Magnox nuclear reactor

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Magnox nuclear reactor

  1. 1. PRESENTED TO SIR SHAHID KHALIL PRESENTED BY SAMEED QADRI ( 11-ME-69) M.ALI KIANI (11-ME-198)
  2. 2.   Nuclear reactors are devices in which fissionable elements such as uranium, thorium, or plutonium are made to undergo a nuclear chain reaction. Neutrons are bombarded to Uranium nuclei. It disintegrates into two smaller atoms ( Ba & Kr), releasing neutrons and binding energy . One of the neutron hits another Uranium-235 atom, thus furthur releasing neutrons and binding energy. Thus , process continous if it is not controlled. This is called chain reaction.
  3. 3. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Fuel rods ( Packets of Uranium oxide arranged in tubes to form rods ) Moderator Control rods Coolant Pressure vessel Steam generator Containment
  4. 4.  Magnox is short for Magnesium non-oxidising  It is basically an alloy mainly of magnesium with small amounts of aluminium and other metals  It is used to clad the fuel rods inside the reactor.  This material has the advantage of a low neutron capture cross-section, but has two major disadvantages:  It limits the maximum temperature, and hence the thermal efficiency, of the plant.  It reacts with water, preventing long-term storage of spent fuel under water.
  5. 5.   Magnox is an old type of nuclear power reactor which was designed in the United Kingdom, and was exported to other countries, both as a power plant ( as a power reactor ) and producer for plutonium ( as a research reactor ) Wylfa Nuclear Generating Facility contains the world's last operating Magnox reactor
  6. 6.  These are graphite moderated reactors and use natural uranium as fuel & MAGNOX as fuel cladding.  Working pressure varies from 6.9 to 19.35 bar
  7. 7.  The first Magnox reactors at Calder Hallwere designed principally to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons.  The production of plutonium from uranium generates a large amount of heat also , which could be used in a turbine to generate electricity.  Nuclear power generation is 25 % expensive than electricity from coal, yet economical due to production of plutonium.
  8. 8. There are two nuclear fuel reprocessing plants at Sellafield 1. Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGR) 2. Light Water Reactors (LWR) This all happens in the Fuel Handling Plant. The fuel is then transferred to the Magnox Reprocessing Plant.
  9. 9.  In early operation it was found that there was significant oxidation of mild steel components by the high temperature carbon dioxide coolant, requiring a reduction in operating temperature and power output.  For example the Latina reactor was derated in 1969 by 24%, from 210 MWe to 160 MWe, by the reduction of operating temperature from 390 to 360 °C.
  10. 10.  Magnox plants literally means magnox nuclear reactor.  A small 5 MW experimental reactor at Yongbyon, operated from 1986 to 1994, and restarted in 2003. Plutonium from this reactor's spent fuel has been used in the North Korea nuclear weapons program.  A 200 MW reactor at taechon, construction of which also halted in 1994.
  11. 11.  This is the general term for all type of carbon dioxide-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, including the Magnox.  The Magnox was replaced in the British power station program by the Advanced gas-cooled reactor or AGR.  A key feature of the AGR was the replacement of magnox cladding to allow higher temperatures and greater thermal efficiency.
  12. 12.  The Magnox reactors were considered at the time to have a considerable degree of inherent safety because of their simple design, low power density, and gas coolant.  Failure of the reactor shutdown system to rapidly shut down the reactor, or failure of natural circulation, was not considered in the design.

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