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Critical Overview of Language Teaching Methods: Competency-Based Language Teaching Natural Approach Cooperative Language Learning
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Critical Overview of Language Teaching Methods: Competency-Based Language Teaching Natural Approach Cooperative Language Learning


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  • 1. Critical Overview of Language Teaching Methods: Competency-Based Language Teaching Natural Approach Cooperative Language Learning
  • 2. Competency-Based Language Teaching
  • 3. I. Background A. Competency-Based Education (CBE) B. Standards movement (in the United States) C. Graded objectives movement (in Britain) D. Functional and interactional view (Theory of language) E. Behavioristic view (Theory of learning) F. Mosaic approach (whole = sum of the parts)
  • 4. II. Objectives A. Teaching a set of outcomes derived from an analysis of tasks typically required of students in life role situations. (needs analysis) B. Enabling students to become autonomous individuals capable of coping with the demands of the world. (survival-oriented or work-related language teaching)
  • 5. III. Features A. Based on outcomes and outputs of learning B. Mastery learning C. Performance-based instruction (emphasis on overt behavior rather than onknowledge) D. Work-related E. Focus on successful functioning in society
  • 6. III. Features F. Focus on life skills. (empirical assessment of language required) G. Modularized instruction H. Ongoing assessment. (focus on CRT not NRT) I. Individualized, student-centered instruction
  • 7. IV. Advantages A. Focus on learner needs B. Allowing learners to choose relevant and useful competencies C. Mastering elements one at a time. (serial/mosaic approach) D. Teaching and testing specific and public competencies; hence the learner knows exactly what needs to be learned.
  • 8. V. Disadvantages A. Difficult to operationalize competencies B. Reductionistic approach C. Prescriptive D. Close to "banking" concept of Freire
  • 9. V. Disadvantages 1. Freire made distinction between two types of education: a. Banking concept of education (transmission model of education; person or learner is consumer) b. Problem-posing education (transformation model of education; person or learner is producer) 2. Freire was against banking concept.
  • 10. Natural Approach
  • 11. I. Background A. Natural approach & natural method 1. Similarities a. The tradition is a common one b. Naturalistic principles are conformed
  • 12. I. Background 2. Differences a. Unlike the natural method, natural approach places less emphasis on accurate production. b. In natural approach there is an emphasis on exposure or input rather than practice. c. In natural approach optimizing emotional preparedness for learning is taken for granted.
  • 13. I. Background B. Linguistics (Lexical items + Structures (I+1) + Message) C. Psychology 1. Acquisition/learning hypothesis 2. Monitor hypothesis a. Time b. Focus on form c. Knowledge of rules
  • 14. I. Background 3. The natural order hypothesis (Errors are signs of naturalistic developmental processes) 4. The input hypothesis a. It relates to acquisition b. Language is acquired by understanding input slightly beyond learners‘current level of competence (I+1) c. The ability to speak cannot be taught directly; speech emerges.
  • 15. I. Background d. If there is a sufficient quantity of comprehens input, I+1 will usually be provided automatically 5. The affective filter hypothesis a. Motivation b. Self-confidence c. Anxiety
  • 16. II. Objectives A. It is offered as a general set of principles applicable to a wide variety of situations, as in Communicative Language Teaching, specific objectives depend on learner needs and the skill and level being taught. B. It has the expectation that students will be able to function adequately in the target C. It is designed to develop basic language. communication skills, both oral and written.
  • 17. III. Features A. Topical syllabus 1. Listing some typical goals for language course a. Basic personal communication skills; oral b. Basic personal communication skills; written c. Academic learning skills; oral d. Academic learning skills; written
  • 18. III. Features 2. Specifying topics and situations a. Functions are derived naturally from the topics and situations. b. Content selection should aim to create a low affective filter. B. Syllabus suggestions not specification (needs analysis) C. Meaning-based (like CLT)
  • 19. III. Features D. Stress on vocabulary E. Language for communication F. Focus on listening and reading (comprehensible input) G. Speech emerges H. No correction of errors (natural-order hypothesis) I. No focus on teaching grammar explicitly
  • 20. III. Features J. Less focus on teacher monologue/ direct repetition/ accurate production K. Teacher should always speak in L2. L. Teacher as generator of input/ creator of relaxed atmosphere
  • 21. III. Features M. Learner roles (language acquirer as a processor of comprehensible input) 1. Pre-production stage 2. Early production stage 3. Speech emergent phase
  • 22. III. Features N. Use of commands (TPR) O. Realia and visual aids P. Group and pair work/ Role plays/ Games
  • 23. IV. Advantages A. Comprehension-based B. Relaxed atmosphere C. Needs analysis D. Meaning-based
  • 24. V. Disadvantages A. Evolutionary not revolutionary B. Generalizing from informal settings to formal ones C. Generally for beginners D. Focus only on input not output E. Subjectivity of 1 in L+1 F. Difficulty of distinguishing consciousness from sub-consciousness
  • 25. Cooperative Language Learning
  • 26. I. Background A. John Dewey (Building cooperation in learning into regular classrooms on a regular and systematic basis) B. Psychology 1. Piaget 2. Vygotsky 3. Bloom
  • 27. I. Background a. Devising the taxonomy of educational objectives b. Integrating the teaching of critical thinking (Question Matrix) C. Linguistics 1. Premise 1: We are born to talk. (Communication is the primary purpose of language) 2. Premise 2: Most talk is conversation.
  • 28. I. Background 3. Premise 3: Conversation is based on rules/ maxims. 4. Premise 4: One learns how these maxims are realized in L1 through casual everyday conversational interactions. 5. Premise 5: One learns how these maxims are realized in L2 through participation.
  • 29. II. Objectives A. To provide opportunities for naturalistic learning B. Fostering cooperation C. Developing critical thinking D. Developing communicative competence through socially structured interaction activities E. To enhance learner motivation and reduce learner stress
  • 30. II. Objectives F. To provide opportunities for learner to develop successful learning and communication strategies G. Raising the achievement of all students (gifted/ ungifted)
  • 31. III. Features A. Supporting structural, functional and interactional models B. Forms + function C. Cooperation not competition D. It is used in teaching content classes, ESP, fou skills, grammar and vocabulary. E. Learner as director of his learning
  • 32. III. Features F. Learner as tutors/ checkers/ recorders/ information sharers G. Teacher as facilitator 1. Helping students and groups as needs arise 2. Giving few commands and imposing less disciplinary control H. Group work
  • 33. III. Features 1. Types a. Formal cooperative learning groups (Lasting from one class period to several weeks) b. Informal cooperative learning groups (Lasting from a few minutes to the class period) c. Cooperative base groups (The whole term)
  • 34. III. Features 2. Key elements of successful group-based learning a. Positive interdependence (Building a spirit of mutual support within the group) b. Group formation c. Individual accountability
  • 35. III. Features d. Social skills e. Structuring and structures (Ways of organizing students' interaction) 3. Tasks a. Team practice from common input (Skills development and mastery of facts) (1). All students work on the same material. (2). It follows a traditional teacher-directed presentation.
  • 36. III. Features (3). Everyone in the group knows the answer and can explain how the answer was obtained. (4). Anyone may be called on to answer. (5). It is good for review and practice tests; each student will eventually do an assignment or take a test individually. b. Jigsaw (Differentiated but predetermined inputevaluation and synthesis of facts and opinions)
  • 37. III. Features (1). Each group member receives a different piece of the information. (2). Students regroup in topic groups. (expert group) (3). Students return to home groups. (jigsaw group) (4). Students synthesize the information.
  • 38. III. Features (5). Each student produces an assignment of part of a group project. (6). This method is useful in multileveled class. (7). Information-gap is jigsaw activity in the form of pair work.
  • 39. III. Features c. Cooperative projects (Topics or resources selected by studentsdiscovery learning) (1). Topics may be different for each group. (2). Students identify the subtopics for each group member and research the information. (3). Each group member plays a part in the presentation. (4). Each group presents to the whole class. (5). This method places emphasis on individualization.
  • 40. III. Features 4. Activities a. Three-step interview b. Round Table/ Round Robin c. Think-pair share d. Solve-pair share e. Numbered Heads
  • 41. IV. Advantages A. Generating interactive language B. Offering an embracing affective climate C. Promoting learner responsibility and autonomy D. Individualization (self-discovery) E. Integrative skills F. Cooperation
  • 42. V. Disadvantages A. Not good for different proficiency levels B. Teachers cannot monitor all groups at once. C. Students' errors will be reinforced in some groups