What is Beekeeping?
 Beekeeping is Applied Bee Biology
Beekeeping is Colony Population
Management
Rock bee and its hives
Little bee and its hives
Indian bee and its hive
Bee History
Evolved from wasps perhaps 150 million years ago
A recently found fossilized bee dates back 97 million
years
F...
Bees Are Social
(Eusocial)
Reproductive division of work
Have sterile castes
Cooperate in care of young
Colony
External Anatomy
Four pairs of glands, sometimes called
mirrors.
During the wax forming period in the life
of a worker, the glands greatly ...
Workers have a Nasanoff gland at the end of their
abdomen
This Nasanoff gland is used by the guard bees at the hive
entran...
On the end of the female bee's abdomen is the ovipositor (stinger).
The ovipositor of the worker bee is barbed so that i...
Life Cycle
The Birthing Room – Eggs & Larva(e)
About to be capped
About to pupate
Pupa(e)
Basic Biology Development
Adults
One queen (normally)
•Only actively reproducing
female
•Can produce 1,500 eggs per day
at the height of the brood season
•...
Workers
Female
Usually do not reproduce
Responsible for most of the
work
•Colony will have 20,000
-70,000+
•Live for 4-6 w...
Drone & Worker Cells
Queen Cells
Worker cells are horizontal while queen cells are
vertical
As the queen larva grows, the cell enlarges and
bec...
Drones
Males
Sexually mature at 2 weeks
Mate with female queens while in flight
Upon mating they die
Removed from the hive...
Division of Labor
Among females (reproduction)
Among workers (tasks)
Not fixed somewhat plastic
Depends upon
Age or develo...
Young bees:
1 to 10 days
•Cell cleaning
•Tend brood
•Cap brood
•Attend queen
Workers
Middle-aged bees:
10 to 20 days old
•Receive nectar & pollen
•Comb building
•Hive cleaning
Debris removal
Climate control
Old bees:
20 days until death
(30-45 days)
Foraging
◦Nectar
◦Pollen
◦Water
Hive defense
Foraging -Efforts
To make 1 lb honey
Bees visit 2,000,000 flowers
Gather 8-10 lbs nectar
Fly 55,000 miles
The life work of...
Foraging
Conveys direction & distance to nectar and pollen
sources
Round Dance Waggle Dance
Division of Labor
Reproduction
The Queen is the primary reproductive unit of the
hive
Fertilized eggs may become either wo...
New Queens arise due to:
Swarming
The queen initiates a new queen in the hive.
She then leaves with a portion of the worke...
Seasons of the Hive
 Winter
•Maintenance of colony &
temperature
•Conservation of food
 Spring
•Increase brood productio...
Honey Bee Biology by Madam Ayesha Department of Zoology University of Peshawar Pakistan
Honey Bee Biology by Madam Ayesha Department of Zoology University of Peshawar Pakistan
Honey Bee Biology by Madam Ayesha Department of Zoology University of Peshawar Pakistan
Honey Bee Biology by Madam Ayesha Department of Zoology University of Peshawar Pakistan
Honey Bee Biology by Madam Ayesha Department of Zoology University of Peshawar Pakistan
Honey Bee Biology by Madam Ayesha Department of Zoology University of Peshawar Pakistan
Honey Bee Biology by Madam Ayesha Department of Zoology University of Peshawar Pakistan
Honey Bee Biology by Madam Ayesha Department of Zoology University of Peshawar Pakistan
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Honey Bee Biology by Madam Ayesha Department of Zoology University of Peshawar Pakistan

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Honey Bee Biology by Madam Ayesha Department of Zoology University of Peshawar Pakistan

  1. 1. What is Beekeeping?  Beekeeping is Applied Bee Biology Beekeeping is Colony Population Management
  2. 2. Rock bee and its hives
  3. 3. Little bee and its hives
  4. 4. Indian bee and its hive
  5. 5. Bee History Evolved from wasps perhaps 150 million years ago A recently found fossilized bee dates back 97 million years First honey bee appeared 20-25 million years ago Bee keeping” by humans occurred 3,500 years ago
  6. 6. Bees Are Social (Eusocial) Reproductive division of work Have sterile castes Cooperate in care of young
  7. 7. Colony
  8. 8. External Anatomy
  9. 9. Four pairs of glands, sometimes called mirrors. During the wax forming period in the life of a worker, the glands greatly thicken and take on their glandular structure. The wax is discharged as a liquid, hardens to small flakes or scales, and sits in wax pockets. The wax scale is then transferred to the mandibles where it is chewed into a compact mass. After the worker bee outgrows the wax forming period, the glands degenerate and become a flat layer of cells. Wax Gland(s):
  10. 10. Workers have a Nasanoff gland at the end of their abdomen This Nasanoff gland is used by the guard bees at the hive entrance to disseminate a scent that guides young bees back to the entrance during early flights.
  11. 11. On the end of the female bee's abdomen is the ovipositor (stinger). The ovipositor of the worker bee is barbed so that it remains imbedded into whatever the honeybee stings.  In its struggle to free itself, a portion of the bee (stinger, venom sac) is left behind, which damages her enough to kill her.  The venom sac continues to contract by reflex action, continuously pumping venom into the wound for several seconds. The queen’s ovipositor is slightly barbed and is “reusable”: It’s used to kill rival queens.
  12. 12. Life Cycle
  13. 13. The Birthing Room – Eggs & Larva(e)
  14. 14. About to be capped About to pupate
  15. 15. Pupa(e)
  16. 16. Basic Biology Development
  17. 17. Adults
  18. 18. One queen (normally) •Only actively reproducing female •Can produce 1,500 eggs per day at the height of the brood season •Can live for 2-4 yrs •Controls the hive through pheromones Queen
  19. 19. Workers Female Usually do not reproduce Responsible for most of the work •Colony will have 20,000 -70,000+ •Live for 4-6 weeks in summer, 4-5 months in winter
  20. 20. Drone & Worker Cells
  21. 21. Queen Cells Worker cells are horizontal while queen cells are vertical As the queen larva grows, the cell enlarges and becomes peanut-shaped when capped for the pupal stage of development
  22. 22. Drones Males Sexually mature at 2 weeks Mate with female queens while in flight Upon mating they die Removed from the hive in late fall
  23. 23. Division of Labor Among females (reproduction) Among workers (tasks) Not fixed somewhat plastic Depends upon Age or development of the bee Needs of the colony
  24. 24. Young bees: 1 to 10 days •Cell cleaning •Tend brood •Cap brood •Attend queen Workers
  25. 25. Middle-aged bees: 10 to 20 days old •Receive nectar & pollen •Comb building •Hive cleaning Debris removal Climate control
  26. 26. Old bees: 20 days until death (30-45 days) Foraging ◦Nectar ◦Pollen ◦Water Hive defense
  27. 27. Foraging -Efforts To make 1 lb honey Bees visit 2,000,000 flowers Gather 8-10 lbs nectar Fly 55,000 miles The life work of 1 bee = 1/12 teaspoon honey To make 1 lb wax Need to consume 8-10 lbs honey
  28. 28. Foraging Conveys direction & distance to nectar and pollen sources Round Dance Waggle Dance
  29. 29. Division of Labor Reproduction The Queen is the primary reproductive unit of the hive Fertilized eggs may become either workers or queens To become a queen, a larva must: ◦Be fed royal jelly ◦Be fed more food ◦Have a larger cell
  30. 30. New Queens arise due to: Swarming The queen initiates a new queen in the hive. She then leaves with a portion of the workers & starts a new hive Supersedure Workers kill off the old queen & new queens are formed. Generally to save the existing colony
  31. 31. Seasons of the Hive  Winter •Maintenance of colony & temperature •Conservation of food  Spring •Increase brood production •Start of foraging  Summer  •Foraging  •Brood production  •Comb production  •Drone development  •Swarming & queen mating  Autumn  •Maintenance of colony  •Conservation of food  •Reduce brood  •Death of drones

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