Samra Iqbal, Tehreem Ifzal& Sumera YasmeenUniversity of the PunjabDepartment of English Language & Literature
phrasesKey conceptsDefinition of PhraseNoun PhraseAdverb PhraseVerb phraseAdjective PhrasePrepositional Phrase
The Main Phrase Structure Rules1. S NP VP2. NP (Det) (AP) N (PP)3. VP (Aux) V (NP)4. PP (Deg) P (NP)
A group of words that does not contain verb and itssubject and used as a single part of speech.Examples: That shelf will fall. The success of the program The glass broke.
TREE DIAGRAM (Phrase)SNP VPDet N VThe glass broke
Example of Phrase Tree Play with the toy VPVplayNPtheDet NtoyPPPwith
It consists of a noun and any modifier it may have anoun clause or a word such as pronoun that takes theplace of a noun . Its abbreviation is NPNOUN PHRASE
NPN PPDet N P Det NThe success of the program
ADVERB PHRASE An adverb phrase can modify a verb , adjective andanother adverb .It can appear in a number of differentposition in a sentence. Its abbreviation is Adv P For ExampleKen snores loudlyHere loudly is adverb and it modifies the verb snores
Tree diagram (Adverb Phrase)SAdv P NP VPDet N V NPDet Nunfortunately the cat killed the mouse
VERB PHRASE• A verb phrase is a verb of more than one word. It includes one or morehelping (or auxiliary) verbs and one main verb. The main verb expressesthe chief idea in the verb phrase and Helping verb (or auxiliary) verb,which is placed in front of a main verb ,help it to express differ ideas.• Its abbreviation is VPFOR EXAMPLECan see (helping verb can + main verb see)Would have sent (helping verb would + have + main verb send)
TREE DIAGRAM (verb phrase)Move towards the windowVVPNPPrep NDetPP
ADJECTIVE PHRASE A group of words including an adjective and itscomplements or modifiers that functions as anadjective. Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns,giving a description or more information. Its abbreviation is Adj P
Tree Structure ( Adjective Phrase)He likes raw vegetables and meat.VSNPAdj ConjN NNNP VP
Definition:In a sentence prepositions show the relation of oneword to another word. Prepositions require an object tocomplete them, typically a noun or a pronoun. Apreposition and its object is called a prepositional phrase.Example: over the hillbehind the doorat Marys house John could hear her sister snoring across the room.
Tree Structure of PrepositionalPhraseThey arrested the suspect in the hotel.DetNPDet NNNPVPPrepN VNPPPS