Hazard in foundry and safety measures in foundry ppt presentation


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Rajesh Samkaria
Safety Officer


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Hazard in foundry and safety measures in foundry ppt presentation

  1. 1. Presented by RAJESH SAMKARIA (safety officer) Amtek India Ltd Bhiwadi MOB- 08094020247
  2. 2. <ul><li>The term cast iron is used to describe an entire family of metals with a broad range of properties. Like steel, it is also a generic term that designates a family of metals. Both steels as well as cast irons are mainly iron with carbon (C) as the prime alloying element. </li></ul><ul><li>While steels constitute less than 2% and generally less than 1% carbon; all cast irons comprise more than 2% carbon. Two percent is the maximum carbon content at which iron can become solid as a single phase alloy with all of the carbon in solution in austenite. Therefore, we can say that cast irons solidify as heterogeneous alloys and always contain more than one constituent in their micro structure </li></ul>
  3. 3. Along with carbon, cast irons also contain silicon (Si), generally from 1–3%, and hence, we can say they are actually iron-carbon-silicon alloys. The high carbon and silicon content of cast irons make them excellent casting alloys. The melting temperature of cast irons is significantly lower than for steel. Iron when melted is  more fluid than molten steel and is less reactive with molding materials. During the solidification process, low density graphite is formed in the iron. This low density graphite reduces the change in volume of the metal from liquid to solid state and makes it possible to produce more complex castings possible. However, as a matter of fact, cast irons do not have adequate ductility to be forged or rolled. Cast irons come in a variety of types, however these cannot be specified by chemical composition because of the similarities between the types. The table given below shows the distinctive composition ranges for the most frequently determined elements in the 5 generic types of cast iron.   
  5. 7. <ul><li>Automation </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>Mold, Core & Sand </li></ul><ul><li>Safety & Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning & Finishing </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging & Shipping </li></ul><ul><li>Melting, Pouring & Heat Treatment Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Peripherals </li></ul><ul><li>Testing & Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Software & Management System </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Advantages By making proper use of foundry equipment, several benefits can be achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the important advantages include - </li></ul><ul><li>Routine tasks and systems within the foundries can be automated. </li></ul><ul><li>Help in improving the production and casting output. </li></ul><ul><li>Robotic systems can be used to execute hazardous works, such as pouring and degating. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce chances of errors and improve the overall production quality and output. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the performance and overall service life of machines and systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Safety and environment protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Different functions and tasks can be integrated to streamline the operations and </li></ul><ul><li>optimize the performance. </li></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>As the foundry processes occur in very hot, noisy and potentially grave conditions, safety and environment equipment are a must for the protection of workers and environment. Deafness, lung cancer and respiratory problems are just some of the serious health troubles that the workers can get if they are regularly exposed to noise, exuberant heat and harmful substances. Hence, it is essential that the workers are provided with suitably designed and guarded machinery, proper ventilation, and proper personal protective equipment. Foundry works involve the process of making a metal casting of a target by pouring molten metal into the mold. The molds are made by using a pattern of the articles required </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>There are two types of foundries, that are - </li></ul><ul><li>Ferrous foundries - produces iron and steel castings. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-ferrous foundries - produces castings of copper-based alloys (brass, bronze), aluminum-based alloys (lead, zinc, nickel, magnesium) and other alloys. </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>Foundry Health & Environmental Hazards The main health and environmental hazards of a foundry are - </li></ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous substances and dangerous goods </li></ul><ul><li>Gases, vapors, dust and fumes </li></ul><ul><li>Manual tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Noise and vibration </li></ul><ul><li>Molten metal & plant machinery & electricity </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>Types of Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>A comprehensive range of safety and environment protection equipment are available for varied uses and applications in foundries. These machines and equipment are designed keeping the requirements of various works and tasks exercised in a foundry. </li></ul>
  11. 14. and tasks exercised in a foundry. Collectors Air Pollution Control Equipment Radioactive Detection Systems for Scrap Gas Analyzers Environmental Control Equipment Environmental Waste Treatment Gas Detectors Hazardous Waste Recycling Radioactive Handling Equipment Gloves Hand Protective Creams Water Pollution Control Equipment Safety Glasses Hazardous Dust Treatment Water Treatment Compounds Safety Gloves Safety Shields Safety Clothing & Equipment Safety Hats Safety Shoes Radioactive Detection Devices  
  12. 15. <ul><li>Essential Elements Some of the essential elements of safety and environment protection in foundries are - </li></ul><ul><li>Measurable objectives, which encourage continual improvement toward zero incidents and the prevention of pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment of management, effective communication and training to assure the safety and health of employees, community and the protection of environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgment by all the employees and management that safety and environmental protection is a precondition of employment and that they are responsible for their safety and the safety of those around them. </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Identification and controlling of risks into the business plans, decisions, and operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance with all applicable regulations, legislation and relevant industry standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing decent resources to put through the safety and environmental protection policies. </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>Hazards and Control Measures of Molten Metal   </li></ul><ul><li>Molten metal is a serious hazard in melting pouring applications of metal casting. Workers who execute tasks with or near the molten metal are highly prone to risks, such as coming in contact with metal splashes or be exposed to electromagnetic radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the circumstances that may increase the risk of hot metal splashes are - </li></ul><ul><li>Charging a furnace with impure or moist scrap metal and alloys </li></ul><ul><li>Using damp tools, molds or other material when touching the molten metal </li></ul><ul><li>Pouring or tipping the molten metal into a holding furnace or ladle </li></ul><ul><li>Slagging or skimming processes </li></ul><ul><li>Pouring the molten metal from ladles into molds </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>Extreme caution should be taken to ensure that the metal or metal slag does not come in contact with water, as it may result in an explosive reaction or ejection of molten metal with catastrophic effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Molten metal also emits electromagnetic radiation in the furnace and pouring areas. Foundry workers are primarily endangered to infrared and UV radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers and other visiting people with medical implants, plates, joints or similar objects should move into the induction furnace region with care as the magnetic fields of the melting process may cause a charge in the metallic implant. People with cardiac pace makers are especially at risk and should be restrained from entering the induction furnace or touching the equipment. </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>Health consequences of molten metal Splashes of the molten metal and the radiant heat during the melting and pouring process may result in serious burns on the body. Sparks from molten metal may also affect the eyes. Vulnerability to infrared and ultraviolet rays may result in the damage of eyes including cataract. </li></ul><ul><li>Control measures There are several measures and options, which can be adopted alone, or in combination, to prevent or minimize the risks associated with the handling of molten metal in foundries.  </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical control measures The risks associated with the molten metal can be reduced or minimized by implementing mechanical controls. Barriers and other protecting covering, including the mobile shields should be used or set up to protect workers against the splashes of molten metal and electromagnetic radiation. </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>Administrative control measures Administrative controls include the development and inclusion of safe working practices and procedures. Some of common examples of administrative control measures for molten metals include - </li></ul><ul><li>Keep all the combustible materials and volatile liquids at a safe distant place from the melting and pouring areas.  </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that the molten metal does not come in contact with water or other contaminants. All charge materials, ladles and other equipment, which may come in contact with the molten metal should be totally dry. </li></ul><ul><li>Restrain the unauthorized access by barriers and signages to the furnace and pouring areas.  </li></ul><ul><li>Restrain the workers and other personnel from wearing synthetic clothing, including undergarments while entering the furnace and pouring regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure proper use and maintenance of personal protective equipment. </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Personal protective equipment Personal protective equipment are a must to reduce or eliminate the risks associated with the handling of molten metal in foundries. These may include - </li></ul><ul><li>Heat resistant protective clothing - headgear, footwear, face shields, aprons, fire retardant spats, coats and gaiters </li></ul><ul><li>Eye protection with side shields </li></ul><ul><li>Top of Form </li></ul><ul><li>Special UV and infra-red glasses </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Effects of Heat & Control Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Top of Form </li></ul><ul><li>Foundries generally have a very hot working environment because of the furnaces and molten metal. The molds and core heating, the ladles preheating and the heat treatment of metal castings make additional sources of heat. Personnel employed in furnace or ladle slagging and those executing tasks in close proximity to the molten metal, including furnace workers, welders, arc-air operators, oxy-cutters and crane operators, are most vulnerable to severe heat effects.  </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom of Form </li></ul><ul><li>The human body functions normally within 1° C to 1.5° C of the core body temperature of 37° C. The body sustains this temperature by balancing the heat generated within the body and the transfer of heat from body to the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Working in hot environments causes strength to decline, and may result in fatigue sooner than it would otherwise. It may also affect alertness and mental capa city </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>Effects of heat exposure on health When the body is unable to loose heat as required through the evaporative cooling procedure to maintain a steady core body temperature, it starts experiencing physiological heat strain with several illnesses depending on the degree of heat stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the potential health effects for persons working under high heat stress environments include - </li></ul><ul><li>Heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke are the most severe heat illnesses. Heat stroke is a life endangering condition, which may result in permanent damage to the heart, brain or kidneys. Effects of heat stress are most likely to increase during the months of summer. </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>Acclimatisation </li></ul><ul><li>Persons who regularly work in a hot working condition become acclimatised to a specific degree of heat. Acclimatisation reduces heat discomfort, increases the effectiveness of sweating, reduces salt loss and returns recovery rate to normal. Persons differ in their ability to acclimatise to heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Acclimatization provides only a partial protection from extreme heat and workers may still suffer from adverse health effects. Once the exposure to heat has discontinued, the protection from acclimatization is progressively lost. If a worker who has been absent from a hot work environment for a long period, such as a week; he should be first re-acclimatised to the hot environment for protection against heat related effects. </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>Factors associated with job </li></ul><ul><li>Work of an arduous nature </li></ul><ul><li>Work, which is prolonged for extended periods </li></ul><ul><li>Uncomfortable or awkward body position  </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient cooling off or rest periods </li></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>Factors associated with the environment and season </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme air temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation heat from hot objects such as machinery </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation heat from the sun if working in outdoors </li></ul><ul><li>Higher levels of relative humidity  </li></ul><ul><li>Low air movement </li></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>Factors associated with workers </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Level of acclimatisation </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of adequate hydration </li></ul><ul><li>Approachability to water and cool recovery regions  </li></ul><ul><li>Health condition e.g. heart, circulatory or skin disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Medication, which impairs temperature regulation or perspiration (consult with doctor) </li></ul><ul><li>Age and weight </li></ul><ul><li>Level of physical fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient salt in the diet </li></ul>
  25. 28. <ul><li>Control measures </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination controls The best control measure is to eliminate situations, which may result in heat related illnesses. This can be done by - </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminating radiant heat sources that are not essential;  </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminating the sources of water vapor in the workplace (e.g. leaks from steam valves, evaporation of water from wet floors, etc.). </li></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>  Modifying the work environment Several control measures, which have found to be effective in preventing or minimizing the vulnerability to risk by reducing heat in the workplace include -  </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing the emissions of radiant from hot objects and surfaces (insulation and shielding); </li></ul><ul><li>Altering the air temperature, air movement and relative humidity using local or general ventilation, spot coolers, fans, blowers and air conditioning; </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing the metabolic heat production of body using automation and mechanization of tasks; </li></ul><ul><li>Using ventilation e.g. setting flues extending from a foundry to the open air to ventilate cooling racks and fixed sources of heat; and </li></ul><ul><li>Humidity reducing techniques (e.g. set a dehumidifier — seek engineering advice). </li></ul>
  27. 30. <ul><li>  Administrative controls Administrative controls generally include the development of safe working procedures and practices. Some of these controls are - </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling the hot tasks to cooler times of the day and maintenance to cooler seasons; </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting the workers to take short breaks; </li></ul><ul><li>Providing opportunity to the new workers or workers returning from holidays to acclimatize to the heat; </li></ul><ul><li>Rotating workers to reduce the heat exposure duration; </li></ul><ul><li>Programming routine work / rest breaks in cool, shady areas with protective clothing removed; </li></ul><ul><li>Keep apart the hot work practices to times / locations distant from other workers; </li></ul><ul><li>Use extra workers or ensure job sharing / rotation of workers; </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>Workers with heart and blood pressure problems or previous heat illness should not be allowed to work in extremely hot areas.; </li></ul><ul><li>Providing training to workers in the hazards related with working in hot environments, recognizing heat related illnesses, adopting safe work practices, control measures and the use and maintenance of personal protective equipment; </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted consumption of diuretics (caffeinated drinks and alcohol); </li></ul><ul><li>Access to sufficient supply of clean and cool drinking water; and </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate a contingency plan for the treatment of affected workers. </li></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>Personal protective equipment (PPE) </li></ul><ul><li>Where heat exposure cannot be reduced or prevented by any other form of control, all exposed persons should be provided with personal protective equipment. Personal protective equipment used to prevent heat associated problems include - </li></ul><ul><li>Eye wear, such as UV glasses </li></ul><ul><li>Non-flammable and heat reflective equipment and clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Water cooled bodysuits / vests and other equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Protective footwear and gloves </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  30. 33. <ul><li>Airborne Contaminants & Control Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Substantial concentrations of airborne contaminants can be found in various aspects of foundry operations. These contaminants can be found in several areas including pattern making, core making, mold making, fettling and sand plant regions.   </li></ul><ul><li>The airborne contaminants in foundries are generally released from the - </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of scrap using heat and solvent degreasers (carbon monoxide) </li></ul><ul><li>Melting procedure (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, chloride and fluoride compounds) </li></ul><ul><li>Scrap handling (receiving, unloading, storage and conveying) </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment and inoculation of molten metal prior to poring </li></ul><ul><li>Core and mold making processes  during sand reclamation, preparation and mixing of sand </li></ul><ul><li>Mold and core forming processes, including core baking and mold drying from additives, binders and catalysts </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling of casts causing decomposition of organic binders </li></ul><ul><li>Casting knockout and shake-out </li></ul><ul><li>Fettling </li></ul>
  31. 34. <ul><li>Along with these, airborne contaminants are also generated from various other foundry operations, including – furnace operations of melting and pouring carbon monoxide), cupola furnaces (sulfur dioxide), working of electric arc furnaces, treatment and inoculation of molten metal (dust), contaminants released during pouring (hot metal fumes), etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Gases & Vapors Gases are formless fluids, which expand to occupy the space or enclosure in which they are enclosed. At normal temperature and pressure, true gases exist in the form of vapor. Many gases can be stored under pressure in liquid form until they are vaporized for use. These pressurized gases should be controlled in order to make the workplace air free from contamination. </li></ul><ul><li>Gaseous contaminants may also arise as a result of a chemical reaction or due to the breakdown of a complex chemical. </li></ul>
  32. 35. <ul><li>Some of the gases that are generally found in a foundry are - </li></ul><ul><li>Top of Form </li></ul><ul><li>Vapors are the gaseous form of substances, which generally exist in the form of liquids or solid state at room temperature and pressure. These vapors are produced as a result of the natural evaporation, heating or spraying of organic solvents that are used as solvents, paints, binders and catalysts in foundry processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom of Form </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the vapors that are generally found in a foundry are - </li></ul><ul><li>Gases and vapors are mostly invisible, however, some may have strong and characteristic smell, which may give the hint of their presence in a foundry. Instead, in some cases, the gases may have no such smell and may induce health problems at extremely low concentrations. </li></ul><ul><li>Some other gases show their presence through various irritating effects, such as coughing, respiratory irritation, asthma, acidic taste and watering of the eyes. </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>Dust & Fumes Dust is particulate matter produced from solids and dispersed into the air due to the movement, loading, cleaning and handling of inorganic materials, such as metal, wood and sand. Fumes are airborne solid particles, which are formed as a result of the condensation of a material from a volatilized solid, generally molten metal in cool air. The different types of dust and fumes that expose workers to various health risks in foundries are - </li></ul><ul><li>Wood Dust </li></ul><ul><li>Metal Dust </li></ul><ul><li>Silica Dust </li></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>Control Measures for Airborne Contaminants </li></ul><ul><li>There are a number of control measures, which can be adopted alone, or in combination with other methods to prevent or minimize the exposure to risk.    </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the general rules that can be followed to reduce / minimize airborne contaminants are - </li></ul><ul><li>Replace silica sand with chromite sand. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt wet or vacuum processes instead of compressed air to minimize the creation of dust while removing loose dust or sand in the mold making method. </li></ul><ul><li>Shut in major emission points, such as conveyor belt transfer areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Set canopy hoods near the doors of furnace and the tapping outlets to seize contaminants and direct them through an emission regulation system. </li></ul><ul><li>Supervise the carbon monoxide levels in the area of operation. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  35. 38. <ul><li>Safety Tips </li></ul><ul><li>Followings are few safety tips that one should know if he/she is dealing with casting process or alloys: </li></ul><ul><li>Wear eye protection, gloves, spats (covering top of feet), and thick clothing protecting all exposed skin on arms and legs. NO polyester or synthetic clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Floor in pouring area shall be clear of all objects not involved in pouring. </li></ul><ul><li>Clamp or weight up molds that require it. </li></ul><ul><li>Metal added to heat must be free of moisture and impurities. </li></ul><ul><li>Metal added to heat during melt must be preheated. </li></ul><ul><li>Skimmers and other melting tools must be preheated before use. </li></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>Move Slowly while removing crucible from furnace and moving to mold. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not look into exhaust during operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect crucibles before use. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect propane lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Use outdoors only. </li></ul><ul><li>No alcohol or drug use. </li></ul><ul><li>Wear respiratory protection while melting copper-base alloys (brass, bronze). </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>Tips for Successful Castings </li></ul><ul><li>In recent years, we have witnessed an unprecedented increase in our knowledge and understanding of the casting procedures. Because of this increased awareness, the list of prerequisites has been steadily amended as they have become known. A variety of rules and tips have now been identified, which incorporate the latest technology for making reliable castings. These different tips can be followed during the various stages of metal casting to produce successful castings. </li></ul><ul><li>These tips should be used in addition to existing conventional technical specifications, including - alloy type, strength and other established foundry controls such as casting temperature, etc. </li></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>Mold Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Heat mold and talcum in advance. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply talcum evenly and clap halves together to get rid of excess quantity. </li></ul><ul><li>Add O Rings to body to provide later adjustments. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  39. 42. <ul><li>Melting the Metal </li></ul><ul><li>Use an electric hob to melt the dry metal. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't over clamp the molds. Rough sides of boards should face into mold. </li></ul><ul><li>Stir with used match to test for heat. Wait till the match starts to brown and discharges a little amount of smoke. Don't overheat. </li></ul><ul><li>Push slag away from the pouring spout </li></ul>
  40. 43. <ul><li>Pouring the Metal </li></ul><ul><li>Pour softly to fill the well of the mold. </li></ul><ul><li>Tap the mold smoothly for a few seconds after pouring. </li></ul><ul><li>Cease the tapping when the metal start to cool and stiffen. </li></ul><ul><li>Wait for at least 5 minutes before opening the mold. </li></ul><ul><li>If a gap seems in the casting, remelt the metal and try again. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider venting for stubborn regions. </li></ul>
  41. 44. <ul><li>Venting the Mold </li></ul><ul><li>Use a sharp knife and heat the mold while cutting vents. </li></ul><ul><li>Cut from the defected area to top of mold or to the surrounding sprue. </li></ul><ul><li>Recast the design with attention to detail. </li></ul><ul><li>Wait for at least 5 minutes before opening the mold. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep both parts of the mold at same temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Bend the mold while removing the figure to prevent any damage. </li></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>Cutting the Parts </li></ul><ul><li>Twist the protective sprue away from parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn flat part of snips to the part desired. </li></ul><ul><li>Cut at least 2mm from part. </li></ul><ul><li>Score sprue with knife to protect the soft parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Thicker sprue may require further scoring or even the use of a bladesaw to weaken the sprue and forestall the damage to the part. </li></ul>
  43. 46. <ul><li>Filling the Parts </li></ul><ul><li>Use a flat file to file the gate in a balanced manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Get rid of sharp corners and bevel edges to prevent the paint peeling. </li></ul><ul><li>Use needle files to get rid of seamlines. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow shapes of figure not filing flat. </li></ul><ul><li>Use small files for details. </li></ul>
  44. 47. <ul><li>Preparing to Glue Parts </li></ul><ul><li>Softly polish the parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Check fitting and match of parts before gluing. </li></ul><ul><li>Roughen up the areas slenderly to give the glue a better grip. </li></ul><ul><li>Glue or solder. </li></ul><ul><li>Leave unmanageable parts for painting separate. </li></ul>
  45. 48. <ul><li>ANY QUESTIONS ? </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>