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Teaching reading
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  • 1. Teaching reading
  • 2. Some significant issues affecting on teaching reading skills: A. Bottom-up & top-down processing in bottom-up the reader must first recognize a multiplicity of linguistic signals (letters, morpheme, syllables, words…) & use their own linguistic data processing to impose some sort of order on these signals (datadriven , field -independent)
  • 3. In top-down we draw on our intelligence & experience to understand a text.(conceptually -driven) B. schema theory & background knowledge The reader brings information ,knowledge, emotion ,experiences & culture to the printed word. Content schemata :include what we know about people,the world,the culture, the universe. Formal schemata: consist of our knowledge about discourse structure.
  • 4. D. The power of extensive reading Extensive reading :reading for getting the general idea ,reading for pleasure Krashen ,Day , Bamford believe that extensive reading is a key to students gains in reading ability ,linguistic competence, vocabulary, spelling. E. The role of affect & culture
  • 5. F. The role of cognition in reading H. Effective techniques for activating schemata Types of written language: * Nonfiction : reports, essays, articles Fiction :novels, short stories ,jokes,
  • 6. Characteristics of written language 1. Permanence spoken language is fleeting. Written language is permanent. 2. Processing time In writing ,the writer has more processing time to write. In spoken we have less time to speak.
  • 7. 3) Distance The written word allows messages to be sent across two dimensions : physical distance Temporal distance  The reader should interpret language that was written in other place at other time & with only the written words as contextual clues.
  • 8. 4. Orthography In spoken language we have stress,rhythm, juncture, intonation, pauses, voice quality & nonverbal cues as help In writing we have only graphemes & sometimes pictures ,punctuation as help. Most of irregularity in English manifests in high frequency words. In English, there are many bases that are written the same .
  • 9. 5. Complexity Spoken language tends to have shorter clauses connected by more coordinate ,conjunctions, while writing has longer clauses more subordination. (the shorter clauses are often a factor of the redundancy we build into speech.) 6. Vocabulary In writing ,lower frequency words often appear than spoken because more processing time that exist in written language. Formality Writing is quite frequently more formal than speech. 7.
  • 10. Strategies for reading comprehension  Identifying the purpose By identifying he purpose in reading ,we know what we are looking for & can weed out distracting information.  Use graphemic rules &patterns to aid in bottom _up processing It is useful for beginners and children ,non _literate adults. e.g. Bit/kit/pet bite/kite/pete
  • 11.  Use efficient silent reading for rapid comprehension • we don't need to pronounce each word to our self • Try to visually perceive more than one word time preferably phrases • Unless a word is absolutely to global understanding ,skip over it and try to infer its meaning from I’s context  Skim the text for main ideas Skimming consists of quickly running ones eyes across a whole text for it’s gist. Skimming gives readers the advantage of being able to predict the purpose of the passage.
  • 12.  Scan the text for specific information Scanning is quickly searching for some particular piece of information in a text.  Use semantic mapping or clustering  Guess when you are not certain. Not haphazard guessing Use compensation strategy Use contextual clues
  • 13.  Analyze vocabulary • • • • Look for suffixes Look for prefixes Look for roots that are familiar. Look for grammatical contexts that may have signal information  Distinguish between literal & implied meaning This requires the application of top down processing skills  Capitalize on discourse markers to process the relationship Clear comprehension of discourse markers can enhance learners reading efficiency
  • 14. Reading classroom performance Oral reading Silent reading Intensive Linguistic content Extensive scanning global skimming
  • 15. 1. Oral reading a. Server as an evaluative check on bottom –up processing skills. b. Double as a pronunciation check , c. Serve to add some extra student participation if you want to highlight a certain short segment of a reading passage
  • 16. 2. Silent reading(Intensive and extensive reading) Intensive reading :a classroom-orinented activiy in which students focus on the linguistic or semantic details of a message Extensive reading: is carried to out achieve a general understanding of a longer text. It is performed outside of class time
  • 17. Principles for designing interactive reading techniques: 1. In an interactive curriculum ,make sure that you don't overlook the importance of specific instruction in reading skills ESL literate learners can use their own devices in learning reading e.g. silent reading is excellent method to self instruction
  • 18. 2. Use techniques that are intrinsically motivating We as teachers should pay attention to  students’intersts & their goals in learning to read English. Language experience approach Offering opportunities for learners to gauage their progress through perodic instructor and self – assessments
  • 19. 3. Balance between authencitiy and readability Use authentic simple texts in the real world. Nuttall offered 3 criteria for choosing texts for students:  Suitability:  Exploitability  Readability 4. Encourage the development of reading strategies 5. Include both bottom-up &top-down techniques
  • 20. 6. Subdivide your techniques into pre-reading,during reading &post reading Pre reading: spend some time introducing atopic ,encouraging skimming, scanning, predicting and activating schemata and students’ curiosity. During reading: we can give students some questions and goals that the students should find them in the reading text Post reading: We can ask students to do some tasks after reading
  • 21. 7. Follow the SQ3R A. Survey: skim the text for an overview of main ideas. B. Question: the reader asks questions about what he or she wishes to get out of the text. C. Read :Read the text while looking for answers to the previously formulated questions D. Recite: reprocess the salient points of the text through oral or written Language E .Review: Assess the importance of what one has just read& incorporate it into long term association
  • 22. 8. Build in some evaluative aspect to your techniques Reading is totally unobservable.  Duplicating  Answering  Doing  Conversing  Transferring  choosing