Cross cultural psychology 2nd by


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Cross cultural psychology 2nd by

  1. 1. Cross Cultural Psychology: Introduction
  2. 2. Course Outline • Introduction • Cross-Cultural research methods • Culture and: – Development – Cognition – Perception – Language – Social Interactions, Gender, and Emotions • Intercultural Relations
  3. 3. Psychology • Psychology: Scientific study of human behavior and mental functions – Scientific Study: Systematic, objective methods of observing behavior and mental functioning – Behavior: Activity that can be observed, recorded, and measured – Mental Functions: Infer from observable behavior • Areas of Study: Perception, Cognition, Development, Emotion, Personality, Motivation, Interpersonal relationships Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  4. 4. Psychology • Psychology: Study of behavior and mental processes – Assumption: People are similar across cultures • Hypothesize factors within cultures that influence mental processes • Anthropology: Study of human beings in all places and at all times – Cultural Anthropology: Systematic comparison of different cultures – Assumption: People are different across cultures • Needs Assessment: Studies that determine and address gaps between current conditions and desired conditions – Assess local opinions about development and aid projects Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  5. 5. Research Studies – In cross-cultural psychology studies, the culture of a participant may be an independent variable Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  6. 6. Cross-Cultural Psychology • Cross-Cultural Psychology: Systematic comparison of psychological variables under different cultural conditions in order to: – Identify universal aspects of human thought and behavior – Identify how culture influences human thought and behavior • Key Question: How does culture influence human behavior and mental processes? Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  7. 7. Cross-Cultural Psychology (Berry, Poortinga, Segall, & Dasen, 2002) • Cross-cultural psychology is the study of: – Similarities and differences in individual psychological functioning in various cultural and ethnocultural groups – The relationships between psychological variables and socio-cultural, ecological, and biological variables – The ongoing changes in psychological, socio- cultural, ecological, and biological variables Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  8. 8. Goals of Cross-Cultural Psychology • Test the generality of psychological knowledge and theories • Discover cultural and psychological variations in non-Western cultures • Integrate results of general and specific psychological findings to a universal psychology that is valid for a broad range of cultures Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  9. 9. Perspectives in Cross-Cultural Psychology • Absolutism: All psychological variables are the same in all cultures – Assess constructs using the same methods and instruments across cultures • Relativism: All psychological constructs are culturally influenced – No comparisons can be made between cultures • Universalism: All psychological variables are common between cultures but culture influences the development and manifestation of psychological characteristics – Comparisons can be made cautiously, but with modifications to methods and instruments to make them culturally meaningful. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  10. 10. Contributions of Cross-Cultural Research to Psychology • Knowledge: Findings of similarities and differences of behavior and mental functioning have added to the body of psychological knowledge • Critical Thinking: Psychological findings are now analyzed to determine whether similar results will be found in different cultures Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  11. 11. Cross-Cultural Psychology • Because of cross-cultural research, the following assumptions now must be made: – All behavior is learned and occurs in a cultural context – Culture must be accounted for in psychological theories – More understanding of cultural influences on behavior is necessary, which may change the way behavior is studied Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  12. 12. Cross-Cultural Psychology Modern Psychology • Mental processes and behavior are independent from the context • Purpose of psychology is to isolate mental processes from the context through controlled experiments Cultural-Historical Psychology • Context influences mental processes and behavior • Purpose of psychology is to understand how the mind and culture mutually influence each other Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos
  13. 13. Progression of Cross-Cultural Research • Beginning: Document differences between cultures • Currently: Determine the cultural variables that produce the differences – Culture is replaced with specific, measurable psychological variables hypothesized to account for cultural differences • Future: Universal theories of psychological processes Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos