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Communication

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  • 1. A Guide
  • 2. Communication Communication is any way in which we, or any other intelligent life form, express our feelings, emotions, ideas or anything else to one another. This can be from any in any way, shape or form and changes from scenario to scenario. All communication is essential to achieving, progressing and helping. This icon takes you back These Buttons advance you This icon takes you back to the contents page
  • 3. Contents Methods of Communication Barriers to Communication Terminology Technology Record Keeping Credits
  • 4. Effective Record keeping  Record keeping is the process of collecting, assessing, monitoring and maintaining of someone's or an organisations information, whether it be personal or financial. What makes effective record keeping and what happens when it isn’t Confidentiality Barriers to confidentiality and the need for information
  • 5. What is effective record keeping? Effective record keeping is;  Secure where it is stored, how it is accessed. This means that places where information is kept (filing cabinets ect) have ample physical protection from locks and doors out of public view. And that computer equipment that keeps data has secure physical and technological locks and passwords.  Accurate in what is put in, this is the most important factor. Everyone can make mistakes from time to time, but checking, checking and checking again can ensure that the information to do take down and store is fully accurate, and any other information about what was happening whilst you were recording (time, date, location). This helps in identifying the situation.  Confidential. Follow this link  Easily accessed but only by the right people to make the service more effective and easy for the service user. Information is not there to be taken, stored, filed away into a distant filing cabinet as an ornament. It must be able to be accessed by everyone that needs it, yet still having enough security to keep out anyone that has no business seeing it.
  • 6. Effective record keeping Effective record keeping is making sure that information acquired is acquired in the safest, clearest, most confidential way. But this is a very general sentence for a much bigger subject. For a more detailed page as to what is involved in Effective record keeping please click this link If records are not kept properly then the standard of service will suffer. In a childcare scenario; if a parent fills in an allergy form incorrectly then the subsequent potential inevitability is that the child will be given said product. Professional places of work take record keeping very seriously. In this case (note internet connection is required) A nurse was struck off because they were found to not provide adequate effective record keeping. In the case they administered the incorrect drug to the incorrect patient, yet logged it down into the records as
  • 7. Confidentiality Confidentiality is something that is widely used in any situation where a patient or service user is involved, most notably for children. It is (as defined by the International Organisation for Standardisation {ISO}) ensuring that information is accessible only to those authorized to have access. In Britain the data protection act helps to enforce this, with strict punishments for organisations, even government employees, who do not abide by it. The Data Protection Act Gives Individuals the right to know what information is held about them. It has 8 main principles. Child protection and confidentiality come hand in hand with each other. Due to the Children's Act 2004 it is essential for people dealing with children to keep the information as secure and confidential as possible. If a breach occurs then cases such as occur. Note internet connection is
  • 8. Barriers to confidentiality and need for information There are two forces working against each other in the care sectors. One is the need to protect peoples information, for the individual, or for the organisation. And the need for organisations to be able to quickly and easily access this information for beneficial purposes. The problem is that each works against the other. So a balance must be struck, or sacrifices made where the protection of the individual is of upmost concern, higher than that of giving a fast service, which can still have relatively easy access to the information needed.
  • 9. Data Protection Principles  Fairly and lawfully processed  Processed for limited purposes  Adequate, relevant and not excessive  Accurate and up to date  Not kept For longer than is necessary  Processed in line with your rights  Secure  Not transferred to other countries without adequate protection
  • 10. Thanks to Ukpoliceonline.co.uk Dictionairy.reference.com Google.co.uk Amazon.co.uk English Dictionary online ISO The Guardian Medical news today Jo Kelvey Created on Microsoft PowerPoint The Funk Buttons – Lisbon Maru
  • 11. Barriers to Communication There are many different barriers to communication, changes or differences can be technological or social. Different social factors can change how we interact with one another. This can be for the better, or even for the worse. Age, race, religion, sex or any other factor can change how we communicate.
  • 12. Social Communication Barriers Society plays a massive role in These Differences can be for the better, such as sign language helping to how we interact with one communicate with deaf people. But it another. It can change with can also be for the worse, such as just about any aspect of your religious differences in extreme cases person. can cause wars. Religion Gender Social Standing Age Political Views Disability Race Discriminations
  • 13. Age Age can play an integral role in how we communicate, much like our social status, or ethnic origin, our age can set us widely apart from one another. For example our idiolect can be changed by our age, new younger terms and descriptions can be altered or totally created, and accepted as our language. The word “gay” was once used to describe the feeling of happiness or being joyous. These days it is used in place of homosexual, it is a widely accepted term that also be used in a derogatory or offensive way. This can create barriers because someone who is much older may not understand someone who is much younger than them, because of the terms used, or because of the fact they are from different eras that have different moral values and taboos.
  • 14. Race Our race can be defined from the colour of our skin, our language we speak, what country we were born in, or what country we live in. Different countries have different moral values and laws, even different signs, symbols, expression, what is right and wrong to do in public. The differences are vast, and this can create a lot of problems when dealing with each other, we may think we are being kind, but it could offend someone from a different country. To overcome this we have developed over time international rapport with each other, we learn about each other, and it would be common courtesy to look up another country if you are to meet someone from it, or to at least re-assure them that you mean no offence by what you do, and you would expect them to do the
  • 15. Discriminations Discrimination Is a serious problem, it has caused the worlds greatest atrocities and tensions, even wars. Simply because people judge others by their race, religion, sex, sexual orientation, disabilities anything and everything. And may dislike them or think otherwise of them because of it. We all judge, and try to see who people are and what they are about, it is in our nature. Tensions arise when people take action against this, be it something like the holocaust, or not employing someone because they are black, or a woman, or disabled. The difference between judgement and discrimination is when you actively treat someone differently because of their differences. To treat them just like you would treat anyone else, and not distinguish them apart from them, for any reason, is the way of overcoming discriminations, no matter what your personal views are.
  • 16. Political Views Politics in any well developed country affects its inhabitants greatly. It changes laws, taxes, immigration, road laws, drinking age, smoking laws, anything within reason. Everyone has different political views, they define what we think is right and what we want to happen. Barriers in communication can occur when people develop a one sided view, that what they think is right, which can be productive for an effective political party, but not so effective when someone who has a certain political view in a work environment does or doesn't do something because of it. Tension can then occur. It is perfectly ok for you to have your own views an opinions, but, especially in a care setting, it would be better to leave your views at home, specifically if they
  • 17. Religion Religion can play a massive role in how people communicate to each other. There is the spiritual communication that people believe they have with god, but also the physical, where communities are brought together through it, or torn apart, and can help people to understand each other better, which communicating plays a massive role in.
  • 18. Gender Men and women are different, we have similarities, but the way in which we communicate is something that can separate us. Our very nature as a human being, more specifically our gender can affect how we communicate. This can go back as far as human history itself. Where men took on the dominant role, protecting, gathering and generally being the alpha. Women on the other hand took on the protecting, nurturing and caring side. Whereas these attributes can cross over between each gender these days, as study by a book called Why Men Don't Listen and Women Can't Read Maps, shows that women still predominantly take on these characteristics, and men in general want to be the alpha, the bold and strong type. This can affect how we work in any environment, be it care setting, or a business setting.
  • 19. Social Standing Class divides affect the way we communicate, in a fundamentally discriminatory way. Our job, income, house size, car model, clothes, jewelry, area we live in or even background can divide people. Seen less and less these days class divides still happen, and it can affect how one person talks to another. Even your social standing can change how you talk, your accent , vocabulary.
  • 20.  An accent is how your voice sounds when you naturally talk, this can change because of how you were brought up, your peers, or where you live. Idiolect as it is called can be something such as a London accent, or it can be because of your peers and music tastes. This can be hard for people to understand each other.
  • 21.  Someone from a poorer background may be less educated, as is abhorrent in some societies. Thus they would have less of a vocabulary than someone from a rich background. But this is a generalization and can appear in any social situation. Just like accents, this can affect how we understand each other.
  • 22. Disability Our disabilities can affect our communication dramatically in some cases. This can be something as small as a speech impediment, which can affect you, or it can be as large as losing your sight or hearing. Below are a few examples of what can affect your communication Deaf Blind Loss of speech Physical or mental disabilities and how. or impediments Technology involved in disabilities
  • 23. Disability Technology  Computing aids. Such as roller ball mice for computers, large text or print on books or websites. Large button keyboards. These help people with severe physically impairing disabilities. Such as Cerebral Palsy.  Medical breakthroughs. There is always research into new ways to deal with disabilities, mental, physical, sensory. Be it through new technology, or through the use of medication.  Hearing aids. These are a widely used aid to people with hearing problems, recently they have become smaller, lighter and less easy to spot.  Simple glasses. Many people use glasses, a (relatively) simple technology to aid in sight. Technological advancement improves the quality of glasses greatly.  Speech recognition technology has come a long way since its inception, it has been used in programs to help people who cannot type for any reason, such as some cases of dyslexia.
  • 24. Blind People who are blind have in some way lost their sight, whether they were born with it or not. This can create major barriers both in their personal lives, and in dealing with people. The obvious is that people who cannot see are at risk of walking into dangers without realising, eating things that could harm them. Or not being able to read signs or menus. Or if they needed to sign a contract, they can be very helpless. To combat this we have seeing eye dogs for the blind, Braille, or simply people who would read it out for them.
  • 25. Speech Impediments Speech impediments or loss of speech can be from a traumatic experience, an accident, poor development, anything. Speech as a form of communication can be essential in our day to day lives, we can get on and not talk to one another, but at some point talking to someone is essential. A lack of this ability can cause major problems. It can cause frustration with people who don't understand why they cant (or wont) talk, or the person themselves who want to express themselves but cannot do so. Medical breakthroughs, psychological counselling, even simple written words, speech machines (e.g professor Hawking) all help to alleviate this
  • 26. Physical or Mental Disabilities People who are physically disabled might have a perfectly working brain, and are perfectly aware of their surroundings and what is going on, so understand when you are trying to communicate. But their bodies may not let them express this, through one reason or another. This can cause problems because they know what they want to say, yet the person on the receiving end would not know what to make of this. Causing Frustration for both parties. Mentally disabled people however may be physically normal, but do not know of, or know how to express these emotions. Recognising this at an early age with teaching and understanding or technological solutions can help
  • 27. Deaf Being deaf or losing your hearing can drastically change your life, whether you were born with or without it, much of what we understand, learn and enjoy is through sound, it is an integral but not essential part of life. Overcoming this can be done in many different ways.
  • 28. Methods of communication There are many methods to communication. 2 large categories they can be split into are, technological methods of communication, and methods of dealing with disabilities. There's also regular methods to communication, like speech, or ones that may not be used as regularly such as letters. Technology Dealing with Disabilities Regular Methods Written
  • 29. Written  Written communication these days is seen as a more formal affair, but can be very informal.  Formal; Bank statement, letter of resignation, letter of complaint, letter to a business or client  Informal; Post it note, thank you letter, birthday (or any holiday) card Using the appropriate communication method in the right situation is in some cases common sense (You wouldn’t resign from a job with a post it note would you?), but formal written communication does take a certain level of knowledge in writing one. Bad Example of a formal letter What to watch out for when choosing written
  • 30. Choosing Communication If you are to choose a way to talk to someone you must assess a few factors.  The recipient, are they a friend? do you know them? What is their “rank” compared to yours?  The subject, is it serious news? Is it business news? Is it a joke? Is it a party invite?  The urgency, does it need to get there now? Is it worth a formal letter taking 1 day or a less formal e- mail taking 2 minutes? In most cases it will just come to you, and if you know the person it will be easy to choose, so long as it is effective in its message.
  • 31. Bad formal letter Deer Sir or Madam I have wanted to you to work as a (space to insert the job title) from an early age as you are a big prestigious employer that lots of people want to work for and you offer high salaries. I also would like to work in another country and you are a global company. Hoping to hear from you shorty. This has poor or no spelling or grammar. Regards, As well being extremely short for a letter of this subject. Would you employ this man? Frank
  • 32. Ancient Communication Some forms of communication we have used, and still use since we first started to talk, or to live together. These are things such as speech, body language, eye contact or touch. Or even old sometimes outdated methods that have been replaced by newer technologies that can render them useless. They are split into two categories. Verbal Non Verbal
  • 33. None Verbal  Body language – The way we hold ourselves, the way we move, talk, listen, look, breathe, anything our bodies do can give something off to the other person about what you are feeling or thinking. For example someone not looking whilst someone is talking to them shows that they are disinterested or feel uncomfortable with the subject.  Eye movement  Posture  Breathing  Active listening
  • 34. Verbal  Verbal communication is anything where you speak to them, either directly or indirectly. The way we do this is also an indication of how we feel, what we think, whether we actually want to be saying this, or whether we are very interested in the conversation. This comes hand in hand with our body language.  Tone of voice  Accents  Vocabulary  Exclamation
  • 35. Dealing with Disabilities There are many different types of technology available these days for dealing with disabilities. They can be age old methods that are so effective they need no replacement, or old technology that can be made more effective, smaller, cheaper, more useful to the user. This link takes you to the disabilities page Examples of technology that deals with disabilities
  • 36. Terminology There are many different types of terminology used today. Terminology, as defined by the English dictionary, is the system of terms belonging or peculiar to a science, art or specialized subject. Basically words that an organization uses in it own organization. In every section of Care in England there are literally 100s of short hand, abbreviations and jargon terms. If you are to work with someone in that sector or working in the sector itself its almost essential to get some knowledge or training in terms. Examples of Terminology or “jargon” as it is
  • 37. Examples of terminology  Police “jargon” can be any term that the police themselves use, and is specific to the police, it can be a slang term that is used to describe a scenario, or it can be a short hand or abbreviation of a word that they use. For example; they use the term “MOP” to as an abbreviation for member of public. This “MOP” can be referred to as a “100 yard hero”, who is someone that shouts abuse at a police officer from a considerable distance away.  An EMI home is one that's classed as an elderly mentally infirm house. This means that the residents inside the home must receive certain care provisions to assist them in this.  The CQC is a short hand term for the care quality commission, a very key organisation in any care setting.  The PALS are an organisation who work in NHS hospitals and surgeries with the patient as a Patient Advocacy and Liaison Service. They are there to be the patients legal voice, filling out forms or taking part in legal proceedings on behalf of the patient.
  • 38. Barriers They can create  Terminology between partnerships or with the members of public can create barriers to communication. Whereas the terms can be to protect the information being discussed in the presence of people near them, or to make communicating between each other faster. It does mean that people who genuinely need to know the information cannot understand it, or that it means something else in their “jargon”. This can create problems with communication.
  • 39. How we use Technology Technology and communication, in the modern era, work hand in hand to create a more productive and efficient way for us to talk to each other, send each other information, and to generally make our lives easier, or more enjoyable. However, most technology has its barriers. Examples of technology Technology Dealing with Disabilities
  • 40. Examples of technology  Computers, can include; desktops, notebooks, laptops, tablets. Computers are an integral part of modern life, enabling us to create things, and run programs, train, learn, have fun, all on one machine. These can be portable.  Phones, can include; landline, mobile, smart phone The creation of the mobile telephone revolutionised telecommunications. They grow ever more clever and advanced as time goes on, being able to do more and more, smart phone for example are just like mini computers.  There are also other forms such as; TV, Radio, projectors, DVD, internet The Internet is a powerful tool, having access to millions upon millions of websites dedicated to anything and everything, with easy to use search tools such as Google, the information is right there in front of you in seconds.

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