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Human Sexuality

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  • 1. Power Point Presentation for Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Prepared by Jim Dolan, Ph.D.
    • This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:
    • any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;
    • preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images;
    • any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
  • 2. Chapter 1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 3. In this chapter…
    • What Is Human Sexuality?
    • Sexuality and Values
    • Thinking Critically about Human Sexuality
    • Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 4. What Is Human Sexuality?
    • Sex can refer to:
      • Anatomic sex of male or female
      • Anatomic structures
      • Behaviors
      • Feelings and desires
      • Sex vs. Gender
    • Human sexuality refers to:
      • Our experiences and our expressions of ourselves as sexual beings, which are affected by our culture
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 5. What Is Human Sexuality?
    • Studying human sexuality:
      • Interdisciplinary
        • Anthropology: cultural differences & similarities
        • Biology: physiology of arousal & response
        • Psychology: formation of sexual behavior & attitudes
        • Sociology: relations between sexuality and demographic categories (race, religion, SES, etc.)
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 6. What Is Human Sexuality?
    • Sexuality and Values
      • Pluralistic society embraces wide range of sexual attitudes and values
      • Values influence sexual attitudes & behavior
        • Values: the qualities in life that are deemed important or unimportant, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 7. What Is Human Sexuality?
    • Sexuality and Values
      • Sources of values for decision making:
        • Parents
        • Peers
        • Religious doctrines
        • Ethnicity
        • Mainstream culture
        • The appraisal of these sources
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 8. What Is Human Sexuality?
    • Sexuality and Values
      • Value systems:
        • Legalism – moral laws from an external source
        • Situational Ethics – decision making is context-dependent and rules are flexible
        • Ethical Relativism – no one correct moral view, but rather diversity in beliefs is considered natural and based upon culture
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 9. What Is Human Sexuality?
    • Sexuality and Values
      • Value systems (cont’d):
        • Hedonism – decisions based on pursuing pleasure
        • Asceticism – self-denial of desires
        • Utilitarianism – decisions based on bringing about the most good and avoiding harm
        • Rationalism – use of intellect and reasoning
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 10. What Is Human Sexuality?
    • Critical Thinking
      • Scrutinizing definitions of terms and evaluating the premises of arguments and their logic
    • Critical Thinkers
      • Maintain open minds
      • Suspend beliefs until they have obtained and evaluated the evidence
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 11. What Is Human Sexuality?
    • Critical Thinking
      • Being skeptical
      • Examine definitions
      • Examine assumptions or premises of arguments
      • Be cautious about drawing conclusions
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 12. What Is Human Sexuality?
    • Critical Thinking
      • Consider alternative interpretations of research
      • Consider the kinds of evidence upon which conclusions are based
      • Do not oversimplify
      • Do not overgeneralize
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 13. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • The Historical Perspective
      • Places sexual behavior and attitudes in context
      • Allows consideration of trends in sexual behaviors and attitudes
        • Historical analyses show little evidence of universal sexual behaviors and customs
        • Religion has played a major role
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 14. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • The Historical Perspective
      • Prehistoric Sexuality
        • Female idolatry
        • Phallic worship
          • Penis viewed as symbol of power
        • Phallic symbols
        • Incest taboo
          • The prohibition against intercourse and reproduction among close blood relatives
          • Present in some form in all human societies
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 15. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • The Historical Perspective
      • The Ancient Hebrews
        • Emphasized procreative function of sex
          • Same-sex sexual relations were strongly condemned.
          • Adultery was not allowed, at least for women.
          • Polygamy , the practice of having two or more spouses (wives) at the same time, was permitted.
          • However, most Hebrews were monogamous .
        • Sex strengthened marriage and solidified family
          • Minimum frequency of relations within marriage legislated
        • Women considered property of men
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 16. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • The Historical Perspective
      • The Ancient Greeks
        • Valued family life
        • Admired male body of muscle and health
        • Gods viewed as sexually adventurous
        • Viewed men and women as bisexual
        • Male-male sex was considered normal as long as it did not interfere with the family
          • Pederasty , or love of boys, by older men was condoned as long as the boy was not prepubescent
        • Prostitution was very popular
          • Courtesans : prostitutes, usually the mistress of a noble or wealthy man
          • Concubines : a secondary wife, usually of lower status
        • Women held low social status
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 17. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • The Historical Perspective
      • The Ancient Romans
        • Elite practiced sexual excesses, such as orgies, bestiality, and sadism
        • The family was seen as the source of integrity of the Roman empire and male-male sexual behavior was met with disapproval
        • Women considered husbands’ property
        • Sexual terms still in use have Roman cultural roots:
          • Fellatio
          • Cunnilingus
          • Fornication
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 18. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • The Historical Perspective
      • The Early Christians
        • Temptations of flesh distractions from spiritual devotion
        • Sex was restricted to marriage and was for procreation and not for pleasure
          • Lust made sexual expression inherently evil
        • Masturbation, prostitution, same-sex sexual relations, oral-genital contact, and anal intercourse were strictly forbidden and viewed as sinful
        • Divorce was outlawed
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 19. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • The Historical Perspective
      • Islam
        • The Islamic tradition values marriage and sexual fulfillment in marriage only
        • Only men may have more than one spouse
        • Social interactions between men and women restricted
      • India
        • Hinduism views sex as a religious duty
        • Sexual fulfillment can lead to reincarnation at a higher level
        • Kama Sutra
      • Far East
        • Taoism (China) – sex is a form of worship that leads to harmony with nature, as well as immortality
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 20. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • The Historical Perspective
      • The Middle Ages
        • Conflicting views of women:
          • Sinful, as Eve
          • Saintly, as Mary – this view elevated women’s status
      • The Protestant Reformation
        • Priests allowed to marry and rear children
        • Sex not just for procreation
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 21. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • The Historical Perspective
      • Coming to America
        • Early settlers brought Western views
          • Each religion stressed ideals of family life and that sex outside of marriage was immoral
        • Women’s place was in the home and fields
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 22. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • The Historical Perspective
      • The Victorian Era
        • Sexuality was repressed
          • Not discussed in public
          • Women thought to have no sexual feelings
          • Men thought to be drained of health & vitality by sex
        • Despite these prohibitions, prostitution was quite common
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 23. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • The Historical Perspective
      • The Foundations of the Scientific Study of Sexuality
        • Began during the Victorian Era
        • Sexologists gained credence
          • Havelock Ellis
          • Richard von Krafft-Ebing
          • Sigmund Freud
          • Alfred Kinsey
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 24. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • The Historical Perspective
      • The Sexual Revolution
        • During the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s sexual attitudes and behaviors became more liberal
        • Forces that brought about the revolution include
          • The Vietnam War
          • The fear of the nuclear bomb
          • The birth-control pill
          • The mass media
        • Discussion and portrayals of sexuality accepted & commonplace
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 25. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • The Historical Perspective
      • Gay activism
        • Arose during the sexual revolution
        • AIDS education, prevention, and treatment
      • Sex research
        • Sexually explicit questionnaires
        • Masters & Johnson laboratory research
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 26. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • The Historical Perspective
      • Recent trends:
        • More teens sexually active
        • Teens are becoming sexually active at younger ages
        • Female sexuality is accepted
        • Sex is discussed openly
          • Pornography commonplace
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 27. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • The Biological Perspective
      • Studies role of genes, hormones, the nervous system, and other biological factors in sexuality
      • Mechanisms of arousal and reproduction
        • Overcoming sexual and fertility problems
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 28. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • The Evolutionary Perspective
      • Evolution : the development of a species to its present state
      • Natural selection
        • The evolutionary process by which adaptive traits enable members of a species to survive to reproductive age and transmit these traits to future generations
      • Evolutionary psychologists suggest that there is a genetic basis to social behavior, including human sexual behavior
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 29. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • The Evolutionary Perspective
      • Erotic plasticity
      • Altruism
      • Sex partners
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 30. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • The Sociological Perspective
      • Examine effect of cultural institutions and beliefs on sexual behavior and attitudes
      • Societies differ widely in sexual attitudes, practices, customs, e.g.
        • Marriage
        • Sex partners
        • Masturbation
        • Kissing
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 31. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • Psychological Perspectives
      • Psychological influences on that affect our sexual behavior and our experience of being male or female, e.g.
        • Perception
        • Learning
        • Motivation
        • Emotion
        • Personality
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 32. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • Psychological Perspectives
      • Psychoanalytic Perspective (Sigmund Freud)
        • Biological sex drives controlled by society
        • Conscious and unconscious mind
        • The conflicting personality structures of the id, ego, superego
        • Dream analysis to reveal unconscious ideas and impulses
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 33. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • Psychological Perspectives
      • Psychoanalytic Perspective (Freud)
        • Erogenous zones
          • Parts of the body, including but not limited to the sex organs, that are responsive to sexual stimulation.
        • Psychosexual development
          • Children progress through stages focused on different erogenous zones and conflicts.
            • Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
            • Fixation, or arrested development, is possible at each stage.
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 34. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • Psychological Perspectives
      • Learning Theories
        • Behaviorists
          • Focus on the effects of rewards and punishment on behavior
        • Cognitive Views
          • Emphasize cognitive activity (problem solving, expectations, decision making, etc.)
          • Social-Cognitive theory
            • Learn by observation and reinforcement
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 35. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • Feminist Theory
      • Challenges such traditional views as
        • Men as breadwinners, women as homemakers
        • Men as political policymakers
        • Men as sexual “aggressors” and women as sexual “gatekeepers”
        • Men as objective, rational beings and women as emotional, irrational creatures
      • Asserts men have no right to control a women’s body
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 36. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • Queer Theory
      • Theory of the psychology and sociology of gender roles and sexual orientation
      • Challenges heterosexist assumptions
      • Asserts sexuality is more varied than those in power want to believe
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 37. Perspectives on Human Sexuality
    • Multiple Perspectives
      • Necessary given the complexity and range of human sexual behavior
      • Each has something to offer
      • Adds to the richness of our understanding
    Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.