Grammar translation method
Classical method/ prussian method
A . Theory of language
There is no linguistic theory supporting GTM.
B . Theory of learning
GTM follows faculty psychology.
C .The goal of GTM
The learners be able to read literature written in the target
The mother tongue is the medium of instruction
Accuracy is emphasized
There is little or no attention on speaking or listening.
Memorization of bilingual word lists
Reading of difficult classical text is begun early.
E. CRTICAL OVERVIEWS of GTM
1. It is theoryless.(Richards &Rogers)
2. It does nothing to enhance a student
communicative ability in language(Brown)
3. Use of disconnected sentences.
The direct method
It was developed by Berlitz . simulating the natural way in which children learn the first
A . The goal of direct method
The students should be able to think in the target language.
The students should be able to communicate in the target language.
B .theories of language and language learning
There is no theory that support this method.
B . Designs
Target language is a medium of instruction.
Every day vocabulary and sentences were taught.
Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.
Both speech and listening comprehension were taught.
Concrete vocabulary was taught by demonstration ,objects , pictures.(teacher
demonstrates not translate)
Concrete vocabulary was taught by demonstration
,objects , pictures.(teacher demonstrates not translate)
C . Critical overview of direct method
1. It was difficult to implement in public education
because of high prices , small class and native teacher
2. It lacked a rigorous basis in applied linguistic theory ,
for this reason it was criticized by the proponents of
3. It required teacher who were native speaker or native
like fluency in TL.(Brown believes its success may
have been more a factor of the skill or personality of
the teacher than of the methodology itself.
Oral approach or situational
A . Theory of language
A British version of structuralism which argues for a close
relationship between language structure and the context in
which it is used, they believe that speech is the basis of
B. Theory of language learning
Behaviorism or habit learning theory
(there are many similarities between Situational Language
Teaching & Audiolingualism)
C. The goal of oral approach
The objective is to provide the learner with a practical command of
four language skills along with accuracy in grammar
• Inductive grammar
• Errors are avoided
• Accuracy in both pronunciation and grammar
• Automatic control of basic structures and sentence
• Structural syllabus & a word list
• The medium of instruction is the TL
• Language teaching begins with the spoken language.
• Items of grammar are graded following the principle
that simple forms should be taught before complex
1. Chomsky had demonstrated that the structural
theories of language wee incapable of accounting for
the basic characteristic of language the creativity ,
the uniqueness of individual sentences.
2. British applied linguistic emphasized the need to
focus in language teaching on communicative
proficiency rather than on mere mastery of
The Audiolingual method
Army method/mim - mem method /michigan method
A. Theory of language
B. Theory of learning
Behaviorism : they cited learning forgin language is a
verbal behavior. e.g skinner said “w have no reason to
assume that verbal behavior differs in any
fundamental respect from non verbal behavior.
1.Goal of ALM
Grammar is taught inductively rather than
New material is presented in dialogue form.
Structures are sequenced by means of
Successful responses are reinforced.
Very little use of MT by teachers is permitted.
Vocabulary is limited and learned in context .
The main focus is on the pronunciation.
Use of different drills
1.It failed to teach long term communicative
2.The theoretical foundations of ALM were attacked
by chomsky’s theory of transformational grammar
. He rejected the structuralist approach and said
language is not a habit structure.
The community language learning
A . Theory of language and learning
Humanistic psychology .they believe language is a social process . It
engage the students as whole person both cognitive and affective
B. Counseling learning theory ; it combined the course of language
learning with the dynamics & principles of counselin
C. Goal of CLL
The students are considered as “learner_clients”
2. A relationship of trust & support is essential to the learning process
3. CLL does not use a conventional language syllabus.
Grammar & vocabulary are taught inductively.
Students apply the TL independently & without
translation when they feel confident enough.
1. It lacked a syllabus which make objectives unclear &
evaluation difficult to accomplish.
2. The focus on fluency rather than accuracy which may lead
to inadequate control of rammatical system of TL.
3. The teacher could become more non directive.
4. CLL has inductive strategy of learning.
It is well accepted that deductive learning is a viable
strategy of learning & the adults can benefit
from deductive as well as inductive.
5. The success of CLL depends on the translation
expertise of the counselor.
6. It can not be used for large class with different
native speakers & background.
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