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Grammar Book: 2nd Sem.
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Grammar Book: 2nd Sem.



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  • 1. 2nd Semester: Grammar Book
  • 2.
  • 3. Conditional
    If I could _______, then I would _______.
    Si pudiera _______, (conditional).
    If I could run, I would run more.
    Si pudieracorrer, correríamás.
    For polite requests:
    Me gustaría…
    I would like…
  • 4. Conditional Irregulars
  • 5. Present Perfect
  • 6. Present Perfect Irregulars
  • 7. Past Perfect
  • 8. Subjunctive Perfect
    Used to indicate the action as completed with the verbs in the present or future tense.
  • 9. Tanto y Tan
    Felipe estanalegrecomo Gino.
    Tengo tantodinerocomo Juan.
  • 10. Impersonal “se”
    No se hablaespañolaquí.
    Spanish is not spoken here.
    Se puedejugar en estelugar.
    It is possible to play in this place.
  • 11. Saber vs. Conocer
    Juan sabedondeestáMaría.
    Juan knows where Maria is.
    Yono sétunúmerode teléfono.I don't know your telephone number.
    Yo no conozco a María. I don't know Maria.
    Alberto y Alfredo conocen Madrid. Alberto and Alfredo know Madrid.
  • 12. Formal Affirmative/Negative
    If it is an –arverb, add an:
    -e (singular)
    -en (plural)
    If it is an -er/-irverb, add an:
    -a (singular)
    -an (plural)
  • 13. Formal Irregulars
    -car, -gar, -zar verbs
  • 14. Informal Affirmative/Negative Commands + Irregulars
    N E G A T I V E
    A F F I R M A T I V E
  • 15. DOP/IOP Placement
    The DOP is attached to the end of the affirmative command:
    *the addition of the OP to the end of the command form requires an accent mark over the stressed syllable
  • 16. DOP/IOP Placement
    The DOP and IOP cannot be attached in a negative command and must go between the “no” and the command:
    IOP always goes before the DOP.
  • 17. Nosotros Commands +mono verbs
  • 18. Subjunctive +triggers
    Trigger Phrases:
    esperarque to wish that ... insistir en que ... to insist that ... mandarque ... to order that ... preferirque ... to prefer that ... prohibirque ... to prohibit that ... quererque ... to want that ... esaconsejableque ... it's advisable that ... esnecesarioque ... it's necessary that ... pedirque ... to ask that ... recomendarque ... to recommend that ... rogarque ... to plead that ... sugerirque ... to suggest that ...
  • 19. Present Subjunctive Irregulars
  • 20. Subjunctive Expressed
  • 21. Impersonal Expressions
  • 22. Expressions of Emotion w/Subjunctive
  • 23. Conjuctions of Time
    take the indicative when the action in the subordinate clause is either habitual or in the past. The subjunctive is used when the main clause is a command or in the (potential) future:
  • 24. Demonstrative Pronouns/Adjectives
    Juan reads this book. (adjective)Juan lee estelibro.
    Juan reads this. (pronoun)Juan lee este.