind, transportation security must be improved universally in all means of transportation.
Conclusion Remember September 11th, 2001. Remember Mr. Leon Klinghoffer of the AchilleLauro Remember anyone injured or killed in a hijacking As you move on to your career in ICJ, remember that we are trying to fix the world’s problems! Congrats all ICJ 2008 Grads
Sources Clarke, H. (2006). When does deterrence work?. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from Henry Clarke Web site: http://kalimna.blogspot.com/2006/07/when-does-deterrence-work.html Dugan, L., Lafree, G., & Piquero, A. (2005). Testing a rational choice model of airline hijackings. RAND Corp. Jenkins, B., Wilkinson, P. (Eds.). (1999). Aviation terrorism and security. London, England: Frank Cass. Lehr, P. (2007). Violence at sea. New York, NY: Routledge. (2008). Piracy attacks map. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from International maritime bureau Web site: http://www.icc-ccs.org/extra/display.php?yr=2008