ENERGY & PEOPLE IN  INDIA & WORLD  A CLIMATE-CRISIS  PERSPECTIVE  SOUMYA DUTTA – BJVJ / DP/ SADED ENERGY GLUTTONS – EATS E...
FUNDAMENTAL  SOURCES OF  ENERGY  ONLY FOUR  SOURCES ON THE EARTH <ul><li>SUN  RADIATION –  CURRENT  SOLAR   – SOLAR HEAT <...
HUMAN  ENERGY  USE  FROM  ‘MODERN’  BEGINNINGS  TO NOW  <ul><li>~60,000 BC(emergence of </li></ul><ul><li>‘ modern’ man)~>...
HOW MUCH DO WE GET FROM WHAT INDIA WORLD SOUMYA DUTTA TOTAL COMML  ENRGY ITS  FOSSIL-CARBON THAT DOMINATES >90% fossil-car...
CONSEQUENCES  OF  OUR ENERGY CHOICE AS WE ALL KNOW, THIS IS CAUSING WORLD-WIDE DEVASTATIONS  SOUMYA DUTTA GLOBAL  C-ENERGY...
ITS NOT JUST CO2 OR WARMING MANY OF EARTH’S VITAL SYSTEMS ARE CHANGING NOAA SOUMYA DUTTA EXCESS  CO2  IN  ATMSPHR &THE OCE...
WHY  FOSSIL-CARBONS  CANNOT  INDEFINITELY REMAIN  OUR PRIMARY ENERGY  SOURCES  TODAY, THEY ARE  THE  PRIMARY  SOURCE (~80%...
EVEN AN OPTIMISTIC  CARBON BUDGET DO NOT ALLOW PRESENT  C-ENERGY  PATH GLOBAL EMISSION IN Mt  Carbon  BLACK LINE – TOTAL E...
YET, COAL – HIGHEST  C/CAL  FOSSIL-FUEL  IS GROWING FASTER THAN –  GAS, THE LOWEST  C/CAL  FOSSIL FUEL WORLDs ‘DIRTY’ COAL...
BUT IF WE LOOK - EVEN THE ‘CLEANEST’ FOSSIL-FUEL IS STILL VERY DIRTY – IN EXTRACTION & PROCESS SOUMYA DUTTA THIS IS IN ADD...
WHAT  ABOUT  NUCLEAR (FISSION) ENERGY ? EXPENSIVE, LONG-GESTATION, HUGE RISKS ! ONLY A HANDFULL OF COUNTRIES GET SIGNIFICA...
WHAT  ABOUT  THE  HIGH  RISKS TO PEOPLE? EXISTING NUCLEAR PLANT SITES WITH ONLY ~4200 MW INSTALLED, WE HAVE PROBLEMS OF NU...
WHAT DRIVES ENERGY CONSUMPTION ‘ ECONOMIC GROWTH’ – ENERGY  RELATION COUNTRY-WISE  ENERGY-vs-GDP  CHANGE IN GDP  AND  EMIS...
NOT ONLY  ECONOMIC GROWTH,  FOSSIL-FUELS ALLOWED WORLD POPULATION TO EAT & GROW SOUMYA DUTTA BUT HIGH-INPUT AGRICULTURE, A...
BUT ALL FOSSIL FUEL SOURCES TAPER OF AFTER CERTAIN WITHDRAWAL US  NATURAL GAS  PRODUCTION UK  NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BOTH ...
PEAK ENERGY FROM – OIL, GAS, COAL, URANIUM IN A LIMITED EARTH – ALL ‘RESOURCES’ ARE LIMITED SOUMYA DUTTA PEAK-OIL,  PEAK-G...
WHY DO WE NEED SO MUCH ENERGY ? INDIAN GOVT.  PROPOSES  NEARLY 4-FOLD  INCREASE IN  POWER CAPACITY FROM 2005 TO 2030 !!  I...
FORCED-CYCLIC CONSUMPTION OF  ENERGY INTENSIVE MATERIALS PUSHES UP  CONSUMPTION OF BOTH ENERGY & MATERIALS <ul><li>A  LARG...
NOT ONLY RESOURCE LIMITS  ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGES ARE GETTING BEYOND LIMITS  DAMAGES BY DIFF SECTORS – ON DIFF ‘SYSTEMS’ NOT...
THERMAL POWER-PLANTS ALSO CONSUME  AND POLLUTE HUGE AMOUNTS OF WATER ABOUT  87%  OF ALL  WATER  CONSUMPTION FROM MAJOR IND...
COUNTRIES IN ASIA & AFRICA FACE WATER-STRESS DUE TO POWER/ENERGY PLANTS, INDUSTRIES, MINING  WHILE FOOD DEMAND IN THESE NA...
THAT RULES ‘AGRO-FUELS’ OUT OF RECKONING  AS  ‘SOLUTION’  FOR  ENERGY/CC  CRISES <ul><li>* TWO YEARS AGO, THE WORLD  FACED...
AND WHERE  DOES ALL THE  ENERGY GO ? <ul><li>ALONG WITH CO2 DUMPING IN </li></ul><ul><li>GLOBAL ATMOSPHERE , CAUSING </li>...
VIABLE  ALTERNATIVES  FOR  THE  WORLD ? WORLD ENERGY CONSUMPTION  IN  TERA-WATTS, 1965-2005 ABAILABILTY OF RENEWABLE ENERG...
BUT EVEN WITH ‘ECO-FRIENDLY’ RENEWABLES EARTH HAS LIMITS TO  GROWTH OF ENERGY-USE  ANY ENERGY EXTRACTION-CONVERSION PROCES...
DISTRIBUTED, COMMUNITY CONTROLLED  MULTIPLE  ENERGY  COULD BE ONE ANSWER SOUMYA DUTTA WIND  SUN   EARTH’s  HEAT  PRIMARY...
WHO IN INDIA CONSUMES WHAT AS  ENERGY <ul><li>LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT FOSSIL </li></ul><ul><li>FUELS  & NUCLEAR FISSION –  </...
PETROLEUM – INDIA & THE WORLD INDIA  PETROLEUM –  PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION WORLD PETROLEUM – PRODUCTION  SOUMYA DUTTA 2.5 ...
NATURAL GAS – INDIA & THE WORLD SOUMYA DUTTA PRODUCTION-CONSUMPTION OF NATURAL GAS STARTED PEAKING UP IN 2000’s
COAL  – INDIA  AND  THE WORLD <ul><li>Country  INDIA </li></ul><ul><li>YEAR  COAL-Production </li></ul><ul><li>2003  375.4...
ELECTRICITY GENERATION : 1990-2006 WITH ~17% OF WORLD POPULATION,  INDIA GENERATES (2006) ~3% OF ITS TOTAL ELECTRICITY;  A...
THE  ELECTRICITY-LOSS/WASTAGE +  QUESTION <ul><li>INDIA HAS ~1,64,000 MW INSTALLED </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRICITY CAPACITY ...
INDIA – PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION 2007-08 <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Type *  Units * in Original  *  in Mtoe  *% ...
LARGE NOS. STILL USE TRADITIONAL BIO-MASS DISPLACING FROM FOREST CREATES LARGE MARKET DESIGN BEHIND REDD+, KITCHEN-SOOT SC...
WHERE IN INDIA ARE  THE  ENERGY SOURCES  AND THE  POLLUTING  POWER PLANTS THAT  CONVERT THIS ENERGY TO USEABLE FORMS ? SOU...
ENERGY & MINERAL SOURCE/ PLANT LOCATIONS AND WHO GETS ‘POWER’ FROM THESE SOUMYA DUTTA PERCENTAGE OF ELECTRIFIED  RURAL HOU...
ANOTHER PICTURE OF HUGE DISPARITIES  THAT HAVE CHANGED LITTLE IN DECADES 43% - NO ELECTRICITY,  33% - LESS  THAN 50 KwH/Mo...
ENERGY-WATER-AIR  ARE THE LIFE-NEEDS  OF ALL ANIMALS  - INCLUDING US WE  NEED  ENERGY  EQUITY  & JUSTICE  <ul><li>LET  THE...
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A broad look at energy in India by Soumya Dutta

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A broad look at energy in India by Soumya Dutta at Sambhaavnaa Institute

www.sambhaavnaa.org

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  • Eastern Hemisphere of Earth – Lesser Consumers (except Gulf), but Energy gluttons eat whole Earth
  • FOUR (4) FUNDAMENTAL SOURCES OF ENERGY ON EARTH
  • The World Energy Picture – Human beginnings to 1700, AND 1700 to Now
  • INDIA FIGURE 2006, WORLD – 2004-5, FOSSIL FUEL PERCENTAGE GONE DOWN A LITTLE NOW-2010
  • TOTAL C-RESERVE IN FOSSIL CARBONS IS FAR ABOVE THE TOTAL ATMOSPHERIC C-CONTENT (AT 390ppm) !!
  • COAL HAS HIGHEST CARBON PER CALORIE OF ALL FOSSIL FUELS, NATL GAS – THE LOWEST
  • ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNET’S CURVE DONOT SEEM TO BE WORKING !
  • A broad look at energy in India by Soumya Dutta

    1. 1. ENERGY & PEOPLE IN INDIA & WORLD A CLIMATE-CRISIS PERSPECTIVE SOUMYA DUTTA – BJVJ / DP/ SADED ENERGY GLUTTONS – EATS EARTH KNOW WHO THEY ARE ? AFRICA – THE CONTINENT WITH HUGE ENERGY RESOURCES & THE MOST ENERGY-DEPRIVED PEOPLE (barring north) IN THE WORLD .
    2. 2. FUNDAMENTAL SOURCES OF ENERGY ONLY FOUR SOURCES ON THE EARTH <ul><li>SUN RADIATION – CURRENT SOLAR – SOLAR HEAT </li></ul><ul><li>( SOURCE - - WIND </li></ul><ul><li>NUCLEAR FUSION ) - SOLAR PHOTO-VOLTAIC </li></ul><ul><li>- STORED SOLAR – SHORT TERM - HYDRO /WIND ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>( DAYS to YEARS) - BIO MASS, FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>- ANIMAL/HUMAN ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>- OTHERS (lightning, amb. atm) </li></ul><ul><li>LONG TERM - GAS HYDRATES, …. </li></ul><ul><li>( 1000’s of YEARS) - OCEAN THERMAL/CURRENT </li></ul><ul><li>VERY LONG TERM (fossil) – COAL, OIL, GAS, SHALE </li></ul><ul><li>(MANY MILLIONS OF YEARS) </li></ul><ul><li>NUCLEAR (Cosmic) - FISSION – URANIUM, THORIUM </li></ul><ul><li>FUSION (future ) – DEUTERIUM /TRITIUM </li></ul><ul><li>MOON - SUN (Gravity) – TIDAL ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>EARTH (Heat) – GEOTHERMAL ENERGY </li></ul>SOUMYA DUTTA
    3. 3. HUMAN ENERGY USE FROM ‘MODERN’ BEGINNINGS TO NOW <ul><li>~60,000 BC(emergence of </li></ul><ul><li>‘ modern’ man)~>1,700AD </li></ul><ul><li>SUN </li></ul><ul><li>– CURRENT </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT/LIGHT/WIND </li></ul><ul><li>-SHORT STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>WOOD/BIOMASS </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>HYDRO ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>WIND </li></ul><ul><li>ANIMAL ENRGY </li></ul><ul><li>EARTH – HEAT </li></ul><ul><li>~1,700 AD to NOW </li></ul><ul><li>SUN (as before), PLUS </li></ul><ul><li>SUN –PHOTO VOLTAIC </li></ul><ul><li>SUN-FOSSIL FUELS (huge) </li></ul><ul><li>SUN –WIND ELCTRICITY </li></ul><ul><li>SUN- HYDRO-ELECTR. </li></ul><ul><li>NUCLEAR FISSION (U235) </li></ul><ul><li>MOON –TIDAL ELECTR. </li></ul><ul><li>EARTH – GEO-THERMAL </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT & ELECTR </li></ul>SOUMYA DUTTA
    4. 4. HOW MUCH DO WE GET FROM WHAT INDIA WORLD SOUMYA DUTTA TOTAL COMML ENRGY ITS FOSSIL-CARBON THAT DOMINATES >90% fossil-carbon ~85% fossil-carbon
    5. 5. CONSEQUENCES OF OUR ENERGY CHOICE AS WE ALL KNOW, THIS IS CAUSING WORLD-WIDE DEVASTATIONS SOUMYA DUTTA GLOBAL C-ENERGY USE AND ATMOSPHERIC CO2 BUILD-UP
    6. 6. ITS NOT JUST CO2 OR WARMING MANY OF EARTH’S VITAL SYSTEMS ARE CHANGING NOAA SOUMYA DUTTA EXCESS CO2 IN ATMSPHR &THE OCEANS IS CAUSING ANOMALIES FROM LONG TERM AVRG
    7. 7. WHY FOSSIL-CARBONS CANNOT INDEFINITELY REMAIN OUR PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCES TODAY, THEY ARE THE PRIMARY SOURCE (~80%) SCIENCE SHOWS THE ‘SAFE ATMOSPHERIC LIMIT’ OF CO2 IS <350 ppmv, WHAT IF WE CONTINUE TO BURN FOSSIL-CARBONS? REACH >800 ppmv ? WHAT HAPPENS TO LIFE ? WHOLE ATMOSPHERE CONTAINS ‘ONLY’ ~780 GT SOUMYA DUTTA
    8. 8. EVEN AN OPTIMISTIC CARBON BUDGET DO NOT ALLOW PRESENT C-ENERGY PATH GLOBAL EMISSION IN Mt Carbon BLACK LINE – TOTAL EMISSION SOUMYA DUTTA THE FACT THAT ATM. CO2 IS ~390 ppmv NOW, WHILE NEW SCIENCE SETS ‘SAFE-LIMIT’ AT ~350 , MEANS WE HAVE -VE C-BUDGET NOW
    9. 9. YET, COAL – HIGHEST C/CAL FOSSIL-FUEL IS GROWING FASTER THAN – GAS, THE LOWEST C/CAL FOSSIL FUEL WORLDs ‘DIRTY’ COAL 1998-2008 PRODUCTION CONSUMPTION WORLD NATRL GAS CONSUMPTION SOUMYA DUTTA AND RENEWABLES ARE STILL A MINISCULE PERCENTAGE
    10. 10. BUT IF WE LOOK - EVEN THE ‘CLEANEST’ FOSSIL-FUEL IS STILL VERY DIRTY – IN EXTRACTION & PROCESS SOUMYA DUTTA THIS IS IN ADDITION TO THE LARGE AMOUNT OF WATER POLLUTION, FRACTURING ETC
    11. 11. WHAT ABOUT NUCLEAR (FISSION) ENERGY ? EXPENSIVE, LONG-GESTATION, HUGE RISKS ! ONLY A HANDFULL OF COUNTRIES GET SIGNIFICANT SHARE OF ELECTRICITY FROM NUCLER-FISSION, AND EVEN THESE – ALONG WITH OTHERS ALREADY LOW – WILL COME DOWN AS A LARGE NO OF THE RUNNING REACTORS (OUT OF 430 odd) APPROACHES END-OF-LIFE. ONLY IN CHINA, INDIA ETC, LARGE NO OF REACTORS ARE PLANNED TO BE BUILT, BUT ….. SOUMYA DUTTA NUCLEAR ENERGY ALSO HAS HIGH EMBEDDED & FUEL-CYCLE -ENERGY CONSUMPTIONS, LEADING TO SUBSTANTIAL GHG EMISSIONS ~18 COUNTRIES GET >20% OF THEIR ELECTR NEARLY 60% OF REACTORS ARE >25 Yrs AGE
    12. 12. WHAT ABOUT THE HIGH RISKS TO PEOPLE? EXISTING NUCLEAR PLANT SITES WITH ONLY ~4200 MW INSTALLED, WE HAVE PROBLEMS OF NUCLEAR WASTE – UNTREATABL E WITH ANY KNOWN TECHNOLOGY. WHAT IF THAT BECOMES 40,000-60,000 MW AS PROJECTED? THE ‘NEW SITES’ WITH EXISTING ONES, WILL MAKE ALL HIGH-POPULATION DENSITY AREAS – HIGHLY VULNERABLE TO ROUTINE AND ACCIDENTAL RADIATION AND ACCIDENTS. SOUMYA DUTTA
    13. 13. WHAT DRIVES ENERGY CONSUMPTION ‘ ECONOMIC GROWTH’ – ENERGY RELATION COUNTRY-WISE ENERGY-vs-GDP CHANGE IN GDP AND EMISSIONS 1992-2006 SOUMYA DUTTA NOT ONE COUNTRY TO ACHIEVE HIGH ‘GROWTH’ W/O HIGH ENERGY CONSUMPTION / EMISSION.
    14. 14. NOT ONLY ECONOMIC GROWTH, FOSSIL-FUELS ALLOWED WORLD POPULATION TO EAT & GROW SOUMYA DUTTA BUT HIGH-INPUT AGRICULTURE, ALONG WITH POWER +INDUSTRY + TRANSPORT… HAS CREATED THE CLIMATE CRISIS & WE ARE APPROACHING RESOURCE PEAKS.
    15. 15. BUT ALL FOSSIL FUEL SOURCES TAPER OF AFTER CERTAIN WITHDRAWAL US NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION UK NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BOTH ARE IN ‘MATURE STATE’ OF EXPLOITATION THE ‘PEAK’ PHENOMENON SOUMYA DUTTA
    16. 16. PEAK ENERGY FROM – OIL, GAS, COAL, URANIUM IN A LIMITED EARTH – ALL ‘RESOURCES’ ARE LIMITED SOUMYA DUTTA PEAK-OIL, PEAK-GAS, PEAK-COAL – ALL WILL COME ONE AFTER ANOTHER, BUT MORE IMPORTANTLY  PEAK-WATER (AND PEAK-FOOD ?) ALSO .
    17. 17. WHY DO WE NEED SO MUCH ENERGY ? INDIAN GOVT. PROPOSES NEARLY 4-FOLD INCREASE IN POWER CAPACITY FROM 2005 TO 2030 !! IT’S INCREASED TO 5-FOLD NOW !!! TO ORGANISE HUGELY ENERGY-INTENSIVE WORLD- CUP OR CW GAMES ? TO LIGHT-UP OUR NIGHTS LIKE DAYS ? OR TO TRANSPORT ‘MOUNTAINS’ OF GOODS ACROSS VAST OCEANS ? OR …… SOUMYA DUTTA < HOUSTON FROM SPACE AT NIGHT
    18. 18. FORCED-CYCLIC CONSUMPTION OF ENERGY INTENSIVE MATERIALS PUSHES UP CONSUMPTION OF BOTH ENERGY & MATERIALS <ul><li>A LARGE PART OF THE ENERGY / </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRICITY GOES INTO ALUMINIUM </li></ul><ul><li>STEEL & CEMENT PRODUCTION; </li></ul><ul><li>A SIGNIFICANT PART OF THESE </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY-INTENSIVE METALS AND </li></ul><ul><li>MATERIALS GO INTO BUILDING THE </li></ul><ul><li>POWER -PLANTS, TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>TOWERS, MACHINES TO MINE & TPT </li></ul><ul><li>ORES -- CREATING A SELF-SERVING </li></ul><ul><li>CHAIN OF CONSUMPTIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>ON A RECENT VISIT TO REMOTE TRIBAL </li></ul><ul><li>DISTRICT IN M.P.; I SAW 5 CELL-PHONE </li></ul><ul><li>TOWERS IN A SMALL TOWN, A SMALL </li></ul><ul><li>VILLAGE HAD 3 ! </li></ul><ul><li>IMPOSSIBLE TO COMBINE THEM IN 1 ? </li></ul>  ^ I V SOUMYA DUTTA
    19. 19. NOT ONLY RESOURCE LIMITS ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGES ARE GETTING BEYOND LIMITS DAMAGES BY DIFF SECTORS – ON DIFF ‘SYSTEMS’ NOTICE THE HUGE DAMAGES ON WATER RESRS. COUNTRIES RANKED BY ENVMNTL DAMAGES SOUMYA DUTTA
    20. 20. THERMAL POWER-PLANTS ALSO CONSUME AND POLLUTE HUGE AMOUNTS OF WATER ABOUT 87% OF ALL WATER CONSUMPTION FROM MAJOR INDUSTRIES IS CONSUMED BY Thermal Power Plants (CSE). SOUMYA DUTTA Of wastes and wants: Water use in India Industrial Sector Annual wastewater water discharge (million cubic meters) (%) Annual consumption (million cubic meters) Proportion of water consumed in industry Thermal power plants 27000.9 35157.4 87.87 Engineering 1551.3 2019.9 5.05 Pulp and paper 695.7 905.8 2.26 Textiles 637.3 829.8 2.07 Steel 396.8 516.6 1.29 Sugar 149.7 194.9 0.49 Fertiliser 56.4 73.5 0.18 Others 241.3 314.2 0.78 Total 30729.2 40012.0 100.0 Note: For methodology see www.downtoearth.org.in Source: Estimated by CSE based on the wastewater discharged data published by CPCB in &quot;Water quality in India (Status and trends) 1990 - 2001&quot;.
    21. 21. COUNTRIES IN ASIA & AFRICA FACE WATER-STRESS DUE TO POWER/ENERGY PLANTS, INDUSTRIES, MINING WHILE FOOD DEMAND IN THESE NATIONS INCREASES FAST FOOD AS ENERGY IS THE MOST BASIC NEED – MUST GET PRECEDENCE OVER ALL OTHER FORMS OF ENERGY USE. BUT WATER DEPLETION & CONTAMINATION IS PLAYING HAVOC WITH THE FOOD-SECURITY (CONNECTED WITH WATER-SECURITY) OF THE POOR. SO, WE WILL HAVE TO CUT OUR LUXURY ENERGY CONSUMPTION. SOUMYA DUTTA WORLD FOOD DEMAND 1500-2050
    22. 22. THAT RULES ‘AGRO-FUELS’ OUT OF RECKONING AS ‘SOLUTION’ FOR ENERGY/CC CRISES <ul><li>* TWO YEARS AGO, THE WORLD FACED </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD-RIOTS , MAINLY DUE TO LARGE </li></ul><ul><li>CORN-ETHANOL PROGRAMME OF USA; </li></ul><ul><li>THIS SUMMER, MOZAMBIQUE FACED </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD RIOTS, AS CLIMATE-CHANGE-HIT </li></ul><ul><li>RUSSIA STOPPED WHEAT EXPORTS; </li></ul><ul><li>*LAND CONFLICTS IN INDIAN VILLAGES </li></ul><ul><li>DUE TO JATROPHA PLANTATION, WHICH </li></ul><ul><li>GAVE VERY POOR OIL-YIELD /ACRE, IN </li></ul><ul><li>UN-IRRIGATED, POOR SOIL; </li></ul><ul><li>*INDIA HAS NO ‘SPARE’ LANDS TO GROW </li></ul><ul><li>‘ AGRO-FUELS’ WIDELY, WHILE OUR FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCTION FLUCTUATES, WITH </li></ul><ul><li>CLIMATE CHANGE THREATS </li></ul><ul><li>LOOMING LARGE – FOOD IS PRIORITY; </li></ul><ul><li>*MOST AGRO-FUELS HAVE POOR EROEI </li></ul><ul><li>NOS., GIVING LITTLE ENERGY GAIN OVER </li></ul><ul><li>(FOSSIL) ENERGY INVESTED ; </li></ul>EVEN IN BRAZIL, A COUNTRY ~ 3 TIMES INDIA’S SIZE WITH A SIXTH OF OUR POPULATION – LARGE SCALE AGRO-FUEL PRODUCTION HAS RESULTED IN LARGE-SCALE LAND CONFLICTS. SOUMYA DUTTA 17-09-10
    23. 23. AND WHERE DOES ALL THE ENERGY GO ? <ul><li>ALONG WITH CO2 DUMPING IN </li></ul><ul><li>GLOBAL ATMOSPHERE , CAUSING </li></ul><ul><li>GW & CC, </li></ul><ul><li>FOSSIL FUELS & NUCLEAR ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>ADDS ALMOST 100% OF THEIR </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY AS HEAT INTO ATMOSPHERE, </li></ul><ul><li>HYDROSPHERE, BIOSPHERE AND </li></ul><ul><li>LITHOSPHERE. </li></ul><ul><li>THIS HEAT IS OVER & ABOVE THE </li></ul><ul><li>WARMING CAUSED BY GHG-RADIATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>FORCING OF THE SUN’S HEAT. </li></ul><ul><li>A VERY LARGE PART OF IT ENDS UP IN </li></ul><ul><li>OCEANS DAMAGING MARINE LIFE. </li></ul><ul><li>ONCE-THRU COOLING – COASTAL TPPs/ </li></ul><ul><li>NPPs, FACTORIES, WARM RIVER FLOWS. </li></ul><ul><li>DEAD CORAL – ANDAMAN SEA – </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH SUMMER HEAT 2010  </li></ul>Soumya Dutta MOST RENEWBLES ADD NO ADDL. HEAT TO THE ATM/HYDRSP/BIO-SPH OCEAN ACIDIFICATION BY CO2 IS A ‘BONUS’ !
    24. 24. VIABLE ALTERNATIVES FOR THE WORLD ? WORLD ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN TERA-WATTS, 1965-2005 ABAILABILTY OF RENEWABLE ENERGIES – IN TERA-WATTS SOUMYA DUTTA
    25. 25. BUT EVEN WITH ‘ECO-FRIENDLY’ RENEWABLES EARTH HAS LIMITS TO GROWTH OF ENERGY-USE ANY ENERGY EXTRACTION-CONVERSION PROCESS & SYSTEM NEEDS DIFFERENT MATERIALS, AND EVERY MATERIAL ON EARTH IS LIMITED BY ITS FINITE ‘RESERVES’. EVERY EXTRACTION-CONVERSION-CONSUMPTION – RESULTS IN POLLUTION, AND PUT ADDL. PRESSURE ON EARTH’S SYSTEMS  PUSHING ‘PLANETARY BOUNDARIES’. WE HAVE ALREADY CROSSED SOME, AND ARE PUSHING OTHERS DANGEROUSLY . PUSHING ‘PLANETARY BOUNDARIES’ SOUMYA DUTTA
    26. 26. DISTRIBUTED, COMMUNITY CONTROLLED MULTIPLE ENERGY COULD BE ONE ANSWER SOUMYA DUTTA WIND SUN  EARTH’s HEAT  PRIMARY BIOLOGICAL / PLANT PRODUCTIVITY OUR ENERGY-NEEDS ARE DISTRIBUTED ALL AROUND THE WORLD, WHERE-EVER WE LIVE. SO ARE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES. WE HAVE VARIETIES OF ENERGY-NEEDS, HEAT, MOTION, LIGHT, …….. RENEWABLES ARE SIMILARLY VARIABLE FOR ORDINARY HUMAN NEEDS, SMALL ENERGY-AMOUNTS ARE NEDED, RENEWABLES ARE ‘DILUTE’ SOURCES;
    27. 27. WHO IN INDIA CONSUMES WHAT AS ENERGY <ul><li>LET’S TAKE A LOOK AT FOSSIL </li></ul><ul><li>FUELS & NUCLEAR FISSION – </li></ul><ul><li>IN THE FOLLOWING SLIDES  </li></ul><ul><li>SOME CONSUMPTION FACTS </li></ul><ul><li>1. PER-CAPITA ELCTR ~640 Kwh/Y </li></ul><ul><li>( ABOUT 40% OF INDIANS HAVE NONE ) </li></ul><ul><li>2. -------------- OIL ~ 113 Kg/Yr. </li></ul><ul><li>( ABOUT 50% INDIANS GET NOTHING ) </li></ul><ul><li>3. -------------- COAL ~ 500 Kg/Yr. </li></ul><ul><li>4. -------------- GAS ~ 1500 SCuFt./Yr </li></ul><ul><li>( ABOUT 80% INDIANS HAVE NO ACCESS) </li></ul><ul><li>5 .----FUEL-WOOD ~600-800Kg/Yr </li></ul><ul><li>/DUNG-CAKE/ … </li></ul><ul><li>( FOR ~68% POOR INDIAN FAMILIES, WHO OFTEN HAS TO PAY Rs.2-3 PER Kg) ! </li></ul><ul><li>POSSIBLY MORE THAN WE PAY FOR </li></ul><ul><li>OUR ‘CLEAN’ FUEL !! </li></ul>ALL THESE ARE AVERAGES , HIDING HUGE DISPARITIES BETWEEN CLASSES & AREAS SOUMYA DUTTA
    28. 28. PETROLEUM – INDIA & THE WORLD INDIA PETROLEUM – PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION WORLD PETROLEUM – PRODUCTION SOUMYA DUTTA 2.5 Mn BARRELS/DAY -vs- 85 Mn BARRELS/DAY 120 CRORE PEOPLE 685 CRORE PEOPLE
    29. 29. NATURAL GAS – INDIA & THE WORLD SOUMYA DUTTA PRODUCTION-CONSUMPTION OF NATURAL GAS STARTED PEAKING UP IN 2000’s
    30. 30. COAL – INDIA AND THE WORLD <ul><li>Country INDIA </li></ul><ul><li>YEAR COAL-Production </li></ul><ul><li>2003 375.4 Mn Tons </li></ul><ul><li>2004 407.7 </li></ul><ul><li>2005 428.4 </li></ul><ul><li>2006 447.3 </li></ul><ul><li>2007 478.4 </li></ul><ul><li>2008 521.7 </li></ul><ul><li>2009 543.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Share of 5.8% (World Prodcn) </li></ul><ul><li>Reserve- ~ 115 Yrs (Life in Yrs.) </li></ul>Soumya Dutta WORLD COAL
    31. 31. ELECTRICITY GENERATION : 1990-2006 WITH ~17% OF WORLD POPULATION, INDIA GENERATES (2006) ~3% OF ITS TOTAL ELECTRICITY; AND MOST OF IT FROM COAL, LARGE HYDRO, GAS. INDIA WORLD SOUMYA DUTTA
    32. 32. THE ELECTRICITY-LOSS/WASTAGE + QUESTION <ul><li>INDIA HAS ~1,64,000 MW INSTALLED </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRICITY CAPACITY (2010); </li></ul><ul><li>~23% OF THIS IS LOST AS T&D LOSS </li></ul><ul><li>FROM PLANT TO USER ! CAN BE 10% , </li></ul><ul><li>EVEN BEFORE, COAL-FIRED TPPs </li></ul><ul><li>WASTE ~67% OF COAL ENERGY AND </li></ul><ul><li>GET ~33% AS ELECTRICITY, OUT OF </li></ul><ul><li>WHICH ~3-4% IS USED FOR PLANT, </li></ul><ul><li>SO, ONLY ~21% OF COAL’s CHEMICAL </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY REACH THE USERS, </li></ul><ul><li>JUST T&D LOSS IS ~37,000MW !! </li></ul><ul><li>ENOUGH TO FEED 9 DELHI’s !!! OR </li></ul><ul><li>30 BIHAR STATES (on present ‘needs’), </li></ul><ul><li>EQUALS ALL 9 NEW UMPPs !! T&D </li></ul><ul><li>AT 10% WILL SAVE ~21,000MW, STILL </li></ul><ul><li>MORE THAN 5 UMPPs >Rs.100K CR. </li></ul><ul><li>HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS </li></ul><ul><li>ARE ALSO LOSING GENERATION </li></ul><ul><li>CAPACITY DUE TO MASSIVE SILT- </li></ul><ul><li>DEPOSITS, AND BAD WATER-PLAN, </li></ul><ul><li>KEEPING DAMS FULL BEFORE RAINS </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSES SUDDEN FLOODS , </li></ul><ul><li>EXCEPT VERY FEW CO-GENERATION / </li></ul><ul><li>COMBINED-CYCLE TPPs /NPPs, ALL </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT THE AIR & WATER AROUND BIG, </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSING HUGE LOSSES TO AQUATIC </li></ul><ul><li>LIFE, LIVELIHOODS (& HEALTH LOSS) </li></ul><ul><li>EXTRA 5 UMPPs MEAN AN EXTRA ~24 </li></ul><ul><li>MILLION TONS OF TOXIC ASH-DUMPING </li></ul><ul><li>-OVER 2 MILLION TONS OF TOXIC ASH </li></ul><ul><li>FLYING IN AIR – CAUSING DISEASES, </li></ul><ul><li>CROP LOSSES, CONTAMINATING WATER </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCES, ………………. </li></ul>SOUMYA DUTTA
    33. 33. INDIA – PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION 2007-08 <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Type * Units * in Original * in Mtoe *% share in * % share in </li></ul><ul><li>Units Prmry Comml In Total </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Primary </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>---------------- -------- ---------------- ------------- ------------- --------------- </li></ul><ul><li>Coal Mt 501.52 215.48 53.54 39.50 </li></ul><ul><li>Lignite Mt 34.65 9.71 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil Mt 139.73 139.73 33.22 24.51 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Gas BCM 32.27 29.07 9.34 6.89 </li></ul><ul><li>LqfdNtrlGas Mt 8.24 10.21 -- -- </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Power Mn KWh 16,777 4.38 1.04 0.77 </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro Power MnKWh 1,28,702 11.07 2.63 1.94 </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Power MnKWh 11,410 0.98 0.23 0.17 </li></ul><ul><li>Primry Comml Enrgy Mtoe 420.62 100.00 73.78 </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Comml Enrgy -Mtoe ( MAINLY BIO-MASS ) 149.50 + 26.22 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Primry Enrgy </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption Mtoe 570.12 = 100.00 </li></ul>SOUMYA DUTTA SOURCE : PLANNING COMMISSION
    34. 34. LARGE NOS. STILL USE TRADITIONAL BIO-MASS DISPLACING FROM FOREST CREATES LARGE MARKET DESIGN BEHIND REDD+, KITCHEN-SOOT SCARE ? MAJOR PORTIONS OF GLOBAL TOTAL RENEWABLE ENERGY IS STILL TRADITIONAL BIO-MASS, USED BY THE POOR FIRE-WOOD LPG DUNG K ERSN > 76% RURAL HOUSE-HOLDS USE FIRE-WOOD, ONLY ~10% RURAL HHs HAVE ACCESS TO LPG OR KEROSENE SOUMYA DUTTA
    35. 35. WHERE IN INDIA ARE THE ENERGY SOURCES AND THE POLLUTING POWER PLANTS THAT CONVERT THIS ENERGY TO USEABLE FORMS ? SOUMYA DUTTA BOTH POLLUTING COAL-PLANTS & DANGEROUS NUCLEAR PLANTS ARE LOCATED CLOSE TO HIGH POPULATION DENSITY AREAS.
    36. 36. ENERGY & MINERAL SOURCE/ PLANT LOCATIONS AND WHO GETS ‘POWER’ FROM THESE SOUMYA DUTTA PERCENTAGE OF ELECTRIFIED RURAL HOUSE-HOLDS -> DARK RED <10%, DARK GREEN > 85% TPPs ARE BLACK-DOTs, COAL-FIELDS –BLUE DROPs , HYDEL PLANTS – BLUE SQRS, ……… CONCENTRATIONS MATCH - IN REVERSE !! OPERATION POWER-HUNT ?
    37. 37. ANOTHER PICTURE OF HUGE DISPARITIES THAT HAVE CHANGED LITTLE IN DECADES 43% - NO ELECTRICITY, 33% - LESS THAN 50 KwH/Month, 11% - 50-100 KwH/M, 13% - >100 KwH/M; (PRAYAS) ELECTRICITY SOUMYA DUTTA HUGE DISPARITIES BETWEEN STATES & BETWEEN URBAN & RURAL – IN ELECTR. CONSUMPTION -> RICH-POOR DIVIDE.
    38. 38. ENERGY-WATER-AIR ARE THE LIFE-NEEDS OF ALL ANIMALS - INCLUDING US WE NEED ENERGY EQUITY & JUSTICE <ul><li>LET THE ENGAGEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>INTENSIFY, </li></ul><ul><li>BEARING THE FRUITS OF </li></ul><ul><li>EQUITABLE SAFE-ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>FOR ALL </li></ul><ul><li>TILL THAT TIME …….. </li></ul><ul><li>THANK YOU ALL </li></ul><ul><li>SOUMYA DUTTA </li></ul>
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