NOW basically what THE gRaphene is all about?Graphene. If you’ve never heard about it, don’t worry, a lot of people haven’t, because it’s really only been “discovered” relatively recently, and most of the truly interesting news about it has been in the couple of years.
Stronrst material……..200 times stronger than steel…..It is packed in the sense that all molecules are equal in size…
Graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms, may be the most amazing and versatile substance available to mankind
In 1960’s it was believed that physically graphene cannot exist a because of thermodynamic unstability
They were awarded by the Nobel Prize at the University of Manchester ,2010
"ballistic" transport could lead to a new generation of superfast, super-efficient electronics.exciting engineers and scientists all over the world with grand new possibilities for all sorts of applications…* Since bus on the motherboard are basic building block which is made of copper.We know that copper is a basic building block of most of the integrated circuit….Gap between valence band and conduction band is very small…..So we can say that at todays date graphene is said to be strongest element on earth……So we can replace copper by graphene in IC’s….
and performed parametric wavelength conversion at telecommunication wavelengthsActive components rely on a source of energy (usually from the DC circuit, which we have chosen to ignore) and usually can inject power into a circuit, though this is not part of the definition. Active components include amplifying components such as transistors, triode vacuum tubes (valves), and tunnel diodes.Passive components can't introduce net energy into the circuit. They also can't rely on a source of power, except for what is available from the (AC) circuit they are connected to. As a consequence they can't amplify (increase the power of a signal), although they may increase a voltage or current (such as is done by a transformer or resonant circuit). Passive components include two-terminal components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transformers.
Which use in transistorAs electrons can fastly transfer through it switch on/off at very high rate as compared to traditional transistors more than tera hertz….. Since we require control over flow of eletrons through it we use bilayer grapheneBECAUSE IN SINGLE LAYER GRAPHENE IT IS DIFFICULT TO CONTROL SPEED OF ELECTRONS….
Graphene-silicon hybrid photonic chip is an important step forward in building all-optical processing elements.We’re talking about that smartphone in your pocket having a thousand times the computing power of your desktop PC, but using no more power than it does right now.that even though it’s running at 1000 times the speed
In silicon,roomtemp does not allow electros to jump from valenece band to conduction band..bcoz energy gap is more in silicon………
Charge-based memory devices such as dynamic random access memory and flash memory, while omnipresent today, proves promising next generation nonvolatile memory change in resistanceResistive RAM
Graphene is the wonder material that could solve the problem of making ever fastercomputers and smaller mobile devices when current silicon microchip technology hits an inevitablewall. Graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms in a tight hexagonal arrangement, has been highlyresearched because of its incredible electronic properties, with theoretical speeds 100 times greaterthan silicon. But putting the material into a microchip that could outperform current silicontechnology has proven difficult.
Graphene promises to revolutionize electronics but we're still waiting for graphene-based technologies to hit the market. Rice University researchers have now created transparent, graphene-based electrodes that they say could be the "killer app" that finally puts graphene into the commercial spotlight.
As ITO is used in almost evrey SMARTPHONE,so indium getting RARE and EXPENSIVE
If anyone is thinking that, why is grapheme for the sensor then the simple answer to this question is that, because of its transparency. Only 2.3% of the passing light is absorbed by this single layer of carbon cells, and the whole process of filtering light is even all across the whole light spectrum. This is the main reason why Nokia believes that this sensor would perform much better than its CMOS sensors in low light conditions.We can capture good images in moon light
in the not-too-distant future.Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes
Obviously, ultrafast computers are going to have a very far-reaching effect on the way we do things, as well as how we interact with each other and our world, so the real questions are how practical is it to make graphene chips, and how soon can they be made? The answer is probably going to surprise you. Graphene has already been proven to be usable in current chip manufacturing processes with only
graphene will not replace silicon in microelectronics; probably, silicon will still be at the heart of computers and microprocessors, but graphene will allow information processing and communication to reach a new level of diffusion in our life; materials
Below, from Rice University why I think the 2030 silicon estimate may be a little too pessimistic. Replacing silicon is the golden fleece of graphene research. There’s too much money to be made by whoever gets there first. I suspect it will be closer to 2020, but then I’m a trader and not a scientist
INTRODUCTION TOGRAPHENE SUPERCOMPUTING Presented by- SAMEER BANSOD SEC-B Roll NO - 151
2 CONTENTS• INTRO-WHAT IS GRAPHENE?• HISTORY-INVENTION• PROPERTIES OF GRAPHENE• ADVANTAGES OVER SILICON• APPLICATIONS IN VARIOUS SECTORS• DESIGN-MOST OF THE COMPUTER PARTS• FUTURE USE• LIMITATIONS• CONCLUSION• REFERENCES
3 INTRO-WHAT IS GRAPHENE?• Graphene is a one-atom- thick planar sheet of carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice.• Graphite itself consists of many graphene sheets stacked together.• It is an allotrope of carbon that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice.
4CONTINUE-• The carbon-carbon bond length in graphene is approximately 0.142 nm.• Strongest material known to science and conducts electricity better than any other known substance.
5• Thin, transparent and flexible substance..• Can be used in touch screen, light panel, solar cells (ITO) and flexible display 
6HISTORY• The theory behind the substance graphene was first explored by Scientist Philip Wallace in 1947’s but didn’t get promising results…• Since then, in the past 8 years, scientists have discovered that the substance retains some amazing properties• After that-----
7The inventors Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov have shown that carbon in such a flat form has exceptional properties
8 PROPERTIES• It is 10 times faster than COPPER.• In Graphene, electrons can flow at very high speed due to a lack of friction.• Graphene is stronger and more flexible than steel and also than diamond.
9• It can carries 1,000 times the density of electric current as compared to copper wires.• With the placement of a sheet of graphene just one-carbon-atom-thick, we transformed the originally passive device into an active one that generate microwave photonic signals
10Properties continue-• Graphene can boost optical nonlinearity, a property required for the digital on/off two-state switching using bilayer graphene and memory. Due to this special property, graphene has wide application in ultrafast photonics
11• The resistance of graphene is so much lower than copper and silicon, it’s not using any more current, or wasting any more energy….
12ADVANTAGES OF GRAPHENE OVERSILICON • Researcher found the velocity of electrons in the GRAPHENE was something like 1,000 times faster than silicon.• Graphene holds remarkable advantages over silicon in terms of processing speed, obviating the need for internal cooling fans as it functions well at room temperature than SILICON...
13NON- Volatile memoriesWhat is bottleneck with traditional RAM’s ???• DRAM face severe technological and physical limitations as device dimensions shrink• So what is an alternative Resistive RAM –- Uses high speed switching mechanism based on change in resistance- It has simple structure,high density and fast switching capabilities.
15 Terahertz devices: terahertz devices WHY TERAHERTZMODULATING DEVICES ?THz waves can carry moreinformation than radio/microwavesfor communications devices WHAT IS BOTTLENECK ?????lack of efficient materials and devices thatmanipulate these energy waves including traditionalsemiconductor devices
16HOW GRAPHENE HELP US IN THISPROBLEM???• Using Graphenes’s high speed switcing property we can sample data at THz speed.• Researchers at the University of Notre Dame have shown that it is possible to efficiently manipulate THz electromagnetic waves with atomically thin graphene layers.
Breakthrough in microchip technology WHAT IS BOTTLENECK ????? • problem of making ever faster computers and smaller mobile devices than current silicon microchip technology HOW GRAPHENE HELP US IN THIS PROBLEM????• Using Graphene & and hexagonal boron nitride has incredible electronicproperties, with theoretical speeds 100 times greater than siliconA team of Penn State researchers hasdeveloped field effect transistors usinggraphene and hexagonal boron nitrideon a 75-millimeter wafer, a significantstep toward graphene-based electronics.
18 OPTOELETRIC DEVICES• BY combining Graphene with silicon photonic crystal structures such as LED’s, We can design optoelectronic device applications, such as ultrafast chip-scale high- speed optical communications.
19 SUPERFAST INTERNET • By combining graphene with metallic nanostructures, they show a 20-fold enhancement in harvesting light by graphene, paves advances in high-speed internet and other communications.• Graphene devices can be incredibly fast and potentially hundred times faster than communication rates in the fastest internet cables..
20 Touch screens • The graphene-based electrodes could be used to replace the increasingly expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) in touch-screen displays. 
21 PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS• Bottleneck- INDIUM is brittle, which rules it out for use in flexible displays and heightens the risk of the screen of your smartphone cracking when the device is dropped. Solution• On the other hand GRAPHENE is flexible, NON BREAKABLE, transparent electronic components, so it is the best choice to replace ITO from SMARTPHONES.
22 Use in CAMERA Sensor PROPERTY:• Graphene absorb only 2.3% of incident light RECENT IMPLEMENTATION• Nokia is already developed 41 MP camera based on a graphene photo detector.• It has already filed a patent for it as well
23Current scenario-IBM in GRAPHENE• Last year, the IBM team demonstrated the first graphene-based transistor, capable of operating at speed of 100 GHz• This transistor showing promising result…SO….
24• IBM integrated transistor into a complete circuit.• The circuit, a 10-gigahertz frequency mixer, could give wireless devices greater range.• This First Graphene-Based Computer Chip Shake Up the Silicon Valley.• Now they are looking toward manufacturing a complete processors..
25 FUTURE USE GRAPHENE might be stuffed into your pocket or wrapped computers around your wrist like watch. PROPERTY USED:• AS Graphene is a Flexible and Ultra-Slim and strong.
26Imagine flexible cell phones.TVs, thin as wallpaper, that youcould roll up and take with you.
27 FUTURE USE• Graphene will use in manufacturing of computer eletronics because it needs minimal retooling.• In fact, IBM has already created working on 30GHz test devices using graphene transistors by 2020.
28• The first products are expected to enter the market by 2014, according to estimates by Samsung.• Many leading electronics companies consider graphene for the next generation of devices. This work certainly boosts graphenes chances even further.
29• A number of multinationals are active in graphene research and development e.g. Intel and IBM in computing, Dow Chemicals and BASF as suppliers of basic graphene material• In other words, graphene could begin making its way into computers as early as 2014 to 2015, and almost certainly by 2020..
30• We might be able to see graphene based photo sensors in Nokia’s smart phones.• Graphene for use in graphene-saturated battery and super-charging capacitor applications ..
31 LIMITATIONS• IBM has revealed that graphene cant yet (Graphene single layer) fully replace silicon inside CPUs, as a graphene transistor cant actually be completely switched off.• Highly complex to implement as compared to semiconductor based electronics.• Some new techniques require to control high electrical conductivity & Fast switching…..because in some cases it is not required.
32 CONCLUSION• – We are convinced that exploiting the full potential of graphene will have huge impacts on society at large.• Better ,efficent & elegent replacement for semiconductor based eletronics devices• Energy efficient as comp ared to other material.• Using low cost devices, transparent flexible displays and touch screens based on graphene seamlessly integrated with plastic.
33• In future New Material, Graphene may replace Silicon in Technology Industry as Experts say....
34 34Why should we get excited aboutgraphene?• It’s extremely thin, it has extremely good connectivity.• What we’ve found that it is bigger substance than what we had expected.• It is called as a ‘MIRACLE’ material,which has an applications in numerous fields..
35CAN WE DESIGHN COMPUTER USINGGRAPHENE ?• Processor Using fast switching property of graphene we can manufacture high speed processor having clk speed 30 GHz – 100 GHz.• Memory • Graphene based super fast resistive memory is 10 times faster than traditional semiconductor RAM’s• On board chips & other components • We can manufacture efficient modulators, demodulators, capacitors , microchips Using graphene
37 REFERENCES(Google) THE RISE OF GRAPHENE.[Online].Available:http://arxiv.org/ftp/condmat/papers/0702/0702595.pdfA.K. Geim and K.S. NovoselovManchester Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology,University of Manchester, Oxford Road M13 9PL, United Kingdom (Google) Valkyrie Ice,”GRAPHENE IS NEXT”.[Online].Available: http://hplusmagazine.com/2010/05/03/graphene-next/operating-system.html, MaY 3, 2010. (Google) First Graphene-Based Computer Chip May Shake UpSilicon Valley.[Online].Available:http://www.foxnews.com/tech/2011/06/13/first-graphene-based-computer-chip-may-shake-up-silicon-valley/ JUNE 13,2011
38 (Google),”GRAPHENE Wonder material ”.[Online].Available: www.Phys.org/grapheneGRAPHENELink site:http://www.focusgraphite.com/technology/grapheneGRAPHENE-FlagshipLink site: http://www.graphene-flagship.eu/GF/reports.php Professor Konstantin Novoselov , Interview,Graphene[Video].Available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e8TrTWdzon4 Dream touch-screens from graphene at Rice University[Video].Available:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e8TrTWdzon4