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  • 1. Behaviorism: A Learning Theory By: Samantha Pickering
  • 2. Behaviorism Defined
    • “ a school of psychology that takes the objective evidence of behavior (as measured responses to stimuli) as the only concern of its research and the only basis of its theory without reference to conscious experience”
      • Source: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/behaviorism
  • 3. Key Players in Behaviorism
    • Ivan Pavlov
      • Conducted an experiment with dogs in which a bell was rung every time the canines were fed. Subsequently, the dogs learnt to salivate at the sound of the bell because they associated it with food.
      • This method of training was called “classical conditioning.”
    • Photo Credit: Wikipedia.com
  • 4. Key Players in Behaviorism
    • B.F. Skinner
      • Skinner is responsible for the term “operant conditioning.”
      • Skinner heavily emphasizes that positive reinforcement is the most effective way to encourage a desirable behavior.
      • Negative reinforcement will extinguish a behavior
    • Photo Credit: Wikipedia.com
  • 5. Key Players in Behaviorism
    • Albert Bandura
      • Bandura’s focus in behaviorism was social learning
      • Bandura’s theories differ from Skinner’s and Pavlov’s because they did not depend exlusively on external stimulation
      • Bandura believes that mechanisms within a person contribute to behavior
    • Photo Credit: 5122psychology.pbworks.com
  • 6. Reinforcement of a Behavior
    • Positive Reinforcement
      • Involves the increasing of a stimulus
    • Negative Reinforcement
      • Involves the decreasing of a stimulus
    • Punishment
      • Aims to decrease the chance of a behavior occurring again
      • Can be positive or negative
      • Source: http://www.learning-theories.com/behaviorism.html
  • 7. Behaviorism in Education
    • Teachers can use behavior modification to enhance their students’ learning experience
    • It is important to keep in mind that each child is an individual, and may respond differently to stimuli than his or her peers
    • Teachers should have a premeditated system of reinforcements and punishments that are applicable to their classExamples of Positive and Negative Reinforcement
  • 8. The Theory in Practice
    • Teachers should reward positive behaviors, such as good attendance and consistently maintaining good conduct
    • Examples of rewards would be lunch with the teacher, extra computer time, or a class party (if the whole class is being rewarded)
  • 9. The Theory in Practice
    • Teachers should punish undesirable behaviors
    • An example of positive punishment would be assigning a student extra work for not paying attention
    • An example of negative punishment would be revoking a privilege from a student, such as recess