1. Lab Report 20111 BTE 101BTE 101Introduction to Biotechnology and Genetic EngineeringProfessor Naiyyum ChoudhuryLab. Reports:Sl.No.Experiment Name Page no.01 Yogurt Production 202 Bacterial Culture by Streaking 303 Production of Maltose by Starch Hydrlysis 4Done by: Samiya YesminI.D. 11304043B.B.S.
2. Lab Report 20112 BTE 101Experiment 01-1. Name of Experiment: Yogurt production2. Purpose: Fermentation of milk to produce Yogurt.3. Principle: Fermentation of milk produces yogurt, a food delicacy enjoyed over centuries.Fermenting milk results in milk lactose sugar produces lactic acid, glucose, galactose and flavorcomponents, which forms a good thick conjugated texture. Yogurt is now industrially producedby the following major steps:a. Media preparation: Milk is heated at 85oC for approximately 2 minutes to kill all the micro-organisms and denature the enzymes. Then cooled.b. Inoculum preparation: it is the preparation of yeast or Lactobacillus bulgaricus, micro-organisms used for fermentation:c. Fermentation: it is the process in which the media and culture are added together ten leftto incubate at 37oC for 24 hrs, although this time varies depending on the texture of yogurtneeded to be produced.4. Materials used:a. 50ml of milk media.b. Heat source.c. Starter culture of yeast and Lactobacillusbulgaricus (1ml of each used)d. Incubatore. 100 ml beaker.f. Aluminum Foil paper.5. Results/ Observation: as milk lactose gets conjugatedit forms a thicker less volume yogurt as shown 6. Discussion: as we can see our volume of yogurtproduced is very less due to the fact that diluted milkwas used for the process. To produce more yogurt,
3. Lab Report 20113 BTE 101concentrated milk should be used as that will have a higher content of milk lactose sugar.Experiment 02-1. Name of Experiment: Aseptic culture technique by streak plate method of isolation.2. Purpose: To get single strain colonies of microorganisms.3. Principle: To study or to work with anymicroorganisms, it is important to use a single straincolony as microorganisms are easily contaminatedwhich would ruin any work it is being used for. Thusby streaking method we can produce single straincolonies.4. Materials used:i. Petri Dishesii. Agar culture plateiii. Inoculating loopiv. Bunsen Burnerv. Stock Bacterisvi. Incubator 37oC5. Results/ Observation:as it was my first time streaking, I couldnot do it perfectly, thus no single strain colonieswere formed. As u can see in the pictures. Thebacterial growth formed irregular shape, withundulated edges that grew into the medium andhad a flat elevation. Due to proper sterilizedconditions there were no fungal growth.6. Discussion: with more practice on howto streak, I will be able to get proper single strain colonies. As this process needs practice aswell as patience.
4. Lab Report 20114 BTE 101Experiment 03-1. Name of Experiment: Enzymatic Assay of α- Amylase2. Purpose: To find the mass of Maltose released by α- Amylase reaction.3. Principle: By doing this experiment we will be ableto find the mass of Maltose produced by thehydrolysis of 1ml starch solution using α- Amylasesolution of 1ml. Our experiment uses the standardcurve of maltose to find the amount of reducingsugar in the unknown sample. The standard curve isproduced by creating different concentrations ofmaltose and finding their optical densities. As shownin the figure we get different color densities fordifferent concentrations of maltose. The colordensity increases as the concentration of maltose produced in the solution increases. TT9is the control here.4. Materials used:i. 20 mM sodium Phosphate Buffer sol. With 6.7mM NaCl solution to have a pH of6.9ii. 1.0 % (w/v) Starch solution.iii. Micro-pipette.iv. Colour Reagent Solution.v. 0.2% (w/v) Maltose Solutionvi. α- Amylase Solution
5. Lab Report 20115 BTE 101vii. Spectrophotometer to measure Optical Density viii. 96 mM 3,5-Dinitrosalicylic Acid Solution5. Results/ Observation:The results for the standard curve and the experimental test sample, as shown below areplotted in a graph.TT 4 5 6 7 8 9Conc. OfMaltose0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0OpticalDensity0.04 0.105 0.135 0.153 0.195 0And from their intersection we find that the concentration of maltose present in the testsample which gives an OD of 0.3375 is 1.67mMNow using the formula of concentration, C=m/Mr, we can find the mass of Maltose thathas been produced.TT 1 2 3OpticalDensity0.352 0.323 0Average OD 0.3375C=m/Mrm=C*Mrm=1.67*360.3m= 601.701 mg
6. Lab Report 20116 BTE 1016. Discussion: using this simple procedure we can easily find the unknown amount of maltosebeing produced by starch enzymatic hydrolysis. As the test values are very small, we must bevery careful while doing this experiment as a slight error will show drastic difference in result.