• Plasmodium is a genus of Apicomplexan parasite
and cause an infection known as malaria.
• Plasmodium, spends most of its life in the red
blood cells of humans.
• There are four distinct species of the
Plasmodium parasite that affect humans:
• Plasmodium vivax
• Plasmodium malariae
• Plasmodium ovale
• Plasmodium falciparum
• Plasmodium falciparum is the greatest threat to
public health, and also the most life-
Host and Transmission
• Normal Host of plasmodium is Female Anopheles
• It is transmitted by Bite of a female Anopheles
mosquito that had contact with another individual
infected with malaria.
• Malaria is actually a very widespread disease,
infecting approximately 200-300 million people
worldwide each year.
• Found all over the world.
• The tropical zone is endemic home of all malarial
parasites while of P. malarie is a parasite of sub-
• When female anopheles mosquito penetrate
human skin to obtain blood meal, it inject saliva
mixed with a anti coagulant .
• If mosquito is infected with plasmodium it will
inject elongated sporozoits to the blood stream of
Pre- erythrocytic Schizogony
• The sporozoites travel to the liver where enter into
the liver cell and divide asexually which is called
schizogony generates the next life cycle form
• This cycle lasting approximately 8days in
P.vivox,6days in P. falciparum, 9days in ovale .
• The released merozoite invade other liver cell
and enter the host blood stream and invade
erthrocytes and the merozoites begins to enlarge
as uninucleate cell termed as ring trophozoit.
• The merozoite then divides asexually to
produce schizont which contain several Nuclei
and the schizont then divides and produce mono
• The erthrocytes then rapture and releases toxins
throughout the body of the host bringing about the
will known cycle of fever cold chill that is the
characteristics of malaria.
• This cycle lasting approximately 48-72 hrs in
P.vivox,48hrs in P.falciparum, and in P.ovale also
while 72 hrs in P. malarie.
• Plasmodium enter to sexual phase when some of
the merozoits in RBC develop into gametocytes
and become capable of producing both male and
female gametes within the human hosts and
extracted from the infected host by a mosquito.
• Within the gut of mosquito the gametocytes form
male and female gametes and the resultant diploid
zygote develop within the mosquitoes intestinal
wall and differentiated into oocyte
• In the oocyst mitotic division occur producing
large number of sporozoit which migrates then to
the saliva of the female anopheles and injected
to the blood stream of the host
• Malaria is the third leading cause of death due
to infectious disease.
• It causes approximately 300 million acute
illnesses per year.
• The serious complication of P.f. involves.
• massive haemoglobinuria (backwater fever) in
which the urine becomes dark in color because
of acute hemolysis of RBC.
• Acute respiratory distress syndrome.
• Severe gastrointestinal symptoms, shock and
renal failure which may cause death.
• cerebral malaria (involving the brain).
• Laboratory diagnosis of malaria is confirmed by
the demonstration of malarial parasites in the
blood film under microscopic examination
• Chlorquine and quinine----anti-erythrocytic stage
• Primaquine and pyrimethamine ----anti-
exoerythrocytic stage drugs .
• Reconstruction of environment: eradicate the
breeding places of mosquitoes.
• Spry insecticides: DDVP and so on.
• Use mosquito nets, screen, or mosquito repellents
to protect the person from mosquito bites.