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USING ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS TO CONTROL MICROBIAL GROWTH IN VIVO CHAPTER 9
Chemotherapy <ul><li>refers to the use of chemicals (drug/s) to treat any disease or condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Ehr...
 
<ul><li>Antimicrobial agent  is any chemical or drug used to treat an infectious disease, either by inhibiting or killing ...
<ul><li>Antibacterial agents-  drugs used to treat bacterial diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Antifungal agents-  drugs used to ...
Antibiotic <ul><li>It is a substance produced by a microorganism that is effective in killing or inhibiting the growth of ...
<ul><li>The first antibiotic produced was  penicillin  by  Sir Alexander Fleming  in 1928. </li></ul>
Semisynthetic Antibiotics <ul><li>These are chemically modified antibiotics to kill a wider variety of pathogens or reduce...
Ideal Qualities of an antimicrobial Agent <ul><li>Kill or inhibit the growth of pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Cause no damag...
5 Most Common Mechanisms of Action of Antimicrobial Agents: <ul><li>Inhibition of cell wall synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Da...
Competitive Inhibitors <ul><li>They inhibit growth of microorganisms by competing with the enzyme required to produce esse...
<ul><li>Bacteriostatic agents-  inhibits the growth of the bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Bactericidal agents-  kills bacteria...
<ul><li>Narrow-spectrum antibiotics  are antimicrobial agents which destroy only Gram-negative bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Multidrug therapy   is needed when a single antimicrobial agent is not enough to destroy all the pathogens that de...
<ul><li>Synergism  is the term used when the two drugs being used don’t work against each other </li></ul><ul><li>Antagoni...
Antifungal Agents & Antiprotozoal Agents <ul><li>Antifungal agents  and  antiprotozoal agents  tend to be more toxic to th...
Antiviral Agents <ul><li>The first antiviral agent effective against HIV is  zidovudine  also known as AZT. It was introdu...
DRUG RESISTANCE: “Superbugs” <ul><li>Superbugs  are microorganisms (mainly bacteria) that have become resistant to one or ...
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Transcript of "Micro"

  1. 1. USING ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS TO CONTROL MICROBIAL GROWTH IN VIVO CHAPTER 9
  2. 2. Chemotherapy <ul><li>refers to the use of chemicals (drug/s) to treat any disease or condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Ehrlich , a German chemist, is the father of chemotherapy . </li></ul><ul><li>Chemotheraputic agent is any drug used to treat any condition or disease. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Antimicrobial agent is any chemical or drug used to treat an infectious disease, either by inhibiting or killing pathogens in a vivo. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Antibacterial agents- drugs used to treat bacterial diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Antifungal agents- drugs used to treat fungal diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Antiprotozoal agents- drugs used to treat protozoal diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Antiviral diseases- drugs used to treat viral diseases. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Antibiotic <ul><li>It is a substance produced by a microorganism that is effective in killing or inhibiting the growth of other microorganisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all antimicrobial agents are antibiotics although antibiotics are all antimicrobial agents! </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>The first antibiotic produced was penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming in 1928. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Semisynthetic Antibiotics <ul><li>These are chemically modified antibiotics to kill a wider variety of pathogens or reduce side effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Ampicillin </li></ul><ul><li>2. Carbenicillin </li></ul>
  8. 9. Ideal Qualities of an antimicrobial Agent <ul><li>Kill or inhibit the growth of pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Cause no damage to the host </li></ul><ul><li>Cause no allergic reaction in the host </li></ul><ul><li>Be stable when stored in solid or liquid form </li></ul><ul><li>Remain in specific tissues in the body long enough to be effective </li></ul><ul><li>Kill the pathogens before they mutate and become resistant to it </li></ul>
  9. 10. 5 Most Common Mechanisms of Action of Antimicrobial Agents: <ul><li>Inhibition of cell wall synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to cell membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibition to nucleic acid synthesis (either DNA or RNA synthesis) </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibition of protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibition of enzyme activity </li></ul>
  10. 11. Competitive Inhibitors <ul><li>They inhibit growth of microorganisms by competing with the enzyme required to produce essential metabolite. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Sulfonamide drugs which inhibit the production of folic acid. Hence, they are bacteriostatic and not bactericidal agents. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Bacteriostatic agents- inhibits the growth of the bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Bactericidal agents- kills bacteria </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Narrow-spectrum antibiotics are antimicrobial agents which destroy only Gram-negative bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Broad-spectrum antibiotics destroy both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Multidrug therapy is needed when a single antimicrobial agent is not enough to destroy all the pathogens that develop during the course of a disease; thus, two or more drugs may be simultaneously used to have a successful outcome. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Synergism is the term used when the two drugs being used don’t work against each other </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonism , on the other hand, happens when the two drugs work against each other. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Antifungal Agents & Antiprotozoal Agents <ul><li>Antifungal agents and antiprotozoal agents tend to be more toxic to the patients! </li></ul>
  16. 17. Antiviral Agents <ul><li>The first antiviral agent effective against HIV is zidovudine also known as AZT. It was introduced in 1987. </li></ul>
  17. 18. DRUG RESISTANCE: “Superbugs” <ul><li>Superbugs are microorganisms (mainly bacteria) that have become resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. </li></ul><ul><li>Infections due to superbugs are more difficult to treat. </li></ul>
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