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Research steps

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  • 1. IN GOD’S HANDS Isaiah 41:10 10 Fear thou not; for I am with thee: be not dismayed; for I am thy God: I will strengthen thee; yea, I will help thee; yea, I will uphold thee with the right hand of my righteousness.
  • 2. RESEARCH MAIN STEPS TO DEVELOP IT
  • 3. RESEARCH : What is it?  "Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue". It consists of three steps: Pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question”. Creswell, J. W. (2008). Educational Research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson.
  • 4. Steps to Develop a Research  Identification of Research Problem. (1)  What is a problem?  What we do with problems?  A research problem is an issue or concern that investigators present and justify in a research project to find a solution for it.
  • 5. Steps to Develop a Research  Literature Review. (2)  A careful examination of a body of literature pointing toward the answer to your research question.  Finding too much? If you find so many citations that there is no end in sight to the number of references you could use, its time to re-evaluate your question. It's too broad.  Finding too little? On the other hand, if you can't find much of anything, ask yourself if you're looking in the right area. Your topic is too narrow.
  • 6. Steps to Develop a Research  Specify the purpose or objective of research. (3)  It should explain the final conclusions that the research study hopes to reach.  Start with a general purpose, then move to specific purposes.
  • 7. Null Hypothesis  It is the contrary hypothesis of the research. E.G.  Teenagers do not use social networks to find a couple.  Teenagers use social networks to find a couple.
  • 8. Steps to Develop a Research  Determine specific research questions or hypotheses. (4)  “A research question is essentially a hypothesis asked in the form of a question”.  “An hypothesis is a statement or explanation that is suggested by knowledge or observation but has not, yet, been proved or disproved.” (Macleod Clark J and Hockey L 1981)  A problem cannot be scientifically solved unless it is reduced to hypothesis form.
  • 9. Steps to Develop a Research  Data collection. (5)  The process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research questions, test hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes.
  • 10. Steps to Develop a Research  Consequences from improperly collected data include:  Inability to answer research questions accurately  Inability to repeat and validate the study  Distorted findings resulting in wasted resources  Misleading other researchers to pursue fruitless avenues of investigation  Compromising decisions for public policy  Causing harm to human participants and animal subjects
  • 11. Steps to Develop a Research  Approaches that can preserve data integrity and ensure the scientific validity of study results are:  Quality assurance - activities that take place before data collection begins  Quality control - activities that take place during and after data collection Each approach is implemented at different points in the research timeline (Whitney, Lind, Wahl, 1998)
  • 12. Steps to Develop a Research  Analyzing and interpreting the data. (6)  Data analysis and interpretation is the process of assigning meaning to the collected information and determining the conclusions, significance, and implications of the findings.
  • 13. Analysis of NUMERICAL (QUANTITATIVE) DATA  Represented in mathematical terms and include:  Mean: represents a numerical average for a set of responses.  Standard deviation: represents the distribution of the responses around the mean. It indicates the degree of consistency among the responses.  Frequency distribution: indicates the frequency of each response.
  • 14. Analysis of NARRATIVE (QUALITATIVE) DATA  Conducted by organizing the data into common themes or categories.  Strategies to analyze qualitative data:  Focus groups and Interviews: read and organize the data from each question separately. Group the comments by themes, topics, or categories.  Documents: Code content and characteristics of documents into various categories  Observations: Code patterns from the focus of the observation
  • 15. Effective Data Analysis  Effective data analysis involves:  keeping your eye on the main game  managing your data  engaging in the actual process of quantitative and / or qualitative analysis  presenting your data  drawing meaningful and logical conclusions
  • 16. Steps to Develop a Research  Reporting and evaluating research. (7)  Organization  Presentation
  • 17. Steps to Develop a Research  Communicating the research findings and, possibly, recommendations. (8)  The steps generally represent the overall process, however they should be viewed as an ever-changing iterative process rather than a fixed set of steps.  Gauch, Jr., H.G. (2003). Scientific method in practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2003 ISBN 0-521-81689-0 (page 3
  • 18. IN CONCLUSION  "... no researcher should accept any one or two tests as definitive. It is only when a range of tests are consistent over many kinds of data, researchers, and methods can one have confidence in the results.“  Rudolph Rummel. Questions About Freedom, Democide, And War
  • 19. Workshop  Go to the library and find out information about the different types of researches and write a summary explaining each one.  Discuss in class.

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