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Addressing security concerns through BPM

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  • 1. Addressing security concerns through BPM Concept note A. Samarin
  • 2. About me• An enterprise architect – From a programmer to a systems architect – Experience in scientific, international, governmental and industry environments: CERN, ISO, IOC, BUPA, Groupe Mutuel, State of Geneva, EDQM, Bund ISB, AfDB – Have created systems which work without me – Practical adviser for design and implementation of enterprise architectures and solutions• My main “tool” is a blend of: – BPM, SOA, EA, ECM, governance and strategy• Blog http://improving-bpm-systems.blogspot.com/• PhD in Computer Graphics and 2 published books© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 2
  • 3. Agenda• Some security concerns• Briefly about intersection of BPM and security• Processes and business objects life-cycle• Activity “touch-points”• Relationships between activities© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 3
  • 4. Typical security concerns• Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability• Modern security techniques are good at the technical and application levels not at business level yet• WHO can DO something with WHAT at particular WHEN and WHERE?• Need to link ACTORS, ACTIVITIES, and BUSINESS- OBJECTS (data structures and documents)• Such a linkage must be dynamic• Also such a linkage must be explicit and executable: – to analyse the security in design-time – to anticipate security in run-time© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 4
  • 5. Business Process Management (BPM) is a tool for improving business performance A natural evolution of BPR, A multitude of tools Lean, ISO 9001, 6 Sigma “handle” processesThe theory The toolsBPM as a disciplinehave a single The aim is to BPM as software:(use processes to business description of BPM suite (BPMS) processes:manage an - model in designenterprise) - input for project planning and execution An enterprise portfolio - executable program for of the business coordination of work processes as well as - documentation for all the practices and tools staff members for governing the - basis for management design, execution and decisions evolution of this The practice portfolio Any process-centric enterprise has some BPM, but how can we industrialise this BPM? © A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 5
  • 6. Process anatomy (1)• The business is driven by events• For each event there is a process to be executed• Process coordinates execution of activities• The execution is carried out in accordance with business rules© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 6
  • 7. Process anatomy (2)• Each business activity operates with some business objects• A group of staff member (business role) is responsible for the execution of each activity• The execution of business processes produces audit trails• Audit trails (which are very detailed) are also used for the calculation of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 7
  • 8. Different enterprise artefacts• Business artefacts – Events Human – Processes “workflow” Data structures – Activities Roles – Roles Documents Events – Rules Rules Processes – Data & documents Services Audit trails – Audit trails KPIs – Performance indicators – Services• Organisational and technical artefacts …© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 8
  • 9. Be ready for common (mis-)understanding about process© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 9
  • 10. Business processes are complex relationships between artefacts• WHO (roles) is doing WHAT (business objects), WHEN (coordination of activities), WHY (business rules), HOW (business activities) and with WHICH Results (performance indicators)• Make these relationships explicit and executable What you model is what you execute© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 10
  • 11. Practical Process Pattern: Double Check (DC)© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 11
  • 12. Practical Process Pattern: Initial Process Skeleton (IPS) Mandatory: different actors because of the separation of duties Potentially: different actors because of performance impact – avoid assigning mechanical (low-qualified “red”) activities and added-value (“green”) activities to the same actors© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 12
  • 13. Build security into business processes: access control (1)• Align access rights with the work to be done Do something Grant necessary rights to Revoke an actor who will carry previously out this activity to access granted rights involved business objects© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 13
  • 14. Build security into business processes: access control (2)• Align security of a business object (e.g. an organisational document) with the work progress (preparation of this document) Personal Group Committee Management version drafting review approval Private Confidential Secret Top-secret Public© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 14
  • 15. Process and Business Object (BO) life- cycle• One process instance may handle many BOs life-cycle• One BO life-cycle may be managed by many process instances• IT understand better BO life-cycles• Business understand better processes• Many variants of duration process instance vs. BO life- cycle BO1 BO2 BO3 Process instance 1 BO4 Time© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 15
  • 16. Processes, BO life-cycles and events• Changes (e.g. evolving to next phase in life-cycle or starting of process instance) are initiated by events• Events can be temporal, external, internal, spontaneous• Events can be generated from processes and life-cycles• Enterprise-wide “event-dispatcher” is necessary; thinking about Event Processing Network (EPN), Complex Event Processing (CEP) and decision management BO1 BO2 BO3 Process instance 1 BO4 Time© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 16
  • 17. Example: Document life-cycles• Typical phases: Creation, Dissemination, Use, Maintenance, Disposition• For each phase, it is necessary to know: – initiating / terminating events – permissions for roles – expected duration – master repository – copy or cache repositories – volume (number of objects and size in Mb) estimation – annual growth estimation• Documents maybe multi-versioned and compound© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 17
  • 18. One version case Destroy In-active availability Long-term archive Active Formal availability actions including records Publish management Creation Time Key: Evolving document Mature document (no further evolution) Frozen document (for long-time preservation)© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 18
  • 19. A few versions case – typical for organisational documents DestroyIn-activeavailability Long-term archive Active availability Publish Creation Time Edition 1 Edition 2 Edition 3 Key: Evolving document Mature document (no further evolution) Frozen document (for long-time preservation) through BPM v7 © A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns 19
  • 20. Creation in more details PublishDocumentevolutionduringcreationphase Time Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Key: Evolving document Mature document (no further evolution) Frozen document (for long-time preservation) Document with no clearly Addressing destinyconcerns through destroy) © A. Samarin 2013 defined security (preserve or BPM v7 20
  • 21. Creation in more details – more roles PublishDocument Role Bevolutionduringcreationphase Role A Time Version 1 Version 2 Version 3 Version 4 Key: Evolving document Mature document (no further evolution) Frozen document (for long-time preservation) © A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 21
  • 22. A compound document case – typical for business documents DestroyHistoricalinterest Long-term archiveOperationalinterest Publish or CloseActive Time Start of Finish of Finish of Finish of business case business case retention 1 retention 2Key: Evolving document Mature document (no further evolution) © A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 22 Frozen document (for long-time preservation)
  • 23. An electronic enterprise archive as a BPM system (1)• (from http://fr.slideshare.net/samarin/creating-a-synergy- between-bpm-and-electronic-archives)• Events – New record received – Retention period of a dossier expired (security may change) – Access to records requested – ...• Business objects – Records – Dossiers – Documents – Calendars© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 23
  • 24. An electronic enterprise archive as a BPM system (2)• Rules – Retention calendar – Classifications – Naming conventions – Filing plan – ...• KPIs (consider service level agreements) – Yearly acquicition transfer from current to semi-current archive < 2 weeks© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 24
  • 25. “Touch-points” for an activity (1) in addition to the flow of control• Doing the work – ROLES to carry the work – ROLES to be consulted (before the work is completed) – ROLES to be informed (after the is completed) – To which ROLES the work can be delegated – To which ROLES the work can be send for review• Sourcing the work – Other ACTIVITIES to provide the input – Other ACTIVITIES to check the input• Validating the work – Other ACTIVITIES to check the output (errors and fraud prevention)© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 25
  • 26. “Touch-points” for an activity (2) in addition to the flow of control• Guiding the work – ACTIVITIES/BOs to provide the guidance (or business rules)• Assuring the work – other ACTIVITIES to handle escalations and exceptions – other ACTIVITIES to audit (1st, 2nd and 3rd party auditing) – other ACTIVITIES to evaluate the risk (before the work is started) – other ACTIVITIES to evaluate the risk (after the work is completed) – other ACTIVITIES to certify (1st, 2nd and 3rd party certification or conformity assessment)• Some ACTIVITIES can be carried out by the same actor, some ACTIVITIES must not© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 26
  • 27. Relationships between activities (1)• Those “touch-points” forms a base for establishing relationships between activities• Example – “Activitiy_B” relates to Activity_A as “Validating the work” – No actors must be assigned to both “Role_1” and “Role_2” Role_2 Role_1 Carry out the work Activity_B Carry out the work Validating the work Activity_A© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 27
  • 28. Relationships between activities (2)• It is mandatory to guarantee that all “touch-points” are covered (MECE principle) – By other activities and roles – By explicit decisions• Security provisions from some standards can be formally expressed and validated – ISO 9000 – COBIT – SOHO – Basel ? – PMI – Prince 2?© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 28
  • 29. More information to be considered• In addition to usual business objects (data and documents), it is necessary to secure all BPM artefacts – Events – Roles – Rules – Services – Process templates – Audit trails – KPIs – Process instances – Archived process instances© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 29
  • 30. Technical risks involved• Each BPM artefact is implemented as a service• Such a service is implemented with technical artefacts (database, application, server, cloud, etc.)• Such, security for BPM artefacts can be derived from the security of technical artefacts© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 30
  • 31. Conclusions• BPM (via explicit and executable processed) can address some security concerns• BPMN is the base for enriching process models (similar to as HTML is enriched by CSS)• Security can be evaluated at design-time (proactively) and run-time (actively)• Thus BPM can facilitate the operational risk management (see http://improving-bpm- systems.blogspot.com/2011/10/ea-view-on-enterprise- risk-management.html)© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 31
  • 32. THANKS© A. Samarin 2013 Addressing security concerns through BPM v7 32

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