Human Sexuality

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Human Sexuality

  1. 1. Power Point Presentation for Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. <ul><li>Prepared by Jim Dolan, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: </li></ul><ul><li>any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; </li></ul><ul><li>preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; </li></ul><ul><li>any rental, lease, or lending of the program. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Chapter 1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. In this chapter… <ul><li>What Is Human Sexuality? </li></ul><ul><li>Sexuality and Values </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking Critically about Human Sexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives on Human Sexuality </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. What Is Human Sexuality? <ul><li>Sex can refer to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomic sex of male or female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomic structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings and desires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex vs. Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human sexuality refers to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our experiences and our expressions of ourselves as sexual beings, which are affected by our culture </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. What Is Human Sexuality? <ul><li>Studying human sexuality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdisciplinary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropology: cultural differences & similarities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biology: physiology of arousal & response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology: formation of sexual behavior & attitudes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sociology: relations between sexuality and demographic categories (race, religion, SES, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. What Is Human Sexuality? <ul><li>Sexuality and Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pluralistic society embraces wide range of sexual attitudes and values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values influence sexual attitudes & behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Values: the qualities in life that are deemed important or unimportant, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. What Is Human Sexuality? <ul><li>Sexuality and Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources of values for decision making: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religious doctrines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mainstream culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The appraisal of these sources </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. What Is Human Sexuality? <ul><li>Sexuality and Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value systems: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legalism – moral laws from an external source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Situational Ethics – decision making is context-dependent and rules are flexible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical Relativism – no one correct moral view, but rather diversity in beliefs is considered natural and based upon culture </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. What Is Human Sexuality? <ul><li>Sexuality and Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value systems (cont’d): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hedonism – decisions based on pursuing pleasure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asceticism – self-denial of desires </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Utilitarianism – decisions based on bringing about the most good and avoiding harm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rationalism – use of intellect and reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. What Is Human Sexuality? <ul><li>Critical Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrutinizing definitions of terms and evaluating the premises of arguments and their logic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical Thinkers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain open minds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspend beliefs until they have obtained and evaluated the evidence </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. What Is Human Sexuality? <ul><li>Critical Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being skeptical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine definitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine assumptions or premises of arguments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be cautious about drawing conclusions </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. What Is Human Sexuality? <ul><li>Critical Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider alternative interpretations of research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the kinds of evidence upon which conclusions are based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not oversimplify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not overgeneralize </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>The Historical Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Places sexual behavior and attitudes in context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows consideration of trends in sexual behaviors and attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Historical analyses show little evidence of universal sexual behaviors and customs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion has played a major role </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>The Historical Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prehistoric Sexuality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female idolatry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phallic worship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Penis viewed as symbol of power </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phallic symbols </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incest taboo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The prohibition against intercourse and reproduction among close blood relatives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Present in some form in all human societies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>The Historical Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ancient Hebrews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasized procreative function of sex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same-sex sexual relations were strongly condemned. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adultery was not allowed, at least for women. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polygamy , the practice of having two or more spouses (wives) at the same time, was permitted. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, most Hebrews were monogamous . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex strengthened marriage and solidified family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum frequency of relations within marriage legislated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women considered property of men </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>The Historical Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ancient Greeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valued family life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Admired male body of muscle and health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gods viewed as sexually adventurous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Viewed men and women as bisexual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male-male sex was considered normal as long as it did not interfere with the family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pederasty , or love of boys, by older men was condoned as long as the boy was not prepubescent </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prostitution was very popular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtesans : prostitutes, usually the mistress of a noble or wealthy man </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concubines : a secondary wife, usually of lower status </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women held low social status </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>The Historical Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ancient Romans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elite practiced sexual excesses, such as orgies, bestiality, and sadism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The family was seen as the source of integrity of the Roman empire and male-male sexual behavior was met with disapproval </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women considered husbands’ property </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual terms still in use have Roman cultural roots: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fellatio </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cunnilingus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fornication </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>The Historical Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Early Christians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temptations of flesh distractions from spiritual devotion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex was restricted to marriage and was for procreation and not for pleasure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lust made sexual expression inherently evil </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Masturbation, prostitution, same-sex sexual relations, oral-genital contact, and anal intercourse were strictly forbidden and viewed as sinful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divorce was outlawed </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>The Historical Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Islamic tradition values marriage and sexual fulfillment in marriage only </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only men may have more than one spouse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social interactions between men and women restricted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduism views sex as a religious duty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual fulfillment can lead to reincarnation at a higher level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kama Sutra </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Far East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taoism (China) – sex is a form of worship that leads to harmony with nature, as well as immortality </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>The Historical Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Middle Ages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicting views of women: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sinful, as Eve </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saintly, as Mary – this view elevated women’s status </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Protestant Reformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Priests allowed to marry and rear children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex not just for procreation </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>The Historical Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coming to America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early settlers brought Western views </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each religion stressed ideals of family life and that sex outside of marriage was immoral </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women’s place was in the home and fields </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>The Historical Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Victorian Era </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexuality was repressed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not discussed in public </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women thought to have no sexual feelings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men thought to be drained of health & vitality by sex </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Despite these prohibitions, prostitution was quite common </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>The Historical Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Foundations of the Scientific Study of Sexuality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Began during the Victorian Era </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexologists gained credence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Havelock Ellis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Richard von Krafft-Ebing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alfred Kinsey </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>The Historical Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sexual Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s sexual attitudes and behaviors became more liberal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forces that brought about the revolution include </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Vietnam War </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The fear of the nuclear bomb </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The birth-control pill </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The mass media </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion and portrayals of sexuality accepted & commonplace </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>The Historical Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gay activism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arose during the sexual revolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AIDS education, prevention, and treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexually explicit questionnaires </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Masters & Johnson laboratory research </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>The Historical Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent trends: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More teens sexually active </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teens are becoming sexually active at younger ages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female sexuality is accepted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex is discussed openly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pornography commonplace </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>The Biological Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies role of genes, hormones, the nervous system, and other biological factors in sexuality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanisms of arousal and reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overcoming sexual and fertility problems </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>The Evolutionary Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution : the development of a species to its present state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The evolutionary process by which adaptive traits enable members of a species to survive to reproductive age and transmit these traits to future generations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary psychologists suggest that there is a genetic basis to social behavior, including human sexual behavior </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>The Evolutionary Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erotic plasticity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altruism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex partners </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>The Sociological Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine effect of cultural institutions and beliefs on sexual behavior and attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Societies differ widely in sexual attitudes, practices, customs, e.g. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marriage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex partners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Masturbation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kissing </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  31. 31. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>Psychological Perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological influences on that affect our sexual behavior and our experience of being male or female, e.g. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  32. 32. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>Psychological Perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytic Perspective (Sigmund Freud) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biological sex drives controlled by society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conscious and unconscious mind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The conflicting personality structures of the id, ego, superego </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dream analysis to reveal unconscious ideas and impulses </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  33. 33. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>Psychological Perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoanalytic Perspective (Freud) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erogenous zones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parts of the body, including but not limited to the sex organs, that are responsive to sexual stimulation. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychosexual development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children progress through stages focused on different erogenous zones and conflicts. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixation, or arrested development, is possible at each stage. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  34. 34. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>Psychological Perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviorists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the effects of rewards and punishment on behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Views </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize cognitive activity (problem solving, expectations, decision making, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social-Cognitive theory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learn by observation and reinforcement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  35. 35. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>Feminist Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges such traditional views as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men as breadwinners, women as homemakers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men as political policymakers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men as sexual “aggressors” and women as sexual “gatekeepers” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men as objective, rational beings and women as emotional, irrational creatures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asserts men have no right to control a women’s body </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  36. 36. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>Queer Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory of the psychology and sociology of gender roles and sexual orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges heterosexist assumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asserts sexuality is more varied than those in power want to believe </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  37. 37. Perspectives on Human Sexuality <ul><li>Multiple Perspectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary given the complexity and range of human sexual behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each has something to offer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adds to the richness of our understanding </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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