DR.VIVEKANAND S. REGE• BDS(Bom),DBM,PGDHHM,FICCDE(Spor) Oral Oncology Oral Medicine Cert.(USA), Member of American Society of Forensic Odontology• Hon. Dr. to H.E. The Governor of MAHARASHTRA• Hon. Dr. to Brihan Mumbai Police Force
FUTURE TOOLS• DNA FINGER PRINTING• CHEILOSCOPY- LIP FINGER PRINTING• 3 D IMAGING & PHOTOGRAPHY• FORENSIC PHONETICS• SALIVARY ALFA AMYLASE IN FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY
DNA FINGERPRINTING• 1.DNA FINGER PRINTING - BLOOD• 2. DNA FINGER PRINTING - SALIVA• 3. DNA FINGER PRINTING - FACIAL HAIR• 4.DNA FINGER PRINTING – TOOTH• 5.DNA FINGER PRINTING- BONE• 6.DNA FINGER PRINTING – TOUCH• 7.DNA FINGER PRINTING – SEMENIn any Body tissue sample, DNA remains the same. Body fluid samples e.g. Blood,Semen,saliva,Sweat samples air dried at 37 C stores the DNA foever.
DNA FINGERPRINTING-SALIVA• SALIVA is a rich source of Epithelial cells• Epithelial cells being Nucleated Cells are a rich source of DNA.• Nuclear DNA is preferred due to Lower rate of Mutation than that in Mitochondrial DNA.• It is readily available• It is easy to collect samples• Non-invasive method• Probability of obtaining higher even in cases other than murder- from handkerchief, drinking glass/cup , lipstick, beer mug…..etc.• Easily recoverable even from skin
Sources of Obtaining Salivary samples from a site of crime/suspect• 1.Handkerchief (Gents /Ladies)• 2.Cigarette stub• 3.drinking Glass , Cup , Saucer ,Mug (anyMaterial)• 4. Lipstick (Ladies)• 5.Powder Puff(Ladies)• 6.Tissue Paper- Mouth wipes/Facial wipes• 7.Any other material /source coming actively in contact with saliva.
DNA Fingerprinting• Principle : Lysis of the cell using Lysis Buffers followed with PCR(Polymerase Chain Reaction)amplification.• Samples- ANY Nucleated cells-even if Dead Hence RBCs, Nerve Cells are useless for this purpose.• Protocols: Organic, In-Organic, Magnetic Bead Based, Liquid Handling System
Tissue Sources for DNA samples• 1.Saliva – Fresh & Dried• 2.Blood- Fresh & Dried• 3. Sweat• 4.Any part of skin• 5. Hair-hair with root , hair shaft• 6.Nails- Nail Clippings• 7.Nasal Secretion
Tissue Sources for DNA samples(Contd.)• 8.Ear wax• 9.Dandruff• 10.Urine• 11.Faecal Matter• 12. Pus• 13.Teeth(fresh/dry-dead tooth with dry Pulp)• 14.Alveolar Bone• 15.Touch DNA-only 15 cells r enugh samplng Imp.
Maternal Lineage DNA TestAre you related to a well-known historical figure? Doyou descend from the first settlers in Europe, beforethe beginning of the Ice Age over 20,000 years ago?Perhaps your ancestors were visitors from nearbyAsia or North Africa? Discover this and more withthe Maternal Lineage DNA Test.
L O O K for any FACIAL HAIRA Rich source of DNA-don’t miss it.
CHEILOSCOPY – LIP FINGERPRINTING• The Importance of Lip Prints• Very few people know that just like fingerprints, even lip prints can be instrumental in identifying a person positively. Stand before a mirror and look at your lips carefully. You would find that they present several fissures and some other criss-cross lines. You may be surprised to know that these fissures and criss-cross lines are different in different people and at many times can form a very good basis of identification.
Recording the Lip Prints• Put some lipstick over your lips (dont worry if you are a male; it wont hurt you!) and then take their impressions on a clean piece of white paper. The best way for this would be to fold a paper and then insert the “hinged” portion of the folded paper between your lips and press your lips on to the paper. Then take the paper out and “unfold” it
SREREOSCOPY-3D IMAGING & PHOTOGRAPHY• Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopic or 3-D imaging) refers to a technique for creating or enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by presenting two offset images separately to the left and right eye of the viewer. Both of these 2-D offset images are then combined in the brain to give the perception of 3-D depth.
• Three strategies have been used to accomplish this: 1. have the viewer wear eyeglasses to combine separate images from two offset sources, 2. have the viewer wear eyeglasses to filter offset images from a single source separated to each eye, 3.or have the lightsource split the images directionally into the viewers eyes (no glasses required; known as Autostereoscopy).
3D Imaging Priciple• Before exploring the different techniques available, it is necessary to understand some of the principles and terminology in 3D imaging. In two-dimensional (2D) photographs or radiographs, there are two axes (the vertical and the horizontal axes), while the Cartesian coordinates system in 3D images consists of the x-axis (or the transverse dimension), y-axis (or the vertical dimension), and the z-axis (the anteroposterior dimension ‘depth axis’). Figure 1⇓ illustrates the right- handed xyz coordinate system, which is used in 3D medical imaging. The x-, y- and z-coordinates define a space in which multidimensional data are represented and this space is called the 3D space.
3D Imaging in Facial Reconstruction• Three-dimensional (3D) imaging has evolved greatly in the last two decades and has found applications in orthodontics, as well as in oral and maxillofacial surgery. In 3D medical imaging, a set of anatomical data is collected using diagnostic imaging equipment, processed by a computer and then displayed on a 2D monitor to give the illusion of depth. Depth perception causes the image to appear in 3D.1• The applications of 3D imaging in orthodontics include pre- and post-orthodontic assessment of dentoskeletal relationships and facial aesthetics, auditing orthodontic outcomes with regard to soft and hard tissues, 3D treatment planning, and 3D soft and hard tissue prediction (simulation). Three-dimensionally fabricated custom-made archwires, archiving 3D facial, skeletal and dental records for in-treatment planning, research and medico-legal purposes are also among the benefits of using 3D models in orthodontics.
Traditional forensic facial reconstruction• The purpose of forensic facial reconstruction is to produce an image from a skull which offers a sufficient likeness of the living individual that it will facilitate identification of skeletal remains when there are no other means available. Although facial reconstruction had begun in the nineteenth century, the method gained notoriety with the work of Gerasimov (1968), depicted on film in Gorky Park. These traditional plastic methods (Isçan and Helmer 1993, Snow et al. 1970) use modelling clay or plasticine to build up the depth of tissue on the skull (or a cast of the skull) to that of a living individual. Tissue depths are known for landmark sites on the skull; the depths elsewhere are interpolated between these points (Figure 1) and then into the interstices (Figure 2). The shape of the eyes, nose and mouth cannot be confidently predicted and are largely guesswork (Figure 3). Even for skilled practitioners, plastic reconstructions take one or two days. The results obtained will differ between reconstructions and between practitioners
Figure 1 Establishment of tissuedepths at landmark sites on the skull (in white) and the interpolation between these sites.
Figure 2. Interpolation of tissue depths into the interstices.
Figure 3. Completed "plastic"reconstruction. The shape of the eyes, nose and mouth are guesswork.
Forensic Phonetics• What is forensic phonetics? A branch of phonetics (and forensic Linguistics and forensic science) concerned with research on and analysis of aspects of speech that are relevant for the legal system.
FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY-Role of Salivary Alfa Amylase
Stress-induced changes in human salivary alpha-amylase activity— associations with adrenergic activity• The salivary enzyme alpha-amylase has been proposed to indicate stress-reactive bodily changes. A previous study by the authors revealed marked increases in salivary alpha-amylase following psychosocial stress, indicating a stress-dependent activation of salivary alpha-amylase. Salivary alpha- amylase has been suggested to reflect catecholaminergic reactivity. Our aim was to assess/evaluate a possible relationship between salivary alpha-amylase and adrenergic parameters, i.e. catecholamines, as well as other stress markers.
Salivary alpha-amylase is sensitiveto psychosocial stress. Since it doesnot seem to be closely related toother biological stress markers suchas catecholamines and cortisol,salivary alpha-amylase may be auseful additional parameter for themeasurement of stress.