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  • 1. Semester:SecondSubject:CALLAssignment no 2Submitted by: Sumreen Kiran PaulSubmitted to: Ms.Amna ShahidCourse: ELT (PGD)Session:2013-2014
  • 2. GrammarClauses and its Kinds
  • 3. What is Clause? A clause is the principal unit of which sentencesare composed.A sentence may consists of of oneor more clauses. A clause is a group of words having a subject anda verb (predicate).
  • 4. Kinds of Clauses Clauses have two kinds Dependent Clauses Independent Clauses Independent Clause:An independent clause contains a subject and a predicateand expresses a complete thought.It can stand alone as asentence by it.An independent clause is formed with :“Students read alot of books in college.”oSubject Predicate
  • 5. Contd...... Dependent Clause:• A dependent clause begins with a subordinator suchas,when,while,if, that, who,etc.A dependent clause doesnot express a complete thought and cannot stand alone asa sentence by it.A dependent clause is formed with:• Subordinate+subject+predicate +(independent clause)• They generally stand with these words• After,Before,That, Although, Even though, Though,• As,How,Unless, As if, Untill, As soon as,Since, What• Because,So that, Whether,Whenever,Which,Who,Whose,Whom
  • 6. Types of Dependent Clause Dependent clauses are of the following types 1) Noun Clause 2) Adjective Clause 3) Adverb Clause
  • 7. Noun Clause A noun is a dependent clause can be used as anoun or pronoun.It can be a Subject Predicate Nominative Direct Object Appositive Indirect Object Object of the preposition
  • 8. Examples of Noun ClauseWhat he said was nothing but a pack of lies.Subject PredictaeSubordinateClauseIndependentClauseNoun Clause
  • 9. Contd........••He is afraid of what you have shown to him.SubjectVerbSubordinatingConjunctionPredicateDependent Clause asobject of prepositionPreposition
  • 10. Adjective Clause A dependent adjective (relative) clause beginswith a relative pronoun such aswho,whom,whose,which etc.An adjective clausefunction as an adjective;that is itdescribes/modifies a noun aor pronoun.e.g•Women who are not married are called spinsters.Subject Predicate NounAdjective ClauseRelative Pronoun
  • 11. Contd......••Last year we went to Karachi which is an excellent placeNoun Relative PronounAdjective ClauseIndependent Clause
  • 12. Adverb Clause A dependent adverb clause begins with anadverbial subordinator such aswhen,while,because,although ,if,so that etc.Although he is dunce he gets a good gradeAdverbialSubjectPredicateA dverbialClauseIndependent Clause
  • 13. Contd...........Farmers use chemical pesticides so that they can grow biggerharvests.Independent Clause Adverbial ClausePurpose adverbial Clause