Communist economic policies were unsuccessful PM and general secretary of the communist party, MatyasRakosi, didn’t react to problems New Course = Reform programrelaxed pace of industrialization allowed peasants to leave collective farms relaxed police terror reformed the administration increased quality of life Hungarians were not happy with the new prime minister -> leads to the revolt
Demands included: ○ withdrawal of Soviet troops from the country ○ appointment of a new government with Imre Nagy as prime minister ○ political pluralism ○ new economic policy ○ Communists put on trial
Action plan promised reduced state economic planning and greater freedom for both industry and agriculture, a commitment to economic quality between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, protection of civil liberties, and autonomy for Dubcek's native Slovakia.Soviets viewed a rejection of the Soviet political and economic model
Polish social movementDemands included: a right to form independent labor unions, a right to strike, freedom of speech and press, freeing of political prisoners, and numerous social and economic demands.Large union concerned sovietsIn fighting for workers' rights in Poland, Lech Walesa led the Solidarity movement that for a time unified the reformist desires of the entire nation.
During WWII, Yugoslavia held off axis powers without help from major powers -> Reduced Soviet influencerefusal to accept Moscow as central power -> Nationalism!
1. Imre Nagy2.Brief era of political, cultural, and economic liberalization3. a right to form independent labor unions, a right to strike, freedom of speech and press, freeing of political prisoners, and numerous social and economic demands.4. They held off axis powers without help from major powers.
Communism vs Nationalism
By Samantha Upperman and Shilpa Narayanan
Causes USSR had strong control over the Eastern European countries Many of the Eastern European countries were “puppet states” Nationalistic feelings were suppressed by the Soviets
MotivationsCommunists Nationalists Maintain control of Eastern Remove USSR influence and European countries as a control shield from Western Spread Nationalism through invasions Eastern Europe to combat the Spread communism spread of communism Extend Soviet power
Hungarian Revolt of 1956 Background: Summer of 1953 - Hungarian economy was in deep crisis Imre Nagy replaces Matyas Rakosi as Prime Minister and begins reform program Nikita Khrushchev, head of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, was concerned by the reforms and forced Nagy to resign in 1955 Statue of Stalin, pulled over and surrounded by people.
Hungarian Revolt of 1956, cont. Hungarian students begin a youth group that creates a list of demands for the government They held a demonstration on Oct. 23, 1955. It began peacefully but turned violent. Soviets appoint Nagy as the Prime Minister until Nov. 4 to appease protesters Soviets invade Hungary on Nov. 4 Severe repressive measures were instituted Executed hundreds, including Nagy Imprisoned thousands Hungarian refugees leave Budapest following the failed revolution
Prague Spring of 1968 Brief era of political, cultural, and economic liberalization Began when Czech Communist Party announced “Action Plan” Reforms worried Soviets They sent a letter to the Czech government demanding that they stop the reforms Czechs refused to stop reforms Aug. 20–21, 1968 – 500,000 Soviet troops invade Czechoslovakia and the reforms were ended
Solidarity Movement 1980 – Communist government announced price increases Factories stopped production and went on strike Created a list of demands Aug. 1980 – Government agrees to demands and workers begin to form unions founding committees decided to erect one central general labor union called Solidarity Formed one large union (54% of all workers) Dec. 1981 – Government declares Solidarity illegal 1982 – Underground Solidarity movement created June 1989 – Solidarity formed the first non- communist government in post-World War II Poland
Yugoslavia After World War II, Yugoslavia was proclaimed a republic and they started a government based on the Soviet Union The new government was highly influenced by Soviet leaders 1948 – Yugoslavia splits from the international communist movement due to refusal to accept Moscow as central power Yugoslavia establishes a more liberal socialist movement with two political parties
Effects Hungarian Revolt: Soviet control over Central Europe strengthened They suppress all opposition Many Hungarians leave the country Prague Spring of 1968: Reform ended in Czechoslovakia The old political and economical systems were restored Solidarity Movement: First non-communist government in post-World War II Poland. The union activism by Lech Walesa brought down the communist government of Poland, resulting in free elections in 1989
Quiz!1. Who replaced Matyas Rakosi as Prime Minister in Hungary?2. What was the Prague Spring?3. What was one of the demands made by the members of the Solidarity Movement?4. Why did the Soviet Union have a lesser influence on Yugoslavia?