LAXMI INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL A WORKSHOP ON ENGLISH PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGYDESIGNED BY: SAMIRA LAKHANI TEACHER EDUCATOR
What will we learn today?? Basic concepts in English phonetics. Get an understanding of various speech sounds in English. Production of speech sound. Video-1
English Pronunciation We use the term ‘accents’ to refer to differences in pronunciations. Pronunciation can vary with cultures, regions and speakers. There are two major standard varieties in English pronunciation: British English and American English. Within British English and American English there are also a variety of accents. Some of them have received more attention than others from phoneticians and phonologists. These are Received pronunciation (RP)* and General American (GA). “c” in “cat” pronounced as /k/; and “face” pronounced as /s/
What is phonetics? Phonetics – word derived from the Greek word phone = sound/voice. It is a fundamental branch of Linguistics. It is the study of Speech sounds. It has three main sub-aspects.1. how they’re produced (articulatory phonetics)2. their physical characteristics (acoustic phonetics) and3. how they’re perceived (auditory phonetics).
Articulatory Phonetics It describes how vowels and consonants are produced or “articulated” in various parts of the mouth and throat
Acoustic Phonetics It’s a study of how speech sounds are transmitted: when sound travels through the air from the speakers mouth to the hearers ear it does so in the form of vibrations in the air.
Auditory Phonetics It’s a study of how speech sounds are perceived: looks at the way in which the hearer’s brain decodes the sound waves back into the vowels and consonants originally intended by the speaker. ESL- video
PhonologyThe study of the sound patterns in languages Phonemes (vowels and consonants) Prosody (stress, rhythm and intonation) 8
Morphology The study of the structure of words1. Why- scooter with ‘c’ not ‘k’?2. knight – why ‘k’ is silent? 9
Syntax The study of the ways in which words combine into units such as Phrase, Clause and Sentence [grammar]. 10
Semantics The study of the meaning of words and sentences, their denotations, connotations, implications and ambiguities 11
Why it is difficult tolearn correct English???
CHALLENGES IN LEARNING PHONETICSINABILITY THE FIRST TO LANGUAGE HEAR INTERFERES WITH ENGLISH CERTAIN PRONUNCIATION SOUNDS
The Sounds of English and TheirRepresentation In English, there is no one-to-one relation between the system of writing and the system of pronunciation. The alphabet which we use to write English has 26 letters but in (Standard British) English there are approximately 44 speech sounds. The number of speech sounds in English varies from dialect to dialect, and any actual tally depends greatly on the interpretation of the researcher doing the counting. To represent the basic sound of spoken languages linguists use a set of phonetic symbols called the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).
Difference of written alphabets andoral speech sounds in English Oral WrittenPure Vowels [short 12vowels] 5Diphthongs [long 8vowels]Consonants 24 21 15
English is not a phonographic language Many same sounds have several different spellings, e.g. go, though, foe, slow, boat Many “same spellings” have different sounds, e.g. <ough>: though, cough, bough, through, thought, and enough. 16
Let’s also understand!Homophones Homonyms A word that has same A word that has both the pronunciation but spelling same pronunciation and and meaning differ. same spelling but meaning E.g. air/heir differs. Bare/bear e.g. Bill- beak/statement of charges. Not/knot Fair – just/place of No/know entertainment Son/sun piece/peace
Classifying the Consonants Sounds of English According to the manner of articulation (how the breath is used) - During production of these sounds, the airflow from the lungs is completelyStops blocked at some point, then released. In English, they are /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/,/Plosives/ and /g/. The flow of air is constricted, but not totally stopped or blocked. In English,Fricatives these include /f/, /v/, / /, / /, /s/, /z/, / /, / /, and /h/. These sounds begin like stops, with a complete blockage of air/closure of theAffricates vocal tract, and end with a restricted flow of air like fricatives. English has two affricates - the / / sounds of "church" and the / / of "judge". Nasals are sounds made with air passing through the nose. In English, theseNasals are /m/, /n/, and / /. Lateral consonants allow the air to escape at the sides of the tongue. InLaterals English there is only one such sound - /l/ In the production of an approximant, one articulator is close to another, but the vocal tract is not narrowed to such an extent that a turbulent airstream isApproximants produced. In English, these are /j/, /w/ and /r/. Approximants /j/ and /w/ are also referred to as semi-vowels.
According to the place of articulation(where in the mouth or throat the soundis produced) the consonants are:Bilabial: with both lips /p/, /b/, /m/Labiodental: between lower lip and upper /f/, /v/teethDental/Interdental: between the teeth / /, / /Alveolar: the ridge behind the upper front /t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/,teeth /l/, /r/Alveo-palatal (or post-alveolar): it is the / /, / /, / /, /area betweenthe alveolar ridge and the hard palate /Palatal: hard palate, or roof of the mouth /j/Velar: the soft palate or velum /k/, /g/, / /Glottal (laryngeal): space between the vocal /h/cords
Some tips…remember A word in isolation and in a sentence spoken differently, so Don’t be influenced by English spelling!! Video-2Refer the below web link for more practice onphonetics: http://www.cambridgeenglishonline.com/Ph onetics_Focus/