Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
WAFER PROCESSING EQUIPMENT                    AND   CLEAN ROOM INVENTORYFOR A RESEARCH BASED IC FABRICATION FACILITY      ...
Difference between Si wafer processingand compound (III/V) wafer processing  Oxidation    Silicon has a natural oxide whil...
Difference between Si wafer processingand compound (III/V) wafer processing Lattice Constants   The first and principal di...
WHAT IS A CLEAN ROOM?• A clean-room or clean room is an environment, typically  used in manufacturing and scientific resea...
CLEAN ROOMCLEAN ROOM STANDARDS                                                                                         SAM...
Cost Analysis• Quotations have been sent• SANCO• Rough estimates of the equipment have been obtained from:                ...
CLEAN ROOMPARTICLE COUNTERS Manufacturer                          Capovani Brothers Inc Model              PARTICLE MEASUR...
CLEAN ROOM PARTICLE COUNTERSManufacturer                                Pacific ScientificModel                           ...
CLEAN ROOMAIR CONDITIONER/AIR FLOW CONTROLLER  Manufacturer          Air Control Inc.  Model                 VLF CART  Pri...
CLEAN ROOMAIR CONDITIONER/AIR FLOW CONTROLLER  Manufacturer          Air Control Inc.  Model                 AirPod  Price...
IC FABRICATION PHILOSOPHY!                                 Adding impurities in      Adding layer onto wafer!             ...
III/V Group ingot productionSimilar to the silicon ingot growth process, elementalforms of III and V group elements, plus ...
Photomask Creation • The photomask is a copy of the circuit pattern,   drawn on a glass plate coated with a metallic film....
PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY            Wafer processing consists of a sequence of         additive and subtractive steps with pattern...
PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY STEPS• 1 # PRE BAKE THE WAFER   Wafer is preheated to about 200 - 250 degrees C in a bake  oven. The purp...
PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY STEPS• 2 # PHOTORESIST APPLICATION AND SPINNING• The wafer is placed on the wafer chuck in the center of ...
PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY STEPSPhotoresist Raw Materials    http://www.mitsuichemicals.com/photoresist.htm                         ...
PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY STEPSPhoto resist properties       http://www.cleanroom.byu.edu/photoresists.phtml                       ...
Photoresist Spin Coater                                               PR                 Wafer                            ...
Photoresist Applying                             PR dispenser                             nozzle                          ...
Photoresist Suck Back                               PR dispenser nozzle           PR suck back                            ...
Photoresist Spin Coating                               PR dispenser nozzle           PR suck back                         ...
Photoresist Spin Coating                               PR dispenser nozzle           PR suck back                         ...
Photoresist Spin Coating                               PR dispenser nozzle           PR suck back                         ...
Photoresist Spin Coating                               PR dispenser nozzle           PR suck back                         ...
Photoresist Spin Coating                               PR dispenser nozzle           PR suck back                         ...
Photoresist Spin Coating                               PR dispenser nozzle           PR suck back                         ...
Photoresist Spin Coating                               PR dispenser nozzle           PR suck back                         ...
Photoresist Spin Coating                               PR dispenser nozzle           PR suck back                         ...
Photoresist Spin Coating                               PR dispenser nozzle           PR suck back                         ...
Edge Bead Removal  Solvent                                                SAMI UR REHMAN (sami-                           ...
Edge Bead Removal  Solvent                                                SAMI UR REHMAN (sami-                           ...
Optical Edge Bead RemovalExposure                    Light source                    Light beam               Photoresist ...
PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY STEPS• 3 # SOFT BAKE• The wafer is placed into the Soft-Bake Oven for 30 minutes.• The purpose of the sof...
Methods of Soft Bake          •   Hot plates          •   Convection oven          •   Infrared oven                      ...
Baking Systems      Wafer                                    MW Source                                 Photoresist        ...
Hot Plates • Widely used in the industry • Back side heating, no surface   Wafer                                          ...
PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY STEPS• 4 # EXPOSE TO UV LIGHT• carefully place the wafer on the wafer chuck of the Aligner• When the wafe...
Alignment                          Gate Mask                                      SAMI UR REHMAN (sami-                   ...
Exposure                         Gate Mask                                     SAMI UR REHMAN (sami-                      ...
Ready for Post Exposure Bake                               SAMI UR REHMAN (sami-                                 rehman.bl...
PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY STEPS• 5 # DEVELOPMENT• The type of developer solution used is determined by the  type of photoresist cho...
Schematic of a Spin Developer     DI water                     Developer                Wafer                             ...
Applying DevelopmentSolution      Exposed                         Development solution      Photoresist                   ...
Applying DevelopmentSolution      Exposed      Photoresist                                                        SAMI UR ...
Developer Spin OffEdge PR removed               Patterned                              photoresist                        ...
DI Water Rinse    DI water    dispenser    nozzle                                               SAMI UR REHMAN (sami-     ...
Spin Dry                                               SAMI UR REHMAN (sami-                                              ...
Ready For Hard Bake     Spindle                Chuck                              Wafer               SAMI UR REHMAN (sami...
Development Profiles    PR                     PR         Substrate              Substrate                                ...
Developer Solution• +PR normally uses weak base  solution• The most commonly used one is                                  ...
Developer Solutions            Positive PR   Negative PRDeveloper   TMAH           Xylene                                 ...
PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY STEPS• 6 # HARD BAKE THE WAFER• The wafer is placed into the Hard Bake oven now which  should be preheate...
Types of PhotoresistNegative Photoresist   Positive Photoresist• Becomes insoluble    • Becomes soluble                   ...
Negative and Positive Photoresists Photoresist                Substrate                            UV light Mask/reticle P...
Comparison of Photoresists                                  SAMI UR REHMAN (sami-                                    rehma...
Wafer In               Hot Plate      Spin Station                                       Stepper                          ...
Pre-bake and Primer VaporCoating                Hot Plate      Spin Station                                        Stepper...
Photoresist Spin Coating               Hot Plate      Spin Station                                       Stepper          ...
Soft Bake               Hot Plate      Spin Station                                       Stepper                         ...
Alignment and Exposure              Hot Plate      Spin Station                                      Stepper              ...
Post Exposure Bake (PEB)               Hot Plate      Spin Station                                       Stepper          ...
Development              Hot Plate      Spin Station                                      Stepper                         ...
Hard Bake              Hot Plate      Spin Station                                      Stepper                           ...
Wafer out               Hot Plate      Spin Station                                       Stepper                         ...
Resolution• The achievable, repeatable  minimum feature size• Determined by the wavelength of                             ...
Resolution                      K1                   R                      NA                                          ...
Numerical Aperture• NA is the ability of a lens to collect diffracted  light• NA = 2 r0 / D                               ...
To Improve Resolution• Increase NA   • Larger lens, could be too expensive and unpractical   • Reduce DOF and cause fabric...
Depth of focus• The range that light is in focus and can achieve good resolution of  projected image• Depth of focus can b...
Depth of Focus • Smaller numerical aperture, larger DOF   • Disposable cameras with very small lenses   • Almost everythin...
Photolithography  MASK ALLIGNER       Karl Suss MA-6 Mask Aligner                                      $69,000DescriptionC...
Photolithography  MASK ALLIGNERMask-aligner EV-420Description                                               SAMI UR REHMAN...
Photolithography MASK ALLIGNER         Manufacturer                  SussMicrotec           Model                       BL...
Photolithography    SPINNERS Solitec 5100 LVT                                                    $30,000•Provides spin pro...
Photolithography  BAKE OVENSYes 450pb ovenDescription:The 450PB is a high temperature vacuum oven using a programmable tem...
WAFER PROCESSING                              • CVD                              • PECVD               Deposition     • PV...
CHEMICAL VAPOR DESPOSITIONChemical Vapor Deposition is the formation of anon-volatile solid film on a substrate by the rea...
CHEMICAL VAPOR DESPOSITION• Gases to be reacted are entered into the CVD  chamber and react to produce the desired  materi...
PECVD• PECVD uses two electrodes one of which  contains the wafer• A strong electric field b/w the electrodes ignites  the...
SPUTTERING• High energy plasma knocks metal atoms out of  its crystalline structure and are deposited on the  wafer substr...
SPUTTERING  PVD75 RF SputtererDescription•The RF sputterer can be used to deposit many dielectrics.•Sputter two or more di...
SPUTTERINGARC-12M sputtering systemGases available: Ar, O2 & N2    - DC sputtering power source: 2 x250W                  ...
SPUTTERING    CVC DC Sputterer Description The DC sputterer is used to coat samples with metals. Metal coatings are usuall...
EVAPORATION• Metal atom to be deposited are held in a  tungsten coil which carries huge currents• The metal evaporates und...
EPITAXIAL DEPOSITIONTHERMAL EVAPORATORS•   Denton SJ20C•   SOURCE: University of UTAH•   Description•   4 source hearth   ...
EPITAXIAL DEPOSITIONMOLECULAR BEAM EPITAXY                                                                       SAMI UR R...
WET ETCHING• Various mixtures of wet-chemical acid solutions are used  for wet etching.• The primary acids used are sulphu...
PLASMA ETCHING• In this form of etching, plasma is used to  produce chemically reactive gases which are  then made to reac...
PLASMA ETCHING OXFORD PLASMALAB 100Oxford Plasmalab 100: Highly flexible plasma etcher toselectively etch III-V group and ...
PLASMA ETCHING OXFORD PLASMALAB 100Oxford Plasmalab 100: Highly flexible plasma etcher toselectively etch III-V group and ...
PLASMA ETCHING ICPMetal Etcher-Unaxis SHUTTLELINE ICPChlorine-based system utilizing BoronTrichloride and Chlorine to etch...
PLASMA ETCHING SAMCO RIE200iPManufacturer: SAMCO InternationalClassification: Dry EtchEquipment: Inductively coupled plasm...
EQUIPMENT     METROLOGY AND INSPECTION     SAMI UR REHMAN (sami-94       rehman.blogspot.com)
SURFACE PROFILER   Tencor Sono Gauge 300For single point measurement of Wafer thickness, Aluminum film thickness and Sheet...
PARAMETER ANALYSER    HP 4145B Semiconductor Parameter AnalyzerSpecs                          $4,500•   In/Out Ports : 8• ...
PROBE STATION    Signatone S-1160 Manual probe stationSpecs•   Microscope of 10x to 70x magnification           $5,500•   ...
STRESS MEASUREMENT SYSTEM   Film Stress Measurement System SMSi 3800Measure the change of curvature induced in a sample du...
WET BENCHAmerimade 8ft Polypro Wet BenchConstruction: Polypro wet bench- Length: 8ft                              $10,000-...
WET BENCHJST 4ft Stainless Steel Wet BenchModel: JST STA00115- Overall Length: 4ft- Dimensions: 48"x50"x82" (LxWxH)- All t...
MICROSCOPESAMERICAN OPTICAL STEREO ZOOM MICROSCOPE 7X - 42XUnit Price             $ 525.00Number of Units        1Manufact...
MICROSCOPES  OLYMPUS GSWH20X/12.5Unit Price          $ 3,000.00Number of Units     1Manufacturer        OlympusModel      ...
• Shipment Cost                       not includedCost Model           • Most                       Equipment are         ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Fab presentaion

1,873

Published on

Compound Semiconductor Wafer Processing Facility

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,873
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
99
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Fab presentaion"

  1. 1. WAFER PROCESSING EQUIPMENT AND CLEAN ROOM INVENTORYFOR A RESEARCH BASED IC FABRICATION FACILITY SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) 1 SAMI UR REHMAN
  2. 2. Difference between Si wafer processingand compound (III/V) wafer processing Oxidation Silicon has a natural oxide while compound semiconductors SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) do not (deposition required). Compound semiconductor requires epitaxial deposition techniques which are quiet expensive! Stability Most of these compound semiconductors are not stable at high temperatures unlike Si. For Si, one would therefore make MOSFET kind of structures. 2
  3. 3. Difference between Si wafer processingand compound (III/V) wafer processing Lattice Constants The first and principal difference between a Si and a GaAs substrate is the respective lattice SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) constants. Crystalline materials (thin films) which will be deposited on top of such substrates will have to take this into account. Etching Compound semiconductors like GaAs also requires a complex Chlorine based etch process unlike Si (F based etch). 3
  4. 4. WHAT IS A CLEAN ROOM?• A clean-room or clean room is an environment, typically used in manufacturing and scientific research, that has a low level of environmental pollutants such as dust, airborne microbes, aerosol particles and chemical vapors (Wikipedia) SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)• What matters is Particle size and particle number• The standard is called: FED-STD-209 E• This standard was cancelled on Nov 2011• Standardizing Agency: U.S. General Services Administration (GSA)• Replaced by ISO 14644-1 4
  5. 5. CLEAN ROOMCLEAN ROOM STANDARDS SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)Particle Counters are used to determine the air quality by counting and sizing thenumber of particles in the air.This information is useful in determining the amount of particles inside a building or 5in the ambient air It also is useful in understanding the cleanliness level in a controlled environment.
  6. 6. Cost Analysis• Quotations have been sent• SANCO• Rough estimates of the equipment have been obtained from: SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) 6
  7. 7. CLEAN ROOMPARTICLE COUNTERS Manufacturer Capovani Brothers Inc Model PARTICLE MEASURMENT SYSTEMS LPS A-310 Price $ 7,350.00 (each) Year of 2001 Manufacture Dimensions Width8.750 in (22.2 cm) Depth18.000 in (45.7 cm) H SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) eight7.000 in (17.8 cm) Weight 30 lb (14 kg) Accessories/Othe Maximum Number of Channels =4 r Information Channel Sizes= 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 µm Light Source=HeNe Multimode, Passive Cavity 7 $7,350
  8. 8. CLEAN ROOM PARTICLE COUNTERSManufacturer Pacific ScientificModel MET ONEPrice $ 4,250.00Year of 2001ManufactureDimensions Width13.000 in (33.0 cm) Depth12.000 in (30.5 cm) Heig SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) ht7.000 in (17.8 cm)Weight 30 lb (14 kg)Accessories/Other Part no.: 331-3-1-ALInformation Particle size: 0.3 to 10 Micron 8 $4,250
  9. 9. CLEAN ROOMAIR CONDITIONER/AIR FLOW CONTROLLER Manufacturer Air Control Inc. Model VLF CART Price $ 3,250.00 Year of Manufacture 1998 Dimensions Width 74.000 in (188.0 cm) SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Depth 21.000 in (53.3 cm) Height 74.000 in (188.0 cm) Weight 5,459 lb (2,476 kg) Accessories/Other Unit contains a 9W X 10H array of Information stainless steel cubicles (6.25"W x 4"H x 11"D) Blower: (2) EBMs STD 9 Prefilter #: (2) 16 x 20 x 1 $3,250 Hepa Filter #: (1) 18 x 48 x 3
  10. 10. CLEAN ROOMAIR CONDITIONER/AIR FLOW CONTROLLER Manufacturer Air Control Inc. Model AirPod Price Year of Manufacture Dimensions Width: AirPod I: 62.50”, AirPod II: 80.50”, AirPod III: 104.50” SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Height: 31.00” Depth: 31.00” Weight Weight (lbs): AirPod I: 312, AirPod II: 394, AirPod III: 455 Nominal Air flow: 2500 CFM (3/4 HP), 5000 CFM (3HP), Accessories/Other 4000 CFM (3HP with AD after-filter). Information Blower Pkg (HP): AirPod I: 2-speed forward curve, direct drive; AirPod II & III: Dynamically balanced, non- sparking, motor/blowers. (Optional 2-speed motor/blower available for AirPod II.) 10 Electrical: AirPod I, standard: 115/1/60, 11.4 amps, 3/4 HP; AirPod II & III, standard: 208-230/460/3/60, 7.8- 7.2/4 amps, 3 HP; optional: 230/1/60 11.7 amps, 3 HP. $3,000
  11. 11. IC FABRICATION PHILOSOPHY! Adding impurities in Adding layer onto wafer! wafer! SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Deposition Implantation Removing an added layer! Photolithography 11 Etching
  12. 12. III/V Group ingot productionSimilar to the silicon ingot growth process, elementalforms of III and V group elements, plus small quantities Quartz Tubeof dopant material-silicon, Rotating Chucktellurium or zinc-are reacted at SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Seed Crystalelevated temperatures to Growing Crystal (boule)form ingots of doped single-crystal III/V material like GaAs. RF or Resistance Heating Coils Molten Silicon (Melt) 12 Crucible
  13. 13. Photomask Creation • The photomask is a copy of the circuit pattern, drawn on a glass plate coated with a metallic film. • The glass plate lets light pass, but the metallic film does not. • Due to increasingly high integration and SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) miniaturization of the pattern, the size of the photomask is usually magnified four to ten times the actual size. 13
  14. 14. PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY Wafer processing consists of a sequence of additive and subtractive steps with patterning!!!!! oxidation deposition etching lithography ion implantation SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)Lithography refers to the process of transferring a circuit pattern, embedded on a mask, to the surface of the waferEquipment, materials, and processes needed:• A mask (for each layer to be patterned) with the desired pattern• A light-sensitive material (called photoresist) covering the wafer so as to receive the pattern• A light source and method of projecting the image of the mask onto the photoresist (“printer” or “projection stepper” or “projection scanner”)• A method of “developing” the photoresist, that is selectively removing it from the 14 regions where it was exposed Photolithography is a process analogous to developing film in a darkroom
  15. 15. PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY STEPS• 1 # PRE BAKE THE WAFER Wafer is preheated to about 200 - 250 degrees C in a bake oven. The purpose of this step is to ensure that the wafer is completely dry. Any moisture on the wafer surface would interfere with the photolithography process, causing it to yield SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) poor results. 15
  16. 16. PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY STEPS• 2 # PHOTORESIST APPLICATION AND SPINNING• The wafer is placed on the wafer chuck in the center of the Photoresist Spinner. After properly adjusting the wafer on the spinner, photo resist material is applied onto the surface of the wafer and is spun so that photo resist evenly distributes SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) on the wafer• Using the Nitrogen Gun, now the wafer surface is Blown to remove any dust particles. 16
  17. 17. PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY STEPSPhotoresist Raw Materials http://www.mitsuichemicals.com/photoresist.htm SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) 17
  18. 18. PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY STEPSPhoto resist properties http://www.cleanroom.byu.edu/photoresists.phtml SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) 18
  19. 19. Photoresist Spin Coater PR Wafer SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) EBR Water Sleeve Chuck Drain Exhaust Vacuum 19
  20. 20. Photoresist Applying PR dispenser nozzle SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Chuck Spindle To vacuum pump 20
  21. 21. Photoresist Suck Back PR dispenser nozzle PR suck back SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Chuck Spindle To vacuum pump 21
  22. 22. Photoresist Spin Coating PR dispenser nozzle PR suck back SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Chuck Spindle To vacuum pump 22
  23. 23. Photoresist Spin Coating PR dispenser nozzle PR suck back SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Chuck Spindle To vacuum pump 23
  24. 24. Photoresist Spin Coating PR dispenser nozzle PR suck back SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Chuck Spindle To vacuum pump 24
  25. 25. Photoresist Spin Coating PR dispenser nozzle PR suck back SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Chuck Spindle To vacuum pump 25
  26. 26. Photoresist Spin Coating PR dispenser nozzle PR suck back SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Chuck Spindle To vacuum pump 26
  27. 27. Photoresist Spin Coating PR dispenser nozzle PR suck back SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Chuck Spindle To vacuum pump 27
  28. 28. Photoresist Spin Coating PR dispenser nozzle PR suck back SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Chuck Spindle To vacuum pump 28
  29. 29. Photoresist Spin Coating PR dispenser nozzle PR suck back SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Chuck Spindle To vacuum pump 29
  30. 30. Photoresist Spin Coating PR dispenser nozzle PR suck back SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Chuck Spindle To vacuum pump 30
  31. 31. Edge Bead Removal Solvent SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Chuck Spindle To vacuum pump 31
  32. 32. Edge Bead Removal Solvent SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Chuck Spindle To vacuum pump 32
  33. 33. Optical Edge Bead RemovalExposure Light source Light beam Photoresist SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Exposed Chuck Photoresist Spindle 33
  34. 34. PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY STEPS• 3 # SOFT BAKE• The wafer is placed into the Soft-Bake Oven for 30 minutes.• The purpose of the soft bake is to semi-harden SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) the photoresist 34
  35. 35. Methods of Soft Bake • Hot plates • Convection oven • Infrared oven SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) • Microwave oven 35
  36. 36. Baking Systems Wafer MW Source Photoresist SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Heater Heated N 2 Chuck Wafers Vacuum Wafer Heater Vacuum Hot plate Convection oven Microwave oven 36
  37. 37. Hot Plates • Widely used in the industry • Back side heating, no surface Wafer SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) “crust” Heater • In-line track system 37
  38. 38. PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY STEPS• 4 # EXPOSE TO UV LIGHT• carefully place the wafer on the wafer chuck of the Aligner• When the wafer has been properly aligned to the mask, expose it to UV light SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)• the exposure time should be set according to the particular type of photo resist and wattage of the bulb being used. 38
  39. 39. Alignment Gate Mask SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Photoresist Polysilicon n+ n+ P-Well 39
  40. 40. Exposure Gate Mask SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Photoresist Polysilicon n+ n+ P-Well 40
  41. 41. Ready for Post Exposure Bake SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Photoresist Polysilicon n+ n+ P-Well 41
  42. 42. PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY STEPS• 5 # DEVELOPMENT• The type of developer solution used is determined by the type of photoresist chosen.• Then we check the developer for the recommended SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) development time. Typically, this will be around 30 seconds• Then the wafer is immersed in the developer and agitate mildly until the time has expired.• Finally the wafer is rinsed with ionized water 42
  43. 43. Schematic of a Spin Developer DI water Developer Wafer SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Water sleeve Chuck Drain Vacuum 43
  44. 44. Applying DevelopmentSolution Exposed Development solution Photoresist dispenser nozzle SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Chuck Spindle To vacuum pump 44
  45. 45. Applying DevelopmentSolution Exposed Photoresist SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Chuck Spindle To vacuum pump 45
  46. 46. Developer Spin OffEdge PR removed Patterned photoresist SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Chuck Spindle To vacuum pump 46
  47. 47. DI Water Rinse DI water dispenser nozzle SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Chuck Spindle To vacuum pump 47
  48. 48. Spin Dry SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Wafer Chuck Spindle To vacuum pump 48
  49. 49. Ready For Hard Bake Spindle Chuck Wafer SAMI UR REHMAN (sami-49 rehman.blogspot.com)
  50. 50. Development Profiles PR PR Substrate Substrate SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Normal Development Incomplete Development PR PR Substrate Substrate Under Development Over Development 50
  51. 51. Developer Solution• +PR normally uses weak base solution• The most commonly used one is SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) the tetramethyl ammonium hydride, or TMAH ((CH3)4NOH). 51
  52. 52. Developer Solutions Positive PR Negative PRDeveloper TMAH Xylene SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)Rinse DI Water n-Butylacetate 52
  53. 53. PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY STEPS• 6 # HARD BAKE THE WAFER• The wafer is placed into the Hard Bake oven now which should be preheated to between 120-130 degrees C.• The wafers should remain in the hard bake oven for 30 SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) minutes. This prepares the wafer for the next processing step. 53
  54. 54. Types of PhotoresistNegative Photoresist Positive Photoresist• Becomes insoluble • Becomes soluble SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) after exposure after exposure• When developed, • When developed, the unexposed the exposed parts parts dissolved. dissolved• Cheaper • Better resolution 54
  55. 55. Negative and Positive Photoresists Photoresist Substrate UV light Mask/reticle Photoresist SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Exposure Substrate Negative Photoresist Substrate After Positive Development Photoresist Substrate 55
  56. 56. Comparison of Photoresists SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) - PR + PR Film Film Substrate Substrate 56
  57. 57. Wafer In Hot Plate Spin Station Stepper SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Track Robot Developer Hot Plate dispenser Track 57
  58. 58. Pre-bake and Primer VaporCoating Hot Plate Spin Station Stepper SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Track Robot Developer Hot Plate dispenser Track 58
  59. 59. Photoresist Spin Coating Hot Plate Spin Station Stepper SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Track Robot Developer Hot Plate dispenser Track 59
  60. 60. Soft Bake Hot Plate Spin Station Stepper SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Track Robot Developer Hot Plate dispenser Track 60
  61. 61. Alignment and Exposure Hot Plate Spin Station Stepper SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Track Robot Developer Hot Plate dispenser Track 61
  62. 62. Post Exposure Bake (PEB) Hot Plate Spin Station Stepper SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Track Robot Developer Hot Plate dispenser Track 62
  63. 63. Development Hot Plate Spin Station Stepper SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Track Robot Developer Hot Plate dispenser Track 63
  64. 64. Hard Bake Hot Plate Spin Station Stepper SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Track Robot Developer Hot Plate dispenser Track 64
  65. 65. Wafer out Hot Plate Spin Station Stepper SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Track Robot Developer Hot Plate dispenser Track 65
  66. 66. Resolution• The achievable, repeatable minimum feature size• Determined by the wavelength of SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) the light and the numerical aperture of the system. The resolution can be expressed as 66
  67. 67. Resolution K1 R NA SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)• K1 is the system constant  is the wavelength of the light NA = 2 ro/D, is the numerical aperture 67
  68. 68. Numerical Aperture• NA is the ability of a lens to collect diffracted light• NA = 2 r0 / D SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) – r0 : radius of the lens – D = the distance of the object from the lens• Lens with larger NA can capture higher order of diffracted light and generate sharper image. 68
  69. 69. To Improve Resolution• Increase NA • Larger lens, could be too expensive and unpractical • Reduce DOF and cause fabrication difficulties SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)• Reduce wavelength • Need develop light source, PR and equipment • Limitation for reducing wavelength • UV to DUV, to EUV, and to X-Ray 69
  70. 70. Depth of focus• The range that light is in focus and can achieve good resolution of projected image• Depth of focus can be expressed as: SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) K 2 DOF  2 2( NA) 70
  71. 71. Depth of Focus • Smaller numerical aperture, larger DOF • Disposable cameras with very small lenses • Almost everything is in focus • Bad resolution SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) • Prefer reduce wavelength than increase NA to improve resolution • High resolution, small DOF • Focus at the middle of PR layer 71
  72. 72. Photolithography MASK ALLIGNER Karl Suss MA-6 Mask Aligner $69,000DescriptionCan handle Si and Compoundsemiconductor wafers SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)Up to 6"in size240 nm to 365 nm wavelength.1:1 exposure systemMaximum wafer thickness:4.3mmAlignment accuracy of +-0.5um 72
  73. 73. Photolithography MASK ALLIGNERMask-aligner EV-420Description SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)Contact mask-aligner foroptical lithographyDouble side exposureLamp power: 350 WIllumination spectrum: nofilters 73
  74. 74. Photolithography MASK ALLIGNER Manufacturer SussMicrotec Model BLE RESPECT 600 Weight 880 lb (399 kg) Accessories/ Other Specifications 400 V 16 A 50 HzSystem features SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Programmable controller PC with windows NT4SP6 andapplications program Respect1.0b0087/1.1b0002 Touch screen RS 232 Interface Vacuum monitoring External cabinet exhaustconnection Automatic exhaust control 74 Media control panel Silicon and compound semiconductor wafers
  75. 75. Photolithography SPINNERS Solitec 5100 LVT $30,000•Provides spin processing of single wafers/substrates of up to 225mm diagonal•Tools for loading and centering for: 4 inch (100 mm) substrate 2 inch (50 mm) substrate SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Solitic is the main manufacturer of this equipment, Various models from the same Company shown below 75
  76. 76. Photolithography BAKE OVENSYes 450pb ovenDescription:The 450PB is a high temperature vacuum oven using a programmable temperaturecontroller and programmed vacuum and nitrogen flow cycles for curing of polyimide films. The unit features filtered heated nitrogen purging from the entire surface of the roof SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)through the floor of the chamber. This flow acts to clean the wafers during the process. $22,500SpecsCapacity: Up to two boats of 6inch wafersRamp: 8°C/minCool-down: 1-2°C/min 76Max Temperature: 400°CIdle Temperature: 50°C
  77. 77. WAFER PROCESSING • CVD • PECVD Deposition • PVD • SPUTTERING • EVAPORATION • MBE SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) • DRY ETCHING Etching • WET ETCHING Ion • DIFFUSION • ANNEALING implantation 77
  78. 78. CHEMICAL VAPOR DESPOSITIONChemical Vapor Deposition is the formation of anon-volatile solid film on a substrate by the reactionof vapor phase chemicals (reactants) that contain the SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)required constituents. 78
  79. 79. CHEMICAL VAPOR DESPOSITION• Gases to be reacted are entered into the CVD chamber and react to produce the desired material to be deposited on the wafer under extremely high temperature. SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)• Wafer temp is cooler than the furnace• Changing the reacting gases we can produce any material to be deposited 79
  80. 80. PECVD• PECVD uses two electrodes one of which contains the wafer• A strong electric field b/w the electrodes ignites the plasma which decomposes the reactant SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) gases into the material to be deposited on the wafer substrate. 80
  81. 81. SPUTTERING• High energy plasma knocks metal atoms out of its crystalline structure and are deposited on the wafer substrate!• Mainly used for SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) creating metal contacts (Aluminum, Titanium etc) 81
  82. 82. SPUTTERING PVD75 RF SputtererDescription•The RF sputterer can be used to deposit many dielectrics.•Sputter two or more dissimilar materials simultaneously•for complete control of film stoichiometry (co-deposition)•Integrated touch screen control SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)•Single substrate up to 12" diameter•Multiple substrate up to 4" diameter•Substrate fixture rotation up to 20rpm $60,000 82
  83. 83. SPUTTERINGARC-12M sputtering systemGases available: Ar, O2 & N2 - DC sputtering power source: 2 x250W $55,000 - RF sputtering power source: 600W at SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)13.56MHz - Chamber pressure: 5x10-6 torr- Substrate size: 2”, 4” wafer or squareglass, or specimen- Targets available: Ag, Al, Al/Si (1%), Au,Cu, Cr, Hf, Mo, Pt, SnO2, SiN, Ti, TiW 83 http://www.mff.ust.hk/Eq_Sputter.htm
  84. 84. SPUTTERING CVC DC Sputterer Description The DC sputterer is used to coat samples with metals. Metal coatings are usually performed with this sputterer or with the CVC E-Beam evaporator. -Process wafers/substrates up to 6" -Computer-controlled planetary system for uniform deposition -Two 3" and two 8" sputter SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) gunsCapabilitiesDeposition - Metal Deposition - AluminumChromium- CopperGoldIronNickel $55,000 toPalladium 110,000 84PlatinumRuthenium
  85. 85. EVAPORATION• Metal atom to be deposited are held in a tungsten coil which carries huge currents• The metal evaporates under intense heat and finally deposits on a relatively cooler wafer. SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) 85
  86. 86. EPITAXIAL DEPOSITIONTHERMAL EVAPORATORS• Denton SJ20C• SOURCE: University of UTAH• Description• 4 source hearth SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)• Film thickness monitor/deposition controller $30,000 86
  87. 87. EPITAXIAL DEPOSITIONMOLECULAR BEAM EPITAXY SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) http://department.fzu.cz/surfaces/mbe/soubory/mbe/mbe_method.htm The MBE process during the epilayer growth on GaAs substrate. Typical working temperatures of the effusion cells : Ga ~1000oC, Al ~1100oC, As ~300oC, Be ~900oC, Si ~1100oC. 87
  88. 88. WET ETCHING• Various mixtures of wet-chemical acid solutions are used for wet etching.• The primary acids used are sulphuric , hydrofluoric (HF), hydrochloric (HCl) and phosphoric . As in silicon processing, hydrogen peroxide is used with sulphuric SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) acid, and ammonium hydroxide provides a caustic etch.• A cyanide solution (sodium or potassium) is also used for etching aluminium.• As an alternative to wet etching, a plasma etching and process is used.• The reactor configurations and reactant gases are very similar to those utilized in silicon device processing. 88
  89. 89. PLASMA ETCHING• In this form of etching, plasma is used to produce chemically reactive gases which are then made to react with the material to be etched on the wafer substrate! SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) 89
  90. 90. PLASMA ETCHING OXFORD PLASMALAB 100Oxford Plasmalab 100: Highly flexible plasma etcher toselectively etch III-V group and metals on planar substratesup to 200mm in diameter under variable temperatures.Applications:High-temperature InP etching SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)Physical milling of most III-V semiconductorsReactive etching of III-V semiconductorsReactive etching of metalsExample Use:III-V material and Metals etch 90
  91. 91. PLASMA ETCHING OXFORD PLASMALAB 100Oxford Plasmalab 100: Highly flexible plasma etcher toselectively etch III-V group and metals on planar substratesup to 200mm in diameter under variable temperatures.Applications:High-temperature InP etching SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)Physical milling of most III-V semiconductorsReactive etching of III-V semiconductorsReactive etching of metalsExample Use: $29,000III-V material and Metals etch 91
  92. 92. PLASMA ETCHING ICPMetal Etcher-Unaxis SHUTTLELINE ICPChlorine-based system utilizing BoronTrichloride and Chlorine to etch metals $120,000and III-V group materials on planarsubstrates up to 150mm in diameter.ICP: 2.0 MHz 2500W SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)RF: 13.56 MHz 300WGases: Cl2, Ar, BCl3, SF6, O2Applications:Anisotropic etching of metal filmsEtches Chromium, Aluminum, and otherChlorine-based etchable metalsOther materials etchable by SF6, Ar, andO2 92Demonstrated Use: Al, Cr and GaAsquantum dots and SiC etch
  93. 93. PLASMA ETCHING SAMCO RIE200iPManufacturer: SAMCO InternationalClassification: Dry EtchEquipment: Inductively coupled plasmaetching SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)Uses:Etching of InP, GaAs, and other III-Vcompounds, SiNx, SiO2, and photoresistEtch gases Cl2, SiCl4, BCl3, Ar, CF4, CHF3,and O2http://www.princeton.edu/mnfl/the-tool-list/samco-rie200ip/ 93
  94. 94. EQUIPMENT METROLOGY AND INSPECTION SAMI UR REHMAN (sami-94 rehman.blogspot.com)
  95. 95. SURFACE PROFILER Tencor Sono Gauge 300For single point measurement of Wafer thickness, Aluminum film thickness and Sheet resistance of metal film. Wafer Diameter : 3”, 4”, 5” and 6” Substrate Thickness : 250-700 μm SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Sheet Resistance : 1 to 1999 Ω/sq. $6,800 Minimum Metal Film Thickness : 100Å 95
  96. 96. PARAMETER ANALYSER HP 4145B Semiconductor Parameter AnalyzerSpecs $4,500• In/Out Ports : 8• Source/Monitor Unit : 4• Voltage Source : 2 SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)• Voltage Monitor : 2• Voltage Resolution : 1 mV• Current Resolution : 1 pA• Maximum Voltage : 100 V• Measurement Function : DC current through voltage-biased or current-biased devices 96
  97. 97. PROBE STATION Signatone S-1160 Manual probe stationSpecs• Microscope of 10x to 70x magnification $5,500• 4 Micropositioners in S-926 series• X-Y-Z motion : 254 microns per knob revolution SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)• Tip diameter : 4 microns• Vacuum chuck• Max. accept a 6”wafer• Temperature from room temp. to 300℃ 97
  98. 98. STRESS MEASUREMENT SYSTEM Film Stress Measurement System SMSi 3800Measure the change of curvature induced in a sample due to thedeposited film on a reflected substrate.Measure 1-D stress and produce 3-D topographical profile Specs• Wafer size : 2” to 8” SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)• Thickness Limit : less than 11 mm• Statistical process control and spreadsheet compatibility• Automatic segmentation calculation $3,500 98
  99. 99. WET BENCHAmerimade 8ft Polypro Wet BenchConstruction: Polypro wet bench- Length: 8ft $10,000- Teflon Heated Bath Tanks (Qty 3):a. can handle up to 6" wafersb. Dims: 7"x10"x10" (WxDxH)c. Immersion heater at bottom of tankd. Temperature controllers for each tank SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)- Teflon Static Bath Tank (Qty 1):a. can handle up to 6" wafersb. Dims: 7"x10"x10" (WxDxH)c. Immersion heater at bottom of tankd. Temperature controllers for each tank- Teflon Rinse Sinks (Qty 2):a. Dims: 5.5"x9"x5" (WxDxH) DI Spray Gun- 1 Amerimade Bath Timer 99- 2 Photohelic Exhaust Monitors- 5 Tank Fill Buttons- 4 Alarm Buttons
  100. 100. WET BENCHJST 4ft Stainless Steel Wet BenchModel: JST STA00115- Overall Length: 4ft- Dimensions: 48"x50"x82" (LxWxH)- All tanks sized for single 4"/100mm cassette- All tanks programmed via PLC controller- Automatic wafer handling (cassette) via robot- Heated Recirculating Stainless Steel Tank: SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)a. Tank is heated and recirculatingb. White Knight Pneumatic Pumpc. Tank Lidd. Tank dimensions: 7.5"x7.25"x15" (LxWxH)e. Condenser- Quick Dump Rinse (QDR) Tank:a. Dimensions: 7.5"x7.5"x5" (LxWxH) $10,000b. Controlled via PLC controllerc. Tank Lid 100- Static Stainless Steel Tank:a. Tank dimensions: 7.5" x 7.5" x 7" (LxWxH)b. On/Off Drain
  101. 101. MICROSCOPESAMERICAN OPTICAL STEREO ZOOM MICROSCOPE 7X - 42XUnit Price $ 525.00Number of Units 1Manufacturer American OpticalModel 570 SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com)Binocular Angle 45°Eyepieces Magnification 10 XMagnification Range 7 X - 42 XZoom Range 0.7 X - 4.2 XIllumination Type NoneStand Type None 101Condition Very Good $525
  102. 102. MICROSCOPES OLYMPUS GSWH20X/12.5Unit Price $ 3,000.00Number of Units 1Manufacturer OlympusModel SZ1145 CHIBinocular Angle 45°Eyepieces SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) Model GSWH20X/12.5 Magnification 20 X Field Number 12 mm Focusing YESMagnification 36 X - 220 XRangeZoom Range 1.8 X - 11.0 XIllumination Type CoaxialStand Type Incident Light (Type A) 102 $3000
  103. 103. • Shipment Cost not includedCost Model • Most Equipment are US $ 350,750 used• HR cost: US $ 14,000 / year• Minimum Equipment cost: US $ 336,750 SAMI UR REHMAN (sami- rehman.blogspot.com) 103
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×