Plastic pollution


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General lecture about Plastics and its effect on environment

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  • It is twice the size of the continental United States, yet you cannot set foot on it. Scientists have named it “Plastic Soup”, and appropriately so. Floating in the Northern Pacific Ocean lays a huge expanse of plastic refuse. This garbage patch is actually two attached areas on either side of Hawaii, known as the Western and Eastern Pacific Garbage Patches. The Great Pacific Garbage Patch was discovered by Charles Moore, an American oceanographer, in 1997 as he was traveling between Hawaii and Los Angeles on a yacht. Taking a course usually avoided by sailors, he steered his craft through the “North Pacific gyre” (a vortex created by little wind and strong high pressure systems). Here, thousands of miles from land, he discovered and was surrounded by pieces of plastic trash day after day as he steered his yacht through the area over a week’s time period. He believes there is about 100 million tons of debris floating, drifting, and swirling in the Pacific Ocean approximately 500 miles off the coast of California, stretching past the Hawaiian Islands, and extending almost to Japan. Professor David Karl, an oceanographer at the University of Hawaii, is seeking to confirm Mr. Moore’s discovery and is co-coordinating an expedition later this year to locate the garbage patch. He compares the plastic refuse to a new habitat of sorts. Translucent, it lies just below the surface of the ocean and is undetected by satellite photography. The only way it can be seen is by ships sailing through it. Some trash that might end up in ocean gyres is biodegradable. Not so of our modern plastics, however. Plastics as old as 50 years have been recovered from the ocean. Approximately one-fifth of the plastic soup comes from trash discarded from ships and oil platforms. The remaining four-fifths come from land. It is estimated that plastic makes up 90% of all refuse floating in the ocean and the UN Environment Programme estimated recently that each square mile of ocean water contains 46,000 pieces of floating garbage. Not only does the plastic trash pose serious risks to marine mammals and sea birds, but the filth-filled water threatens human health as well. The plastic industry is losing or spilling huge amounts of raw materials each year and much of this makes its way to the seas and oceans. These materials act as chemical sponges and attract synthetic chemicals like hydrocarbons and the pesticide DDT. It is unavoidable for these materials to enter the food chain once they exist in our oceans. Once they enter the food chain, the end of that chain is your dinner plate. The discovery of The Great Pacific Garbage Patch led Mr. Moore to become an environmental activist. He has recently warned consumers that if we do not cut back on our use of disposable plastics, this plastic soup will likely double in size over the next ten years. Like other areas of concentrated marine debris in the world's oceans, the Eastern Garbage Patch formed gradually as a result of marine pollution gathered by oceanic currents. The garbage patch occupies a large and relatively stationary region of the North Pacific Ocean bound by the North Pacific Gyre (a remote area commonly referred to as the horse latitudes). The gyre's rotational pattern draws in waste material from across the North Pacific Ocean, including coastal waters off North America and Japan. As material is captured in the currents, wind-driven surface currents gradually move floating debris toward the center, trapping it in the region. The patch's size is unknown, as large items readily visible from a boat deck are uncommon. Most debris consists of small plastic particles suspended at or just below the surface, making it impossible to detect by aircraft or satellite. [7] Estimates on size range from 700,000 square kilometres (270,000 sq mi) to more than 15,000,000 square kilometres (5,800,000 sq mi) (0.41% to 8.1% of the size of the Pacific Ocean), or "twice the size as continental United States". [8] The area may contain over 100 million tons of debris. [9] It has also been suggested that the patch may represent two linked areas. [10] In August 2009, the Scripps Institute / Project Kaisei SEAPLEX survey mission of the Gyre, found that plastic debris was present in 100 consecutive samples taken at varying depths and net sizes along a 1,700 miles (2,700 km) path through the patch. [11] The survey also confirmed that while the debris field does contain large pieces, it is on the whole made up of smaller items which increase in concentration towards the Gyre's centre, and these 'confetti-like' pieces are clearly visible just beneath the surface. [12] [edit] Sources of pollutants An estimated 80% of the garbage comes from land-based sources, and 20% from ships. A typical 3,000 passenger cruise ship produces over eight tons of solid waste weekly, much of which ends up in the patch. [13] Pollutants range in size from abandoned fishing nets to micro-pellets used in abrasive cleaners. [14] Currents carry debris from the west coast of North America to the gyre in about five years, and debris from the east coast of Asia in a year or less. [15][16] An international research project led by Dr. Hideshige Takada of Tokyo University studying plastic pellets, or nurdles, from beaches around the world may provide further clues about the origins of pelagic plastic. [17]
  • 3 species per hour becoming extinct
  • Plastic pollution

    1. 1. Dr.K.SAMBANDAN Department of Plant Science Avvaiyar Govt College froWomen Karaikal – 609 602
    2. 2. mammoth giant ground sloth edentates
    3. 3. • A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi- synthetic organic solids that are moldable.  • Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass, but  they often contain other substances.  • They are usually synthetic, most commonly derived  from petrochemicals. PlasticsPlastics
    4. 4. • The first man-made plastic was created  by  Alexander Parkes who publicly demonstrated it at the 1862  Great  International Exhibition in London. • The  material  called  Parkesine  was  an  organic material derived from cellulose.  • Celluloid  is  derived  from  cellulose  and  alcoholized  camphor.  John Wesley Hyatt invented celluloid in 1868.  He  created  celluloid  in  a  strip  format  for  movie film.  • By  1900,  movie  film  was  an  exploding  market for celluloid.  History of Plastic
    5. 5. • The vast majority of plastics are composed of  polymers of carbon and hydrogen alone or with  oxygen,  nitrogen,  chlorine  or  sulfur  in  the  backbone.Common plastics type are:   1. Polypropylene  (PP)  - Food  containers,  appliances,  car  fenders (bumpers).  2. Polystyrene  (PS)  -  Packaging  foam,  food  containers,  disposable cups,  plates, cutlery, CD boxes   3. High impact polystyrene (HIPS) - fridge  liners,  food  packaging, vending cups.  4.  Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) - Electronic  equipment cases as computer parts, drainage pipe etc 5. Polyethylene  terephthalate  (PET)  -  carbonated  drinks bottles, jars, plastic film, microwavable packaging 6. Polyester (PES) - Fibers, textiles Chemicals in Plastic
    6. 6. Polyamides (PA) (Nylons) - Fibers,  toothbrush bristles, fishing line, under-the-hood car engine  mouldings Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) - Plumbing  pipes and guttering, shower curtains, window frames,  flooring.  Polyurethanes (PU) - cushioning foams,  thermal insulation foams, surface coatings, printing  rollers.   Polycarbonate (PC) - Compact discs,  eyeglasses, riot shields, security windows, traffic lights,  lenses.  Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) (Saran)  - Food packaging Polyethylene (PE) - Wide range of inexpensive  uses including supermarket bags, plastic bottles.  Polycarbonate/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (PC/ABS) - Car Interior and exterior  parts  Chemicals in Plastic
    7. 7. Plastics used in Medical Industry
    8. 8. PlasticsPlastics
    9. 9. Great Pacific Garbage Patch Great Pacific Garbage Patch
    10. 10. 
    11. 11. • Plastic  is  a  non-biodegradable  substance,  composed  of  toxic  chemicals;  plastic  pollutes  earth, air and water.  • Plastic causes serious damage to environment  both during its production and disposal.   • Plastic  does  not  undergo  bacterial  decomposition  hence  land  filling  using  plastic  would mean preserving the poison forever.  • Plastics are very strong and durable.  • They won't  rot, decay, tear,  crack or dissolve.  Even  500  years  from  now,  the  foam  cup  you  throw away will still be a piece of garbage in a  landfill site. Plastic is 'non-degradable
    12. 12. When  plastic  burned  in  air  it  releases  a  host  of  poisonous  chemicals  into  the  air,  including  dioxin,  the  most  toxic  substance  known  to  science. Plastic when burn in air 1. Dioxins are found throughout the world in the environment and they accumulate in the food chain, mainly in the fatty tissue of animals. 2. Dioxins are highly toxic and can cause reproductive and developmental problems, damage the immune system, interfere with hormones and also cause cancer. 1. Dioxins are found throughout the world in the environment and they accumulate in the food chain, mainly in the fatty tissue of animals. 2. Dioxins are highly toxic and can cause reproductive and developmental problems, damage the immune system, interfere with hormones and also cause cancer.
    13. 13. • Styrofoam is one of the most environmental toxins found in  plastic.  • Polystyrene,  is  manufactured  using  benzene,  from  coal;  styrene, from petroleum; and ethylene, a  "blowing agent"  used in the process since the crackdown on CFCs.  • Extracting  these  raw  materials  generates  air  and  water  pollution,  it  can  lead  to  lung  cancer  and  neurological  problems in factory workers. • Like  all  plastics,  polystyrene  is  non-biodegradable. Even  after  a  take-out  container  has  dissolved  500  years  from  now, its chemical components will still clog the eco-system.  • Research on whether polystyrene chemicals "migrate" from  container  to  food  is  hotly  debated,  but  it's  a  fact  that  styrene has been present in our fatty tissue and breast milk  for the past 30 years.  Plastic poison - Styrofoam
    14. 14.   • Plastic has replaced the traditional material  (paper/cloth etc) as packing and carry bags  because  of  its  low  cost  of  production,  light  weight,  strength,  easy  process  of  manufacture, and availability.  • Plastic bags are so light and strong that they  can carry normal weight, cheap and is used  in all types of shops in our daily life.  • Plastic  bags  have  made  it  possible for  people to go without bags to market or work  place as these bags are availably for asking  and  can  be  thrown  without  a  second  thought. Plastic carry bag: A major source of pollution
    15. 15. • There  are  numerous  hazards  of  plastic  carry  bags.  The  land  gets  littered  by  plastic  bag  garbage  presenting  an  ugly  and  unhygienic  seen.  • The "Throw away culture" results in these bags  finding their way in to the city drainage system,  the  resulting  blockage,  creates  unhygienic  environment  resulting  in  health  hazard  and  spreading of water borne diseases.  • This  littering  also  reduces  rate  of  rain  water  percolating, resulting in lowering of already low  water levels in our cities.  • The soil fertility deteriorates as the plastic bags  form  part  of  manure  remains  in  the  soil  for  Plastic carry bag pollution
    16. 16.  Food and drinks stored in plastic bottles can contain trace amount of Bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic chemical that interferes with the body’s natural hormonal messaging system.  Repeated re-use of such bottles—which get dinged up through normal wear and tear and while being washed— increases the chance that chemicals will leak out of the tiny cracks and crevices that develop over time.  BPA has been linked to breast and uterine cancer, an increased risk of miscarriage, and decreased testosterone levels.  BPA can also wreak havoc on children’s developing systems. Even Plastic Water and Soda Bottles should not be reused.  A tin can that entered the ocean in 1986 is still decomposing in 2006 but a plastic bottle that entered the ocean in 1986 is decomposing in 2436.
    17. 17.  Bottled water consumes roughly 17 million barrels of oil every year. In addition to the 17 million barrels of oil used in production, bottled water consumes gallons and gallons of water.  Again every ton of PET plastic for the bottles produces 3 tons of carbon– adding 2.5 Million tons of carbon dioxide emissions to the 17 million barrels of oil.
    18. 18.  Cattles
    19. 19.  Birds
    20. 20.  Marine animals
    21. 21.  Corels
    22. 22.  Plants
    23. 23. How Made like this?
    24. 24.  Governments have done little & claim they need to focus on more important issues  Underdeveloped countries don’t have funds to enforce stricter anti-pollution laws
    25. 25.  The biggest problem with plastic recycling is that it is difficult to automate the sorting of plastic waste, and so it is labor intensive.  Typically, workers sort the plastic by looking at the resin identification code, though common containers like soda bottles can be sorted from memory.  Only 3.5 percent of all plastics are recycled in any way.  It is estimated that between 500 billion and a trillion plastic bags are consumed worldwide each year.  Less than 1 percent of these are recycled as it costs more to recycle a bag than to produce a new one.
    26. 26.  Recycling of plastic is associated with skin and respiratory problems, resulting from exposure to and inhalation of toxic fumes, especially hydrocarbons and residues released during the process.  What is worse, the recycled plastic degrades in quality and necessitates the production of more new plastic to make the original product.  Recycling of plastic is very uneconomical, dirty and labour-intensive as has been revealed by a study conducted by the Public Interest Research Group, based in Delhi, India.
    27. 27.  Switch to reusable shopping bags. By using ONE reusable cloth bag, you can save up to 6 plastic bags a week  that translates into 24 bags a month  or 288 bags a year  that amounts to 22,176 bags in an average lifetime Recycle your plastic bags. Many grocery stores now collect plastic bags for recycling.
    28. 28.  Some European nations have placed incinerators on their ships to burn all the wastes products  The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships forbids US dumping w/in 320 km of coasts & none at all in the Gulf of Mexico  Chinese cities banned the use of foam lunch boxes  Taiwan banned plastic bags and foam containers  Total Recycling has developed optical technology to improve the manual sorting of mingled plastics to make recycling more efficient
    29. 29. Waste of the households, Shops,etc. Improper garbage system of the area. Irregularity of the Pvt. Garbage contractors. Ignorance of the people about the causes and effects of the plastic pollution. Lack of proper knowledge about the plastic pollution and its effects. Lack of social responsibility and ownership.
    30. 30. Awareness campaigns- Stop using plastic bags. Educate people about the plastic pollution and its effects on our environment. Road show in regards “No to plastic bags”, and display of banners on the walls of slums, colonies and societies areas. Hands with the Municipal Corporation to take the corrective measures, to do timely inspections. Support NSS, NGOs, Volunteer agencies and others to organize “Safai Abhiyan” in all Society slums, colonies and rural areas. Social responsibility, commitment and ownership by every individual may control the problem.
    31. 31.  Pollution is mainly caused by the activities of people. It is important to realize that the activities of people can also reduce pollution. Everyone can help!
    32. 32. We realize that out environment is degrading day by day due to plastic pollution because it does not destroy easily and take a long time to destroy. Now lets take a pledge together.  We will stop the use of plastic bags and will use reusable cloth bags only.  We pledge that we will educate our community people to save our environment.  We will share the possible solution of Plastic Pollution with community people
    33. 33. GLOBAL WARMIN G
    34. 34.  Pollution is happening.  Earth is dissipating.  The ozone layer is getting bigger.  Arctic ice is disappearing.  Humans are dumping carbon dioxide in the earth.
    35. 35. Icy mountains are Melting in Greenland
    36. 36. Melting of Glacier ice sheets in Antarctica
    37. 37. Switzerland USA
    38. 38. Maldives
    39. 39. Maldives
    40. 40. - Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar, 2008: 100000 estimated deaths
    41. 41. Corals
    42. 42.  Humans  Tectonic plate movement  Reversal of earth’s poles content/uploads/2009/02/global_warming.jpg
    43. 43.
    44. 44. Bee pollination in Aegle marmelos
    45. 45. One third of the world’s population is now subject to water scarcity Population facing water scarcity will more than double over the next 30 years Climate change is projected to decrease water availability in many arid- and semi- arid regions
    46. 46. Source: Menzel, 2005Source: Menzel, 2005
    47. 47. © 2005 PETER MENZEL PHOTOGRAPHY© 2005 PETER MENZEL PHOTOGRAPHY Source: Menzel, 2005Source: Menzel, 2005 Food for a Week, for German Family
    48. 48. Don’t Forget
    49. 49. Our Gift for future Generations
    50. 50. Thank you