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Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
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Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
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Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
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Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs
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Punctuated Equilibrium, Celestial Navigation, and APIs

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In evolutionary theory, punctuated equilibrium refers to a period of significant environmental stress resulting in rapid, dramatic changes among species. It is a powerful model for understanding the …

In evolutionary theory, punctuated equilibrium refers to a period of significant environmental stress resulting in rapid, dramatic changes among species. It is a powerful model for understanding the changes in technology, business models and data over the last few decades - changes that have given rise to the age of APIs. In this talk, we'll look at three key themes in the API economy:
•The Evolution of Business Models: From 1st Party to Partner to Platform
•The Evolution of Architecture: From Mainframe to Mobile
•The Evolution of Data: From Silos to Social

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  • Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 United States License
  • http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic-art/197367/74641/Fourteen-species-of-Galapagos-finches-that-evolved-from-a-common
  • © Giuliano Gerra and Silvio Sommazzi - http://www.justbirds.it/
  • © Giuliano Gerra and Silvio Sommazzi - http://www.justbirds.it/
  • Camarhynchus Pauper© Nancy Bell
  • Camarhynchus Pauper© Nancy Bell
  • Geospiza Conirostris© Nancy Bell
  • Certhidea Olivacea© Giuliano Gerra and Silvio Sommazzi - http://www.justbirds.it/
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/69/Punctuated-equilibrium.svg/1000px-Punctuated-equilibrium.svg.pnghttp://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/punc-eq.htmlThere are two models for the flow of evolution, each with its adherents. Phyletic gradualism says that things change slowly over time, day by day, until one day you realize there has been enough change that something new has arisen.The opposing model is Punctuated Equilibrium. This model says that species tend to remain in a homeostatic mode of stable equilibrium – but that every so often some significant new stress affects the environment, prompting rapid, dramatic changes that settle down into equilibrium again.For our purposes, punctuated equilibrium serves as a powerful model for viewing the changes in technology, business models, and data over the last few decades and shows us that the rapid, dramatic changes part of the cycle is coming again.
  • Adapted from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curbanowicz/DarwinSP2002Phil108.htm
  • http://www.csuchico.edu/~curbanowicz/DarwinSP2002Phil108.htm
  • Cherokee-class 10-gun brig-sloop of the Royal Navy downgraded to a 6-gun barquehttp://www.theora.com/msdb.php/OriginOfSpecies/orderBy/subject/msdbCat/subject/12%20-%20Geographical%20Distribution%20--%20continuedExploration - like evolutionary change - only looks smooth in hindsight. Not even the voyage of Darwin’s HMS Beagle was smoothly planned. Looking back he seems to have been predestined to arrive at the Galapagos islands, but this is not the case.
  • http://darwin-online.org.uk/people/chancellor.htmlAt some points the trip got pretty rough.
  • http://thebeagleproject.blogspot.com/2008_07_01_archive.htmlAnd the voyage itself was anything but linear.
  • http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/cpgraec398/0113
  • http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924031441847
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hannon_map-fr.svg
  • http://www.stedmundsbury.gov.uk/sebc/visit/precisionengineering.cfm
  • http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/cpgraec398/0113
  • http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic-art/197367/74641/Fourteen-species-of-Galapagos-finches-that-evolved-from-a-common
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/69/Punctuated-equilibrium.svg/1000px-Punctuated-equilibrium.svg.pnghttp://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/punc-eq.html
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/69/Punctuated-equilibrium.svg/1000px-Punctuated-equilibrium.svg.pnghttp://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/punc-eq.html
  • Credit to Dick Hardt who formulated this in December 2010.
  • In 2010, Twitter announced at Chirp Conference that 75% of its total traffic comes from sources other than Twitter.com. This is part of a growing trend where new, emerging companies gain relevance on mobile and connected platforms other than the web.
  • Over time, we started adding our own devices to run off the API. They drove far more traffic than we saw from outside developers.
  • As a result, we are in the process now of redesigning the API with an emphasis towards supporting our devices, while trickling down API features to the 1000 flowers.
  • Another key metric going into our redesign is total requests per month. The growth of the API skyrocketed around October/November. Scale is one of our biggest issues moving forward and continuing on this trajectory will create more challenges.
  • REST is dominating APIs – expanding share of APIs even as the number of APIs is exploding (from just over 1000 in 2008 to over 3000 in 2010).
  • Netflix: Groups of entire movies will be stored together
  • Netflix: The same part of all movies will be stored together – such as frequently-used data about the movies such as actors, director, synopsis, first few minutes of video, etc.
  • Netflix: The same part of groups of movies will be stored together according to geography
  • Similar to the rapid changes we've seen in API-enabled business models and related architectures, we've witnessed four major shifts in how data is shared.Back in the mainframe days that Daniel spoke of, flat file data storage ruled and data sharing was fairly non-existent.  Allowing multiple applications to access the same file was impractical.Databases with concurrency controls through locks made sharing more possible, as you could now more easily let multiple apps manipulate the same data.  However, having applications work directly against data in the format with which it is stored introduced a very tight dependency that could be hard to manage.Middleware introduced another layer that allowed applications to share data via messages to applications, insulating the apps from the actual storage format of the data, effectively making those apps immune to changes in data storage format and schema.Web services improved data sharing even further.  The adoption of the internet-friendly HTTP protocol for exposing data now lets sharing occur beyond the boundaries of your business, while also lowering the technical expertise and software required for consumers of the data.  
  • Netflix: Groups of entire movies will be stored together
  • [Optimize your data delivery strategies]1. Consider allowing the download of larger datasets, providing an efficient way to get updates, and allowing liberal retention policies to improve availability, scalability and query-ability- Only allowing bite-sized data requests will cause developers to make many more queries which will affect your scalability- Retention restrictions, such as a one-day limit on data retention, will encourage developers to come back often to refresh their data- even if the data hasn't changed- Both result in higher scalability requirements for your API, which costs money- More frequent requests means an increase likelihood you'll break an app dependent on your data, assuming your service is anything less than 100% available- Push or publish incremental updates to consumers so they don't have to download the world regularly2. Consider limited access to richer queries to determine what new APIs to provide
  • Caveat structor – developer beware
  • Similar to the rapid changes we've seen in API-enabled business models and related architectures, we've witnessed four major shifts in how data is shared.Back in the mainframe days that Daniel spoke of, flat file data storage ruled and data sharing was fairly non-existent.  Allowing multiple applications to access the same file was impractical.Databases with concurrency controls through locks made sharing more possible, as you could now more easily let multiple apps manipulate the same data.  However, having applications work directly against data in the format with which it is stored introduced a very tight dependency that could be hard to manage.Middleware introduced another layer that allowed applications to share data via messages to applications, insulating the apps from the actual storage format of the data, effectively making those apps immune to changes in data storage format and schema.Web services improved data sharing even further.  The adoption of the internet-friendly HTTP protocol for exposing data now lets sharing occur beyond the boundaries of your business, while also lowering the technical expertise and software required for consumers of the data.  
  • Caveat structor – developer beware
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/69/Punctuated-equilibrium.svg/1000px-Punctuated-equilibrium.svg.pnghttp://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/punc-eq.html
  • http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/cpgraec398/0113
  • Transcript

    • 1. Punctuated Equilibrium,Celestial Navigation,and APIs
      Competing through dynamic adaptation
      Sam Ramji, Apigee @sramji
      Dan Jacobson, Netflix @daniel_jacobson
      Michael Hart, Netflix @michaelhart
    • 2. PUNCTUATED
      EQUILIBRIUM
    • 3. Darwin formulated his theory of evolution about 150 years ago
    • 4. Based on observations he made in the Galapagos Islands 15 years earlier
    • 5. A wild diversity of creatures existed in a new environment
    • 6.
    • 7. Starting from an ancestor which looked like this
    • 8. Geospiza Fulginosa
    • 9. Finches evolved that looked like this
    • 10. Geospiza Fortis
    • 11. and this
    • 12. Camarhynchus Pallidus
    • 13. and this
    • 14. Camarhynchus Pauper
    • 15. and this
    • 16. Geospiza Conirostris
    • 17. and this
    • 18. Certhidea Olivacea
    • 19. and this
    • 20. Geospiza Scandens
    • 21. For many years the belief was that this change happened slowly and gradually.
    • 22. In 1972, Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge proposed a new idea
    • 23. that evolution is not slow and gradual
    • 24. but sudden and violent.
    • 25.
    • 26. Applying this view to the observations of finches
    • 27. G. Scandens
      C. Pallidus
      G. Magnirostris
      G.
      Conirostris
      C. Heliobates
      G. Fortis
      G. Fulginosa
      C. Psittacula
      C. Pauper
      C. Olivacea
      C. Parvulus
      Certhidea
      Camarhynchus
      Geospiza
    • 28. “Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object of which we are capable of conceiving, namely the production of higher animals directly follows.”
      Charles Darwin
      On Origin of Species
    • 29. So while it may look slow and gradual in hindsight
    • 30. Evolution is experienced in punctuated bursts.
    • 31. If you’re living in a punctuated burst of evolution
      it feels like a revolution
    • 32. CELESTIAL
      NAVIGATION
    • 33. Exploration
    • 34.
    • 35. like evolutionary change
    • 36. only looks smooth in hindsight
    • 37.
    • 38. Living through it is usually chaotic
    • 39. Karen James
      The Beagle Project Blog
    • 40. To navigate, you need a map and instruments
    • 41.
    • 42. Maps exist for transferring knowledge
    • 43. and they too have evolved over time.
    • 44. They started as oral traditionand were written down in a form called a periplus
    • 45. Periplus of Hanno
      Courtesy of Heidelberg University
    • 46. Periplus of Hanno
      Courtesy of Cornell University
    • 47. Far less efficient knowledge transfer than
      a modern map of the same journey
    • 48. Map of Hanno’s Journey
      Courtesy of Bourrichon/Wikipedia
    • 49. Exploration was dramatically held back for want of a map
    • 50. In the two thousand years between Hanno’s journey on a Phoenician trireme
    • 51.
    • 52. And the Mediterranean caravel of the 15th century
    • 53.
    • 54. Maps had only evolved to be graphical descriptions of coastlines
    • 55.
    • 56. That was a map published a few years before
      Columbus crossed the Atlantic to find India
    • 57. After his crossing, his expedition shared their knowledge
      in a new map
    • 58.
    • 59. Still far from perfectbut much improved.
    • 60. The biggest challenge in this kind of exploration
      was determining their location on the Earth
    • 61. Instruments for measuring latitude had beenused and improved for centuries
    • 62.
    • 63. Longitude was the hard problem.
    • 64. You needed to know not just the angle of the sun and stars
    • 65.
    • 66. you also needed to know the precise time.
    • 67.
    • 68. Regardless of your sailing technology
      without the proper measurement
      you were lost
    • 69. We are not promising a perfect map of the new world
    • 70. But it should be more like this
    • 71.
    • 72. than this
    • 73. Periplus of Hanno
      Courtesy of Heidelberg University
    • 74. and we will show you what we know how to measure.
    • 75. APIS
    • 76. There are more niches today than we’ve seen before, so we need to borrow from nature
    • 77.
    • 78. If we start with an API we can explore all the niches around our business
    • 79. Visualization by Apigee
    • 80. The leaders of today’s Internet
    • 81.
    • 82. clearly understand this mechanism.
    • 83. They understand that the distribution model for value has changed in the Internet era.
    • 84. Packaged Goods
      Consumer
      Retail Store
      Producer
      Internet Services
      App
      Developer
      Consumer
      Provider
    • 85. Developers took their APIs and explored the niches for them
    • 86.
    • 87. The providers and the developers both benefited from this adaptation
    • 88.
    • 89.
    • 90. Suddenly this seems obvious to everyone.
    • 91. Data from Programmable Web
    • 92. And developers are racing to pack the niches.
    • 93. Data from Wikipedia
    • 94. This is a sudden, material shift in competition.
    • 95.
    • 96. It only looks gradual if you’re losing.
    • 97.
    • 98. BUSINESS MODELS
      From 1st Party to Partner to Platform
    • 99. We’ve seen punctuated equilibrium in business models over the last hundred years
    • 100. App Developer
      Device App
      Big Box Retailer
      Mobile App
      National Chain
      Web Retail
      Department Store
      Web Catalog
      Specialty Store
      Indirect Sales
      Direct Sales
    • 101. What’s the environmental stress driving the current rapid change?
    • 102. Hardt’s Theorem: The Internet Power Law
      The first wave of the Internet demonstrated the economic impact of web-based business models.
      99:1
      95:5
      The API-driven Internet is demonstrating the next concentration of power and is reflecting a “99:1” distribution (examples: Twitter, Facebook) due to the high switching costs and effective lock-in through software.
      The HTML-driven Internet showed new business models that focused revenue in the 3rd standard deviation (examples: Amazon, EBay). Reality reflected a “95:5” rule where 5% of companies dominated the transactions and profits.
      80:20
      Previous eras of business showed a normal distribution for revenue, with most firms getting most of the revenue. In the later half of the 20th century, business model innovations focused revenue in the 2nd standard deviation above the mean. The “80:20” rule became conventional wisdom.
      The next wave of the Internet is demonstrating the economic impact of API-based business models.
    • 103. But you need to tackle it in a way that fits your business
    • 104. 1st Party
      Open
      Open
      Open
      Platform
      Partner
    • 105. These are complementary and distinct.
      Open is different for each one.
    • 106. 1st Party Apps
      Partner Apps
      Platform Ecosystem
    • 107. 1st party
      1st party is about offering direct access to your core business via apps that you make or contract out
    • 108. 1st party
      Here open means all the business is accessible to internal developers and contract specialists
    • 109. partner
      Partner is about enabling directed development of apps that extend your business model towards your business partners
    • 110. partner
      Here open means existing partners have access to your business via APIs and can innovate asynchronously
    • 111. platform
      Platform is about enabling unknown developers to build brand new apps and businesses that will surprise and inform you
    • 112. platform
      Here open means enabling business models and allowing developers to support each other at massive scale
    • 113. open
      Open is attractive
    • 114.
    • 115. open
      Open is Biz Dev 2.0
    • 116. 1st Party
      Open
      Open
      Open
      Platform
      Partner
    • 117. open
      Open lets you navigate across the possible business models when your first model doesn’t work as planned
    • 118. 1st Party
      Open
      Open
      Open
      Platform
      Partner
    • 119. To get your API strategy properly grounded
    • 120.
      John Musser
      Programmable Web
    • 121. But how?
    • 122. Let’s break it down
    • 123. Establish Target Segments
      Engage Developer Channel
      Set Industry Goal
    • 124. target segments
      An API should extend your core business
      into a new part of the market
    • 125. target segments
      Your core business already has
      key performance indicators
    • 126. target segments
      So apply your KPIs to the new market segment you’re targeting with your APIs
    • 127. target segments
      What is the market impact you need to create in order to succeed as a business?
    • 128. target segments
      What does the targetsegment need that it is not getting from you today?
    • 129. target segments
      The answer will be the foundation of your API strategy.
    • 130. developer channel
      In most cases the channel for your API will be developers, but what do they need?
    • 131. developer channel
      A profit motive.
    • 132. developer channel
      Here are the leading profit models for developers today
    • 133. developer channel
      In-app purchases
      Affiliate royalty
      Your advertising spend
      Market awareness of their offering
      App sales
    • 134. industry goal
      If you don’t know where you’re going, you definitely won’t get there
    • 135. industry goal
      Partnerships and platform businesses are very different things.
    • 136. industry goal
      Partnerships are formed to serve a known set of entities
    • 137. industry goal
      A partner API should be traceable to each partner’s relationship
    • 138. industry goal
      And support end-to-end business processes
    • 139. industry goal
      A platform exists to create massive and unpredictable opportunities
    • 140. industry goal
      All your technology, support, and community decisions will be about surviving the scale of adoption
    • 141. That’s the strategy dimension.
    • 142. The execution dimension is what you already know.
    • 143. Planning.
      Management.
      Organization.
    • 144. Putting all this in context gives us a map for our API strategy
    • 145.
    • 146. The instruments will be your KPIs and your core API metrics: performance and adoption
    • 147. ARCHITECTURE
      From Mainframe to Mobile
    • 148. Connected
      Devices
      Smartphone
      Web App
      N-tier
      Personal
      Computer
      DCOM
      CORBA
      Website
      Minicomputer
      Client/Server
      Mainframe
      Integrated
      Distributed
      Computing
    • 149.
      The Web is Dead. Long Live the Internet.
      Chris Anderson
      Wired Magazine
    • 150. The Web is Dead. Long Live APIs!
    • 151. Twitter traffic distribution shows what he means
    • 152. Twitter Traffic in 2010
    • 153. Netflix traffic distribution is nearly the same.
    • 154. The majority of Netflix traffic comes from
      API-drivenconnected devices.
    • 155. Like Columbus, Netflix started with a map of the coastline
    • 156.
    • 157. Build an open API as a platform
      and let a thousand flowers bloom
    • 158.
    • 159. But they had left the coastline far behind
    • 160. And the instruments indicated that there were fewer flowers than expected
    • 161. Netflix API Requests by Segment
    • 162. But partners started building apps for connected devices and the business took off
    • 163. Wii
      iPad
      PS3
      iPhone
      Apple TV
      LG TVs
      Samsung TVs
      Roku
      XBox
    • 164. Architecture should
      reflect the business model
    • 165. So Netflix has drawn the following map
    • 166. Wii
      Roku
      PS3
      iPhone
      iPad
      Google TV
      Apple TV
      XBox
      LG TVs
      Samsung TVs
    • 167. Instruments show that API traffic has grown tremendously in a short time
    • 168. Growth of Netflix API
    • 169. 20,000,000,000 API requests per month.
      Is that a cause for celebration?
      Or for concern?
    • 170. When you’re navigating uncharted waters,
      speed is not your friend.
      Perhaps it’s time to slow down and avoid risking unknown reefs.
    • 171. Navigating this growth challenge for Netflix means that the next API revision will focus on reducing overall traffic.
    • 172. Part of this redesign is reviewing conventions
    • 173. Punctuated Equilibrium: REST
      Data sourced from
      ProgrammableWeb
    • 174. REST seems obvious but assess what makes sense for your business.
    • 175. Tiered architecture helps you navigate different problems with agility
    • 176. Controller
      Model
      View
      iPhone Wrapper
      Recommendations
      R12n Service
      Xbox Wrapper
      UNIFIED LIST/TITLE API
      Wii Wrapper
      User Info
      User Service
      PS3 Wrapper
      Similar Movies
      Similar Movie Service
      SHARED API INTERFACES
      Roku Wrapper
      Movie Metadata
      DataNormalization
      &
      Resiliency
      iPad Wrapper
      USER API
      Viewing History
      Apple TV Wrapper
      Ratings
      PC / Mac Wrapper
      TiVo Wrapper
      API Repository
      Layer
      Wrapper
      Layer
      Web Service
      Layer
      Shared
      Layer
      Source Data
      Layer
      App Layer
      API Layer
    • 177. Stable
      Flexible
      Agile
      iPhone Wrapper
      Recommendations
      R12n Service
      Xbox Wrapper
      UNIFIED LIST/TITLE API
      Wii Wrapper
      User Info
      User Service
      PS3 Wrapper
      Similar Movies
      Similar Movie Service
      SHARED API INTERFACES
      Roku Wrapper
      Movie Metadata
      DataNormalization
      &
      Resiliency
      iPad Wrapper
      USER API
      Viewing History
      Apple TV Wrapper
      Ratings
      PC / Mac Wrapper
      TiVo Wrapper
      API Repository
      Layer
      Wrapper
      Layer
      Web Service
      Layer
      Shared
      Layer
      Source Data
      Layer
      App Layer
      API Layer
    • 178. Server architecture should support both crests and troughs of the waves of demand
    • 179. Instance Architecture Based on Specialization
      List Creation
      Dependency Service
      ELASTIC INSTANCE LAYER
      API METADATA CACHING LAYER
      Meta
      Data
      Dependency Service
      METADATA SERVICE
    • 180. Instance Architecture Based on Specialization
      Handles Request/Response
      List Creation
      Dependency Service
      ELASTIC INSTANCE LAYER
      Caches Dependency Data
      API METADATA CACHING LAYER
      Meta
      Data
      Dependency Service
      Populates and Manages Cache
      METADATA SERVICE
    • 181. Map out your usage patterns and cache your data accordingly
    • 182. Vertical Caching
    • 183. Vertical Caching: Netflix Full Movie Data
    • 184. Horizontal Caching
    • 185. Horizontal Caching: Netflix Basic Data
    • 186. Combining horizontal and vertical caching may be the best approach when building for multiple geographies
    • 187. Two-Dimensional Caching
    • 188. Design for where you’re going
    • 189.
    • 190. Not for where you are
    • 191.
    • 192. You may be starting here
    • 193. Growth of Netflix API
    • 194. But you must design for here
    • 195. Growth of Netflix API
    • 196. You don’t need to implementfor massive scale
    • 197. But you must design for it or you will follow your successful ocean crossing with a massive shipwreck.
    • 198. Navigation also means constantly adjusting your course to ensure you arrive at your final goal
    • 199. Sometimes adjusting course on an API means you must change your version
    • 200. Versioning means supporting multiple applications, all of which basically do the same thing
    • 201. Versioning
      1.0
      1.5
      2.0
      3.0?
      4.0?
      5.0?
      Today
    • 202. If possible, go versionless
    • 203. Version-less API
      1.0
      1.5
      2.0
      Here there be dragons
      versionless
      Today
    • 204. Rules for going versionless
      in your production APIs
    • 205. Extend your API by extending data types
      Addition is not version-worthy
      Better to be incomplete than inaccurate
      Withhold implementation if you are unsure
    • 206. With APIs emerging, we need better tools help us navigate
    • 207.
    • 208. The service level agreement is your sextant
    • 209. Set reasonable service level agreements
    • 210. What is reasonable will vary by API and use case
      but you must communicate them to your users.
    • 211. Measure average latencies,
      error rates and types,
      and respond when SLAs are broken
    • 212.
    • 213. Having visibility into performance means you can tack immediatelyrather than after your users threaten to mutiny.
    • 214. Longer-term navigation requires higher-level metrics
    • 215. Request-based metrics such as what endpoints were called and what parameters were passed can show you what aspects of your API are popular.
      Response-based metrics such as what was delivered, how quickly, and whether the response was valid can show you what aspects of your API need work.
    • 216. System trace metrics that track what underlying systems were called and how they responded can show you where you need to evolve your internal architecture.
      Business performance metrics such as how much revenue or how much customer engagement is occurring through the API show you how close you are to delivering on the business plan.
    • 217. DATA
      From Silos to Social
    • 218. Domain-specific
      Data APIs
      Private Cloud DBs
      Caching DBs
      Data API
      Data
      Warehousing
      Mainframe
      RDBMS
      Flat file
      Shared
      Silos
      Data
    • 219. Punctuated equilibrium in data sharing
    • 220. App
      Org
      Cross-org
      Cross-business
      Mainframe
      Databases
      Middleware
      APIs
    • 221. So we are evolving to cross-business sharing
    • 222. There are a few challengesin making this journey
    • 223. Sharing your data via an API entails a different set of considerations than APIs which expose your services
    • 224. loss of control
      only recourse is legal
      enforcement is expensive
    • 225. That said, it may be time to get over
      your control issues
    • 226. Be honest about the value you could get from sharing your data outside your corporation
    • 227. instead of just the costs and risks of sharing it.
    • 228. In opening up its movie data warehouse
    • 229.
    • 230. Netflix found that the cost was the same as any API,
      the risks could be managed through rate limits and access control,
      but that now others could build great movie discovery experiences that led to increased Netflix viewing hours.
    • 231. Sharing data as a service means making a few course corrections on your API
    • 232. enable larger downloads for fewer queries
      more liberal retention policies means less API traffic, higher performance, and less cost
      push incremental updates
      limited access to richer queries
    • 233. Looking forward, how are we going to work through this wave of shared data?
    • 234. Two different dimensions are apparent
    • 235. First, no one wants all of your data,
      just some of it.
      Just the right parts of it for their particular need.
    • 236. Where have we seen this before?
    • 237. App
      Org
      Cross-org
      Cross-business
      Mainframe
      Databases
      Middleware
      APIs
    • 238. Last time the right solution was a
      query language
      Perhaps it’s the right solution now
    • 239. Instead of a static REST call, we could pose a query like “what are the highest rated movies from the 1980s?”
      http://odata.netflix.com/Catalog/Titles?$filter=ReleaseYear le 1989and ReleaseYearge1980and AverageRatinggt4
      &$expand=Awards
    • 240. Caveat structor does apply
      This is new ground and we haven’t seen anyone do this at massive scale
    • 241. Second, people want just the right parts of your data for their particular need
      But they need the right parts of other people’s data to have a complete context
    • 242. Where have we seen this before?
    • 243. App
      Org
      Cross-org
      Cross-business
      Mainframe
      Databases
      Middleware
      APIs
    • 244. Last time the right solution was middleware for distributed queries
      Perhaps it’s the right solution now
    • 245. But the rules have changed a bit since the data is laying all over the Internet
    • 246. [{
      "id": null,
      "name": null,
      "type": "/dining/restaurant",
      "/business/business_location/address": [{
      "street_address": [],
      "citytown": {
      "id": "/en/toronto"
      }
      }],
      "cuisine": [{
      "/dining/cuisine/region_of_origin": [{
      "!/film/film/featured_film_locations": [{
      "id": "/en/the_italian_job"
      }]
      }]
      Instead of a single domain query, we could ask for a list of “Toronto restaurants with cuisine from a filming location of ‘The Italian Job’”
    • 247. Caveat structor still applies.
      This is very new terrain indeed.
    • 248. The bigger question than what should you be sharing out
      Is what should you be sharing in
    • 249. What data APIs should your business be using?
    • 250. What could you offer your customers
      if you knew which of them were friends with each other?
    • 251.
    • 252. What does that logo mean to you today?
      Perhaps it’s time to think differently.
      Facebook is a massive data API
      that lets you correlate your customers
      with their true context
    • 253. You could move beyond a flat-earth view where all your customers are their own islands of data
      And each of them were connected in ways that makes your business more valuable to them
    • 254. What could you offer your customers
      if you knew where they like to go?
    • 255.
    • 256. The more of your customer’s context that you can understand
      The more time you can save them
      And that makes your business more valuable to them
    • 257. The good news is that there are already data APIs to get this context
      Now you need to focus on sharing in
    • 258. InCLOSING
    • 259. We are going through a period of rapid change in business models, architecture, and data
    • 260.
    • 261. Navigating based strictly on the stories of others
    • 262. Periplus of Hanno
      Courtesy of Heidelberg University
    • 263. Will not give you the clear map that you need
    • 264.
    • 265. Develop instruments around your API
      that help you understand where you’re going
    • 266.
    • 267. so that you can correct your course
      and beat your competition in the race for the future.
    • 268. THANK YOU
      Questions and ideas to:
      @michaelhart
      @daniel_jacobson
      @sramji

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