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- 1. http://www.bized.co.uk Price, Income and Cross Elasticity Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 2. http://www.bized.co.uk Elasticity – the concept • The responsiveness of one variable to changes in another • When price rises, what happens to demand? • Demand falls • BUT! • How much does demand fall? Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 3. http://www.bized.co.uk Elasticity – the concept • If price rises by 10% - what happens to demand? • We know demand will fall • By more than 10%? • By less than 10%? • Elasticity measures the extent to which demand will change Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 4. http://www.bized.co.uk Elasticity • 4 basic types used: • Price elasticity of demand • Price elasticity of supply • Income elasticity of demand • Cross elasticity Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 5. http://www.bized.co.uk Elasticity • Price Elasticity of Demand – The responsiveness of demand to changes in price – Where % change in demand is greater than % change in price – elastic – Where % change in demand is less than % change in price - inelastic Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 6. http://www.bized.co.uk Elasticity The Formula: Ped = % Change in Quantity Demanded ___________________________ % Change in Price If answer is between 0 and -1: the relationship is inelastic If the answer is between -1 and infinity: the relationship is elastic Note: PED has – sign in front of it; because as price rises demand falls and vice-versa (inverse relationship between price and demand) Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 7. http://www.bized.co.uk Price (£) Elasticity The demand curve can be a range of shapes each of which is associated with a different relationship between price and the quantity demanded. Quantity Demanded Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 8. http://www.bized.co.uk Elasticity Price Total revenue is price x The importance of elasticity quantity sold. In this is the information it example,on the£5 x 100,000 provides TR = effect on = £500,000. of changes in total revenue price. This value is represented by the grey shaded rectangle. £5 Total Revenue D 100 Quantity Demanded (000s) Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 9. http://www.bized.co.uk Elasticity Price If the firm decides to decrease price to (say) £3, the degree of price elasticity of the demand curve would determine the extent of the increase in demand and the change therefore in total revenue. £5 £3 Total Revenue D 100 140 Quantity Demanded (000s) Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 10. http://www.bized.co.uk Elasticity Price (£) Producer decides to lower price to attract sales 10 % Δ Price = -50% % Δ Quantity Demanded = +20% Ped = -0.4 (Inelastic) Total Revenue would fall 5 Not a good move! D 5 6 Quantity Demanded Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 11. http://www.bized.co.uk Elasticity Price (£) 10 Producer decides to reduce price to increase sales % Δ in Price = - 30% % Δ in Demand = + 300% Ped = - 10 (Elastic) Total Revenue rises Good Move! 7 D 5 Quantity Demanded 20 Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 12. http://www.bized.co.uk Elasticity • If demand is price elastic: • Increasing price would reduce TR (%Δ Qd > % Δ P) • Reducing price would increase TR (%Δ Qd > % Δ P) • If demand is price inelastic: • Increasing price would increase TR (%Δ Qd < % Δ P) • Reducing price would reduce TR (%Δ Qd < % Δ P) Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 13. http://www.bized.co.uk Elasticity • Income Elasticity of Demand: – The responsiveness of demand to changes in incomes • Normal Good – demand rises as income rises and vice versa • Inferior Good – demand falls as income rises and vice versa Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 14. http://www.bized.co.uk Elasticity • Income Elasticity of Demand: • A positive sign denotes a normal good • A negative sign denotes an inferior good Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 15. http://www.bized.co.uk Elasticity • For example: • Yed = - 0.6: Good is an inferior good but inelastic – a rise in income of 3% would lead to demand falling by 1.8% • Yed = + 0.4: Good is a normal good but inelastic – a rise in incomes of 3% would lead to demand rising by 1.2% • Yed = + 1.6: Good is a normal good and elastic – a rise in incomes of 3% would lead to demand rising by 4.8% • Yed = - 2.1: Good is an inferior good and elastic – a rise in incomes of 3% would lead to a fall in demand of 6.3% Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 16. http://www.bized.co.uk Elasticity • Cross Elasticity: • The responsiveness of demand of one good to changes in the price of a related good – either a substitute or a complement % Δ Qd of good t __________________ Xed = % Δ Price of good y Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 17. http://www.bized.co.uk Elasticity • Goods which are complements: – Cross Elasticity will have negative sign (inverse relationship between the two) • Goods which are substitutes: – Cross Elasticity will have a positive sign (positive relationship between the two) Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 18. http://www.bized.co.uk Elasticity • Price Elasticity of Supply: – The responsiveness of supply to changes in price – If Pes is inelastic - it will be difficult for suppliers to react swiftly to changes in price – If Pes is elastic – supply can react quickly to changes in price % Δ Quantity Supplied Pes = ____________________ % Δ Price Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 19. http://www.bized.co.uk Determinants of Elasticity • Time period – the longer the time under consideration the more elastic a good is likely to be • Number and closeness of substitutes – the greater the number of substitutes, the more elastic • The proportion of income taken up by the product – the smaller the proportion the more inelastic • Luxury or Necessity - for example, addictive drugs Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed
- 20. http://www.bized.co.uk Importance of Elasticity • Relationship between changes in price and total revenue • Importance in determining what goods to tax (tax revenue) • Importance in analysing time lags in production • Influences the behaviour of a firm Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed

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