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    • Of Mice and Men Revision Session LO Quotations & context Answering the 10 mark extract question Revision of Steinbeck’s style Dreams Reminder: Exam – OMAM and POETRY – TUESDAY am Revision – OMAM and Poetry – MONDAY after school Revision – WARM UP from 8.15 on TUESDAY
    • REVISION MAP • Answer the following questions ON your map
    • Social and historical context: On your map write answers to the following: What is happening in the U.S.A. in the 1930s? Why has Steinbeck chosen to set his novel in California?
    • Social and historical context: On your map write answers to the following: What is happening in the U.S.A. in the 1930s? Why has Steinbeck chosen to set his novel in California? KEY TERMS: The Great Depression The Wall Street Crash The Dust Bowl Segregation Migrant (or itinerant) workers The Golden State The American Dream
    • The title of John Steinbeck’s novel comes from a Robert Burns poem about the struggle for survival of a field- mouse: ‘The best laid plans o’ mice and men Gang aft agley’ which suggests from the outset that the lives of men and animals are closely linked in this novel. At the beginning of the novel not only do we learn about Lennie’s love of petting small creatures but we also learn about the hopes and dreams of the two characters. The fact that the poem then goes on to say: ‘An’ lea’e us nought but grief and pain For promised joy’ is also highly relevant to the themes of the novel since the connotations of the title and the link to the Burns’ poem suggest that their dreams are doomed from the start.
    • Plot overview On your map label where and when the main events in each chapter take place Friday Night: Chapter 1: George and Lennie spend the night by the stream in the brush. Discuss the dream. Saturday Morning: Chapter 2: G&L arrive at the ranch, meet the boss, meet Candy, Curley and CW Saturday Afternoon: Chapter 3:Candy’s dog, the fight Saturday Night: Chapter 4:The weak ones are left behind – Crooks, Lennie, Candy & CW Sunday Morning: Chapter 5: Lennie kills puppy & CW Sunday Afternoon Chapter 6: George kills Lennie
    • In which chapter in there also a cyclical structure?
    • Chapter 4 Crooks “Now and then he poured a few drops of the liniment into his pink-palmed hand and reached up under his shirt to rub again. He flexed his muscles against his back and shivered. “ “the rattle of halter chains” “…the halter chains rattled.” “He pulled out his shirt in back, poured a little liniment in his pink palm and, reaching around, he fell slowly to rubbing his back. “
    • QUESTION NUMBER 1: Circles • Why do you think that Steinbeck uses a cyclical structure in OMAM? Why does the novel finish where it starts? (In the brush?)
    • QUESTION NUMBER 2: CONTEXT • What could this quotation signify and why? ‘On one side of the river the golden foothill slopes curve up to the strong and rocky Gabilan Mountains’
    • QUESTION NUMBER 3: STYLE & SETTING • What does each chapter begin with and why? • How would you describe John Steinbeck’s style
    • QUESTION NUMBER 4: THEMES • How many themes can you list in your box? • BE PREPARED TO FEEDBACK • EXTEND your revision – label the map with the themes and make notes explaining how the setting links to each. Write small!
    • QUESTION NUMBER 5: HIERARCHY Draw a triangle on your map showing where each of these characters belongs in the ranch hierarchy.
    • QUESTION NUMBERS 6, 7, 8 & 9: SYMBOLS • What do each of the following symbolise - explain why. Extend – can you think of quotations for each? RABBITS THE COLOUR RED CARD GAMES HALTER CHAINS
    • QUESTION NUMBER 10: LENNIE – ANIMAL IMAGERY • Write two quotations where Steinbeck uses animal imagery to describe Lennie.
    • QUESTION NUMBER 11: LENNIE – STRENGTH & FORESHADOWING • Write three quotations showing the strength of Lennie
    • QUESTION NUMBER 12: DREAMS: George and Lennie • Write two quotations about George and Lennie’s hopes and dreams
    • QUESTION NUMBER 13: RELATIONSHIPS: George and Lennie • Write two quotations about George and Lennie’s relationship • What makes them unusual in terms of Migrant workers?
    • QUESTION NUMBER 14: CURLEY’S WIFE: Appearance • Write two quotations about Curley’s Wife’s appearance in chapter two • Then write two quotations about Curley’s wife after she has been killed in chapter 5
    • QUESTION NUMBER 15: CURLEY’S WIFE: Dreams • What were Curley’s Wife’s dreams? Can you write a quotation to support this?
    • QUESTION NUMBER 17: What does message about the American Dream does Steinbeck convey through Crooks? • Extend: try to think of two quotations to support this
    • QUESTION NUMBER 18: CROOKS: Loneliness & Isolation • Write three quotations that show Crooks’ loneliness and isolation. • Try to link one of these quotations to the social and historical context.
    • QUESTION NUMBER 19: Why does George kill Lennie? • What does he say to him just before he shoots him? What is the significance of this? Extend: Can you link to the social and historical context?
    • QUESTION NUMBER 20: Animals and Nature • Write a quotation from the final description in the novel.
    • Quick Recap on Context • You must mention context in your 20 mark question. • You have to demonstrate to your examiner that: A) You know when the novella was set and what was happening at the time B) You can link the real life context of the novella to the characters and themes presented. YOU WILL LOSE A CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF MARKS IF YOU DO NOT MAKE ANY REFERENCE TO CONTEXT IN YOUR 20 MARK QUESTION
    • Context Hats On! • 1937 – publication of the novella • 1929 – Wall Street Crash - New York stock market crashed, resulting in a prolonged period of economic depression until WW2 in 1939. • Many migrant workers (G&L) would travel America looking for work. Work was scarce, resulting in many migrant workers working for a small wage and bed & board. • Droughts, crop failures and the ‘dust bowls’ also added to the woes of farm workers. • George and Lennie PERSONIFY the common place dream of a migrant worker. They want their own bit of land and to settle in ‘the promised land’ which California represented. • In OMAM, Steinbeck represents the hopelessness and dreams of those at the bottom of American society: the old (Candy/Candy’s dog), ethnic minorities (Crooks), Women (Curley’s Wife), the disabled (Candy/Lennie/Candy’s dog), and the migrant workers (George/Lennie). This is contrast with the novella’s villain, Curley who is higher in social status at this time. • The hierarchy on the ranch is representative of social status in America at the time. Steinbeck has presented the ranch as a microcosm of American society in the late 1930s. A place of hopelessness, loneliness and dreams. Key words: ECONOMIC DEPRESSION, MICROCOSM, HIERARCHY, HOPELESSNESS, DREAMS, PERSONIFY, DUST BOWLS WANT MORE> Revision guide on the VLE, and a number of video links on the VLE specifically on context. Failing that, search OMAM context in google for TONS of stuff.
    • The American Dream • In America people had always believed that if they worked hard enough they could be successful – anybody could ‘make’ it, if they tried hard enough. This idea was known as the ‘American Dream’. • In the 1930s, the myth of the American Dream was put to the test. Many individuals lost all they owned. They felt that they had no hope of making a decent life for themselves and lost all self‐respect and faith in their society. • Some still clung desperately to the dream of success and opportunity, despite all evidence that it was unattainable.
    • What do the characters dream of? George – dreams of owning his own land, ranch and ‘settling’ Lennie – dreams of tending the rabbits Crooks – dreams of acceptance for his colour Candy – dreams of friendship, acceptance for his age and working on George’s ranch Curley’s Wife – dreams of being in the movies, acceptance for her gender and companionship REVISION ACTIVITY: YOU NEED TO FIND QUOTATIONS AND EVIDENCE FOR THESE IDEAS FROM THE TEXT. Make mind-maps or flashcards on each character’s dream. Support with quotations and comments about context.
    • Race • Crooks is the only black character in Of Mice and Men. He’s the only black man on the ranch. Through Crooks, Steinbeck tries to explore what it was like to be black in America in the Depression years. • In the Depression black people suffered as badly as white people, and in most cases, a great deal worse. They left the Southern states in great numbers, hoping to find work in the large industrial cities of the north, like Chicago, Detroit, Philadelphia, Pittsburg and New York. They found no work there either and still experienced racism, even if it was less obvious than in the deep south. Living conditions in the cities were worse than those they had left behind and large ‘ghettos’ of poor housing came to be occupied exclusively by black people. • Many black men joined the group of white unemployed men, travelling the country as migrant workers, or ‘hobos’ as they were called, looking for work.
    • Women • The portrayal of women in Of Mice and Men is limited and unflattering. We learn early on that Lennie and George are on the run from the previous ranch where they worked, due to encountering trouble there with a woman. Misunderstanding Lennie’s love of soft things, a woman accused him of rape for touching her dress. George berates Lennie for his behaviour, but is convinced that women are always the cause of such trouble. Their enticing sexuality, he believes, tempts men to behave in ways they would otherwise not. • A visit to the “cathouse” (a cheap hotel, or brothel) is enough of women for George, and he has no desire for a female companion or wife. Curley’s wife, the only woman to appear in Of Mice and Men, seems initially to support George’s view of marriage. Dissatisfied with her marriage to a brutish man and bored with life on the ranch, she is constantly looking for excitement or trouble. In one of her more revealing moments, she threatens to have the black stable‐hand lynched if he complains about her to the boss. • Her insistence on flirting with Lennie seals her unfortunate fate. Although Steinbeck does, finally, offer a sympathetic view of Curley’s wife by allowing her to voice her unhappiness and her own dream for a better life, women have no place in the author’s idealized vision of a world structured around the brotherly bonds of men.
    • EXAM TECHNIQUE – THE EXTRACT QUESTION This is exactly the same for all three extract questions. LEARN IT. 30 MARKS come from this across both your lit papers. That’s 30 out of 110 mark across your Lit exams. 20 MINUTES THREE IDEAS CLOSE REFERENCE TO THE TEXT WRITER’S IDEAS/PURPOSE/VIEWPOINT
    • STEP 1 - INTRODUCTION • To begin your answer – you MUST write a couple of sentences about the SIGNIFICANCE of the extract. • You must also show you examiner that you understand WHERE in the text this extract appears. • You should also show your examiner that you understand the OVERVIEW of the extract. Example: This extract appears early on in the novella, when George and Lennie first arrive at the ranch. Here Candy, is describing the character of Curley’s Wife to George and Lennie. Importantly, Candy prepares the reader for the arrival of Curley’s Wife by predisposing the reader to think negatively of her through his dialogue. Example: This extract appears in the middle of the novella, when the ranch workers are in the bunk house. In this extract Carlson is complaining about the smell of Candy’s dog and attempts to persuade Candy to shoot the dog. Candy is reluctant but Carlson suggests it is the kindest thing to do. One way this extract is significant is because it foreshadows the end of the novella, where George reluctantly shoots Lennie in order to rescue him from Curley’s wrath.
    • STEP 2 – THREE POINTS • The rest of your essay will include of analysis of three ways the writer creates either the character or the mood/atmosphere. You should identify more than three pieces of evidence - but many words/devices may contribute to an overall idea all the way through text. • Avoid feature spotting – do not look for features – look for quotations that exemplify the character or the mood/atmosphere. • Unpick the evidence to discuss the EFFECT of the words – always linking back to the question. • Track through the text – ensuring you take quotations from the entire text. Want more> type in WJEC A/A* extract into youtube for a 15 minute video on getting top marks in this question.
    • FULL MARKS: Success Criteria  Speculate – this could mean this… this might mean this… this might link to…  Evaluate – the writer has done this to.. the writer may want us to think about…  Focus on key words and link back to overview of extract – the word ___ suggests… the lexical choice creates the idea…  Comment on how language, form and structure works together to achieve an overall effect. Don’t see each word/phrase as separate. This is reinforced later in the text when… furthermore in the extract…  Be confident with your handling of language, structure and form. (see below)  Plan – annotate & highlight/underline key words, or bullet point ideas. (Spend no more than 5 minutes on this) •Analyse the language and narrative or dramatic techniques: •Choice of words •Imagery •Sentence length/structure/sentence types (questions/imperatives/lists) •Dialogue •Narrative USE THE WRITER’S NAME OR PLAYWRIGHT/AUTHOR MAKE LINKS TO THE REST OF THE TEXT.
    • Concluding Sentence • To end your 10 mark extract you need to offer some kind of personal response. For example; 1. Which word or phrase do you think is most interesting or effective at presenting a character or mood or atmosphere? 2. How does this extract prepare the reader for events later on in the novel? How does it link? 3. How do you feel/How have you engaged with this extract?
    • A girl was standing there looking in. She had full, rouged lips and wide- spaced eyes, heavily made up. Her fingernails were red. Her hair hung in little rolled clusters, like sausages. She wore a cotton house dress and red mules, on the insteps of which were little bouquets of red ostrich feathers. ‘I’m lookin’ for Curley,’ she said. Her voice had a nasal, brittle quality. George looked away from her and then back. ‘He was here a minute ago, but he went.’ ‘Oh!’ She put her hands behind her back and leaned against the door frame so that her body was thrown forward. ‘You’re the new fellas that just come, ain’t ya?’ ‘Yeah.’ Lennie’s eyes moved down her body, and though she did not seem to be looking at Lennie she bridled a little. She looked at her fingernails. ‘Sometimes Curley’s in here,’ she explained. George said brusquely, ‘Well, he ain’t now.’ ‘If he ain’t, I guess I better look some place else,’ she said playfully. Lennie watched her, fascinated. George said, ‘If I see him, I’ll pass the word you was looking for him.’ She smiled archly and twitched her body. ‘Nobody can’t blame a person for lookin’,’ she said. There were footsteps behind her, going by. She turned her head. ‘Hi, Slim,’ she said. Extract 2 1. Where does this extract appear in the novel? Why is it significant? 2. First quotation Effect/meaning Device (if appropriate)/key word 2. Second quotation Effect/meaning Device (if appropriate)/key word 3. Third quotation Effect/meaning Device (if appropriate)/key word 4. Conclude with a sentence that makes links with the rest of the book.
    • A* Response
    • A* Response: Making comparisons
    • A* Response: Making comparisons
    • Use the mat to help you to annotate the two poems – EXPLODE!
    • Use the method to write an introduction: EXTEND – write a timed response at home!
    • Watch a video explaining the method here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i8T aHoA3JPc
    • FOR LINKS TO DOWNLOADABLE PAST PAPERS CLICK HERE: http://www.wjec.co.uk/uploads/publications/8323.pdf PLEASE NOTE YOU WILL HAVE TO SCROLL THROUGH TO FIND EXAMPLES Or here – please scroll down for literature links (please note there are plenty of good language links here too!) http://www.theenglishzone.org.uk/page_2415645.html LOTS OF USEFUL VIDEOS AND AUDIO MATERIAL AVAILABLE HERE: http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCgTyeLknQgWTWNImGo 1FwcA ELECTRONIC QUOTATION FLASHCARDS HERE http://quizlet.com/atkiteach